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Giving	Effective	Presentations	
Claus	O.	Wilke	
The	University	of	Texas	at	Aus9n
Why	care	about	presenta9ons?
What	I	will	cover	
1.  How	to	present	an	engaging	story	
2.  Designing	slides:	The	Asser9on–Evidence	template	
3.  Claus'	...
1.	Presenting	an	engaging	story:	
The	Onion	model
Let's	start	with	an	example.	A	bad	one.
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
On	a	ketogenic	diet,	the	liver	produces	ketone	...
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
BHB	can	cross	the	blood-brain	barrier	and	serve...
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
A	diet	is	ketogenic	when	carbohydrate	intake	fa...
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
Glioblastoma	mul9formae	(GBM)	needs	glucose	for...
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
Several	clinical	trials	are	currently	ongoing	t...
Did	this	get	you	excited	about	ketogenic	
diets?
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
Cancer	is	the	leading	cause	of	death	in	developed	
countries
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
Despite	medical	advances,	most	cancer	treatments	are	
gruesome	yet	only	m...
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
If	we	could	prevent	or	treat	cancer	by	a	simple	change	in	
diet,	that	wou...
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
Increasing	evidence	links	cancer	to	high-carbohydrate	
diets	(in	par9cula...
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
Ea9ng	a	high-fat,	low-carb	diet	(like	the	Atkins	diet)	may	
starve	tumors...
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
Ini9al	trials	with	brain-cancer	pa9ents	have	been	
promising,	and	further...
Did	this	get	you	more	excited?
The	Onion	model
The	Onion	model	
Why?	
The	big	picture:	
why	are	we	doing	this,	
	and	why	does	it	maer?
The	Onion	model	
Why?	
What?	
Relevant	background	facts	
&	
What	was	done?
The	Onion	model	
Why?	
What?	
How?	
Minute	details	of	
how	exactly	the	
work	was	done
The	Onion	model	
Why?	
What?	
How?	
Minute	details	of	
how	exactly	the	
work	was	done	
Always	go	from	the	
outside	in
For	maximum	impact,	use	approximately	
equal	amounts	of	time	for	each	layer	
Why?	 ~30%	of	talk	
What?	 ~30%	of	talk	
How?...
Let's	place	the	contents	of	the	diet	slides	
into	the	onion	framework
Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment
option in glioblastoma multiformae	
•  On	a	ketogenic	diet,	the	liver	produces	keto...
Why eating eggs and bacon may cure
brain cancer	
•  Cancer	is	the	leading	cause	of	death	in	developed	
countries	
•  Despi...
2.	Designing	slides:	
The	Assertion–Evidence	template
The	title	of	the	slide	makes	an	assertion	
The	slide	body	provides	the	evidence	to	support	the	
asser9on
Examples
Sequencing	costs	have	declined	1000-fold	
from	2007	to	2010	
Costpergenome
Year
Sep. 2007:
$10,000,000
Sep. 2010:
$10,000
...
Violent	crime	is	at	an	all-time	low	
Homicides/
100,000Americans
Year
Source: http://blogs.berkeley.edu/2010/06/16/a-crime...
M&Ms	come	in	many	fun	colors
3.	Claus'	pet	peeves	about	
presentations
How	to	ruin	a	talk	and	put	your	
audience	to	sleep	in	one	slide	
Claus	O.	Wilke	
The	University	of	Texas	at	Aus9n
Overview	
•  Introduc9on	
•  Background	
•  Methods	
•  Results	
•  Conclusions
Overview	
•  Introduc9on	
•  Background	
•  Methods	
•  Results	
•  Conclusions	
Never!
Giving	Effective	Presentations	
Claus	O.	Wilke	
The	University	of	Texas	at	Aus9n
Why	care	about	presenta9ons?
What	I	will	cover	
1.  How	to	present	an	engaging	story	
2.  Designing	slides:	The	Asser9on–Evidence	template	
3.  Claus'	...
Claus'	1st	law	of	presenta9ons
Claus'	1st	law	of	presentations:	
All	text	on	slides	needs	to	be	read	aloud	
While	I	generally	prefer	graphical	visualiza9...
Now	an	example	of	how	not	to	do	it
Now	an	example	of	how	not	to	do	it.	
This	slide	is	full	of	text.	
Likely,	none	of	the	text	maers,	but	you	can't	know	for	
...
Which	story	line	were	you	able	to	follow?
Important:	
The	1st	law	also	applies	to	slides	with	graphs!
Violent	crime	is	at	an	all-time	low	
Homicides/
100,000Americans
Year
Source: http://blogs.berkeley.edu/2010/06/16/a-crime...
As	much	as	possible,	avoid	bullet	points
The Department in numbers
•  We have 36 faculty members
•  Annual grant funding: $5M
– Funding agencies: NSF, NIH, ARO, ON...
The Department in numbers
36faculty members
112
graduate students
69 EEB
23 PB
10 CMB
10 Other
20%students on external fel...
