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Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextLesson OverviewLesson Overview1.2 Science in Context1.2...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextTHINK ABOUT ITScientific methodology is the heart of sc...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromWhat sci...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromWhat sci...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromScientif...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific AttitudesGood scientists share scientific at...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCuriosityA curious researcher, for example, may look at...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextSkepticismGood scientists are skeptics, which means tha...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextOpen-MindednessScientists must remain open-minded, mean...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCreativityResearchers need to think creatively to desig...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextPractical ProblemsSometimes, ideas for scientific inves...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextThe Role of TechnologyTechnology, science, and society ...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextThe Role of TechnologyDiscoveries in one field of scien...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCommunicating Results: Reviewing andSharing IdeasWhy is...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCommunicating Results: Reviewing andSharing IdeasWhy is...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextPeer ReviewScientists share their findings with thescie...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextSharing Knowledge and New IdeasOnce research has been p...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesWhat is a scientific theory?
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesWhat is a scientific theory?In scien...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesEvidence from many scientific studie...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyWhat is the relationship between sci...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyWhat is the relationship between sci...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyMany questions that affect our lives...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience, Ethics, and MoralityWhen scientists explain “w...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextAvoiding BiasThe way that science is applied in society...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceDon’t just memorize toda...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceUnderstanding biology wi...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceScientists makerecommend...
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CVA Biology I - B10vrv1012

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CVA Biology I - B10vrv1012

  1. 1. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextLesson OverviewLesson Overview1.2 Science in Context1.2 Science in Context
  2. 2. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextTHINK ABOUT ITScientific methodology is the heart of science. But that vital “heart” isonly part of the full “body” of science.Science and scientists operate in the context of the scientific communityand society at large.
  3. 3. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromWhat scientific attitudes help generate new ideas?
  4. 4. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromWhat scientific attitudes help generate new ideas?Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity help scientistsgenerate new ideas.
  5. 5. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextExploration and Discovery: Where IdeasCome FromScientific methodology is closelylinked to exploration anddiscovery.Scientific methodology starts withobservations and questions thatmay be inspired by scientificattitudes, practical problems, andnew technology.
  6. 6. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific AttitudesGood scientists share scientific attitudes, or habits of mind, that leadthem to exploration and discovery.Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity help scientistsgenerate new ideas.
  7. 7. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCuriosityA curious researcher, for example, may look at a salt marsh andimmediately ask, “What’s that plant? Why is it growing here?”Often, results from previous studies also spark curiosity and lead to newquestions.
  8. 8. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextSkepticismGood scientists are skeptics, which means that they question existingideas and hypotheses, and they refuse to accept explanations withoutevidence.Scientists who disagree with hypotheses design experiments to testthem.Supporters of hypotheses also undertake rigorous testing of their ideasto confirm them and to address any valid questions raised.
  9. 9. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextOpen-MindednessScientists must remain open-minded, meaning that they are willing toaccept different ideas that may not agree with their hypothesis.
  10. 10. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCreativityResearchers need to think creatively to design experiments that yieldaccurate data.
  11. 11. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextPractical ProblemsSometimes, ideas for scientific investigations arise from practicalproblems. For example, people living on a strip of land along a coastmay face flooding and other problems.These practical questions and issues inspire scientific questions,hypotheses, and experiments.
  12. 12. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextThe Role of TechnologyTechnology, science, and society are closely linked.
  13. 13. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextThe Role of TechnologyDiscoveries in one field of science may lead to new technologies, whichenable scientists in other fields to ask new questions or to gather data innew ways.Technological advances can also have big impacts on daily life. In thefield of genetics and biotechnology, for instance, it is now possible tomass-produce complex substances—such as vitamins, antibiotics, andhormones—that before were only available naturally.
  14. 14. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCommunicating Results: Reviewing andSharing IdeasWhy is peer review important?
  15. 15. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextCommunicating Results: Reviewing andSharing IdeasWhy is peer review important?Publishing peer-reviewed articles in scientific journals allows researchers toshare ideas and to test and evaluate each other’s work.
  16. 16. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextPeer ReviewScientists share their findings with thescientific community by publishingarticles that have undergone peerreview.In peer review, scientific papers arereviewed by anonymous, independentexperts.Reviewers read them looking foroversights, unfair influences, fraud, ormistakes in techniques or reasoning.They provide expert assessment of thework to ensure that the higheststandards of quality are met.
  17. 17. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextSharing Knowledge and New IdeasOnce research has been published, it may spark new questions. Eachlogical and important question leads to new hypotheses that must beindependently confirmed by controlled experiments.For example, the findings that growth of salt marsh grasses is limited byavailable nitrogen suggests that nitrogen might be a limiting nutrient formangroves and other plants in similar habitats.
  18. 18. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesWhat is a scientific theory?
  19. 19. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesWhat is a scientific theory?In science, the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifiesa broad range of observations and hypotheses and that enables scientiststo make accurate predictions about new situations.
  20. 20. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScientific TheoriesEvidence from many scientific studies may support several relatedhypotheses in a way that inspires researchers to propose a scientifictheory that ties those hypotheses together.In science, the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation thatunifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and that enablesscientists to make accurate predictions about new situations.A useful theory that has been thoroughly tested and supported by manylines of evidence may become the dominant view among the majority ofscientists, but no theory is considered absolute truth. Science is alwayschanging; as new evidence is uncovered, a theory may be revised orreplaced by a more useful explanation.
  21. 21. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyWhat is the relationship between science and society?
  22. 22. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyWhat is the relationship between science and society?Using science involves understanding its context in society and itslimitations.
  23. 23. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience and SocietyMany questions that affect our lives require scientific information toanswer, and many have inspired important research. But none of thesequestions can be answered by science alone.Scientific questions involve the society in which we live, our economy,and our laws and moral principles.For example, researchers test shellfish for toxins that can poisonhumans. Should shellfish be routinely screened for toxins?
  24. 24. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextScience, Ethics, and MoralityWhen scientists explain “why”something happens, theirexplanation involves only naturalphenomena. Pure science does notinclude ethical or moral viewpoints.For example, biologists try to explainin scientific terms what life is andhow it operates, but science cannotanswer questions about why lifeexists or what the meaning of life is.Similarly, science can tell us howtechnology and scientific knowledgecan be applied but not whether itshould be applied in particular ways.
  25. 25. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextAvoiding BiasThe way that science is applied in society can be affected by bias,which is a particular preference or point of view that is personal, ratherthan scientific.Science aims to be objective, but scientists are human, too. Sometimesscientific data can be misinterpreted or misapplied by scientists whowant to prove a particular point.Recommendations made by scientists with personal biases may or maynot be in the public interest. But if enough of us understand science, wecan help make certain that science is applied in ways that benefithumanity.
  26. 26. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceDon’t just memorize today’s scientific facts and ideas. Instead, try tounderstand how scientists developed those ideas. Try to see thethinking behind the experiments and try to pose the kinds of questionsscientists ask.Understanding science will help you be comfortable in a world that willkeep changing, and will help you make complex decisions that alsoinvolve cultural customs, values, and ethical standards.
  27. 27. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceUnderstanding biology will help you realize that we humans canpredict the consequences of our actions and take an active role indirecting our future and that of our planet.
  28. 28. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Science in ContextScience in ContextUnderstanding and Using ScienceScientists makerecommendations about bigpublic policy decisions, but it isthe voting citizens who influencepublic policy by casting ballots.In a few years, you will be able toexercise the right to vote. That’swhy it is important that youunderstand how science worksand appreciate both the powerand the limitations of science.

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