Use	diagrams	instead	of	text
Analysis	pipeline	
Kerr	et	al.,	J.	Virol.	2015
Build	up	to	complex,	many-faceted	graphs
Binding	to	ancestor	declines	rapidly	in	the	
control	scenario	
Kachroo	et	al.,	Science	2015
Binding	to	ancestor	declines	rapidly	in	the	
control	scenario,	but	not	in	WT	scenario	
Kachroo	et	al.,	Science	2015
Even	with	substantial	divergence	in	interface	
sites,	evolved	proteins	bind	ancestors	
Kachroo	et	al.,	Science	2015	
diver...
Pay	aen9on	to	your	body	language
Slide	backgrounds:	White	or	dark?
Advantages	of	white	backgrounds 		
•  Easier	to	work	with	(figures!)	
•  Look	Ok	even	if	projector	is	weak
Advantages	of	dark	backgrounds	
•  More	elegant	
•  Easier	on	the	eye	
•  Good	with	photos	
Sasso	della	Croce,	Val	Badia,	...
But	please	s9ck	to	one	style,	white	or	black
To	avoid	visually	shocking	your	audience
Summary	
•  Tell	a	story	
•  Lead	from	the	why,	then	cover	the	what	and	limit	the	
how	
•  Start	the	talk	strong,	for	exam...
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Giving Effective Presentations, Oct. 2016

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A presentation on how to give effective presentations. Updated and expanded version, Oct. 2016.

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Giving Effective Presentations, Oct. 2016

  1. 1. Giving Effective Presentations Claus O. Wilke The University of Texas at Aus9n
  2. 2. Why care about presenta9ons?
  3. 3. What I will cover 1.  How to present an engaging story 2.  Designing slides: The Asser9on–Evidence template 3.  Claus' pet peeves about presenta9ons
  4. 4. 1. Presenting an engaging story: The Onion model
  5. 5. Let's start with an example. A bad one.
  6. 6. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae
  7. 7. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae On a ketogenic diet, the liver produces ketone bodies, in par9cular β-hydroxybuturate (BHB)
  8. 8. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae BHB can cross the blood-brain barrier and serve as an alterna9ve fuel for brain cells, replacing glucose
  9. 9. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae A diet is ketogenic when carbohydrate intake falls below 20-50 gram/day while fat comprises ~80% of caloric intake
  10. 10. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae Glioblastoma mul9formae (GBM) needs glucose for growth, and seems inhibited by the presence of BHB
  11. 11. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae Several clinical trials are currently ongoing to determine whether ketogenic diets can slow or inhibit GBM growth
  12. 12. Did this get you excited about ketogenic diets?
  13. 13. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer
  14. 14. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer Cancer is the leading cause of death in developed countries
  15. 15. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer Despite medical advances, most cancer treatments are gruesome yet only moderately successful
  16. 16. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer If we could prevent or treat cancer by a simple change in diet, that would be awesome
  17. 17. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer Increasing evidence links cancer to high-carbohydrate diets (in par9cular sugar and starches)
  18. 18. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer Ea9ng a high-fat, low-carb diet (like the Atkins diet) may starve tumors of necessary glucose
  19. 19. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer Ini9al trials with brain-cancer pa9ents have been promising, and further trials are ongoing
  20. 20. Did this get you more excited?
  21. 21. The Onion model
  22. 22. The Onion model Why? The big picture: why are we doing this, and why does it maer?
  23. 23. The Onion model Why? What? Relevant background facts & What was done?
  24. 24. The Onion model Why? What? How? Minute details of how exactly the work was done
  25. 25. The Onion model Why? What? How? Minute details of how exactly the work was done Always go from the outside in
  26. 26. For maximum impact, use approximately equal amounts of time for each layer Why? ~30% of talk What? ~30% of talk How? ~30% of talk (at most)
  27. 27. Let's place the contents of the diet slides into the onion framework
  28. 28. Ketogenic diet as supporting treatment option in glioblastoma multiformae •  On a ketogenic diet, the liver produces ketone bodies, in par9cular β-hydroxybuturate (BHB) •  BHB can cross the blood-brain barrier and serve as an alterna9ve fuel for brain cells, replacing glucose •  A diet is ketogenic when carbohydrate intake falls below 20-50 gram/day while fat comprises ~80% of caloric intake •  Glioblastoma mul9formae (GBM) needs glucose for growth, and seems inhibited by the presence of BHB •  Several clinical trials are currently ongoing to determine whether ketogenic diets can slow or inhibit GBM growth
  29. 29. Why eating eggs and bacon may cure brain cancer •  Cancer is the leading cause of death in developed countries •  Despite medical advances, most cancer treatments are gruesome yet only moderately successful •  If we could prevent or treat cancer by a simple change in diet, that would be awesome •  Increasing evidence links cancer to high-carbohydrate diets (in par9cular sugar and starches) •  Ea9ng a high-fat, low-carb diet (like the Atkins diet) may starve tumors of necessary glucose •  Ini9al trials with brain-cancer pa9ents have been promising, and further trials are ongoing
  30. 30. 2. Designing slides: The Assertion–Evidence template
  31. 31. The title of the slide makes an assertion The slide body provides the evidence to support the asser9on
  32. 32. Examples
  33. 33. Sequencing costs have declined 1000-fold from 2007 to 2010 Costpergenome Year Sep. 2007: $10,000,000 Sep. 2010: $10,000 Source: genome.gov/sequencingcosts
  34. 34. Violent crime is at an all-time low Homicides/ 100,000Americans Year Source: http://blogs.berkeley.edu/2010/06/16/a-crime-puzzle-violent-crime-declines-in-america/
  35. 35. M&Ms come in many fun colors
  36. 36. 3. Claus' pet peeves about presentations
  37. 37. How to ruin a talk and put your audience to sleep in one slide Claus O. Wilke The University of Texas at Aus9n
  38. 38. Overview •  Introduc9on •  Background •  Methods •  Results •  Conclusions
  39. 39. Overview •  Introduc9on •  Background •  Methods •  Results •  Conclusions Never!
  40. 40. Giving Effective Presentations Claus O. Wilke The University of Texas at Aus9n
  41. 41. Why care about presenta9ons?
  42. 42. What I will cover 1.  How to present an engaging story 2.  Designing slides: The Asser9on–Evidence template 3.  Claus' pet peeves about presenta9ons
  43. 43. Claus' 1st law of presenta9ons
  44. 44. Claus' 1st law of presentations: All text on slides needs to be read aloud While I generally prefer graphical visualiza9ons, in some cases text is preferred. For example, summary slides oaen require some amount of text. Text is fine as long as you read it word for word. If you start paraphrasing or talking over a text-heavy slide, however, your audience will get confused. They cannot at the same 9me read the text and listen to you. Some audience members will read the text and stop listening. Others will listen but not read. All will worry that they made the wrong choice and missed something important.
  45. 45. Now an example of how not to do it
  46. 46. Now an example of how not to do it. This slide is full of text. Likely, none of the text maers, but you can't know for sure unless you read it all. But if you want to read it, you can't listen to me blathering on about something completely different. That is because humans cannot process two separate content streams (visual and oral) at the same 9me. Next week's winning loery numbers will be 5, 13, 28, 33, 34, 36, 41. I know because I'm a 9me traveler from the future.
  47. 47. Which story line were you able to follow?
  48. 48. Important: The 1st law also applies to slides with graphs!
  49. 49. Violent crime is at an all-time low Homicides/ 100,000Americans Year Source: http://blogs.berkeley.edu/2010/06/16/a-crime-puzzle-violent-crime-declines-in-america/
  50. 50. As much as possible, avoid bullet points
  51. 51. The Department in numbers •  We have 36 faculty members •  Annual grant funding: $5M – Funding agencies: NSF, NIH, ARO, ONR, DARPA, DTRA, USDA •  Our faculty members supervise 112 graduate students – 69 EEB, 23 Plant Biology, 10 CMB, 10 other •  20% of our graduate students receive external fellowships – 14 NSF GRFP, 1 NIH F31, 10 other
  52. 52. The Department in numbers 36faculty members 112 graduate students 69 EEB 23 PB 10 CMB 10 Other 20%students on external fellowships 14 NSF GRFP 1 NIH F31 10 Other $5M annual grant funding NSF, NIH, ARO, ONR, DARPA, DTRA, USDA
  53. 53. Use diagrams instead of text
  54. 54. Analysis pipeline Kerr et al., J. Virol. 2015
  55. 55. Build up to complex, many-faceted graphs
  56. 56. Binding to ancestor declines rapidly in the control scenario Kachroo et al., Science 2015
  57. 57. Binding to ancestor declines rapidly in the control scenario, but not in WT scenario Kachroo et al., Science 2015
  58. 58. Even with substantial divergence in interface sites, evolved proteins bind ancestors Kachroo et al., Science 2015 divergence in interface sites divergence in non-interface sites
  59. 59. Pay aen9on to your body language
  60. 60. Slide backgrounds: White or dark?
  61. 61. Advantages of white backgrounds •  Easier to work with (figures!) •  Look Ok even if projector is weak
  62. 62. Advantages of dark backgrounds •  More elegant •  Easier on the eye •  Good with photos Sasso della Croce, Val Badia, Italy
  63. 63. But please s9ck to one style, white or black
  64. 64. To avoid visually shocking your audience
  65. 65. Summary •  Tell a story •  Lead from the why, then cover the what and limit the how •  Start the talk strong, for example with an interes9ng anecdote •  Use the asser9on–evidence template •  Don't start your talk with a boring overview slide •  When your slides contain text, read it out

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