Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
ANALYSIS OF THE COMBUSTION FUMES AND 
GASES RELEASED DURING THE BURNING OF 
SOME C-SI PV MODULES 
Claudio Liciotti1, Pierg...
Outline 
• About Us 
• Introduction and motivation 
• Aim of the work 
• Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter c...
About Us 
• Brandoni Solare S.p.A. is an Italian PV module 
producer. 
• Founded in 2007. 
• Current capacity 55MW/yr. 
• ...
Introduction and motivation 
Residential 
Segment BIPV 
• Mechanical resistance and stability 
• Safety in case of fire 
•...
Introduction and motivation 
• Factors required for fire hazard assessment [1] 
Fire Safety 
Hazard 
Structural 
integrity...
Aim of the work 
• The c-Si PV modules contain large amount of plastic 
materials that could also produce dangerous combus...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Samples 
• Samples for Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Setup 
• Cone Calorimeter Noselab 
ASTM E 1354/ ISO 566...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Setup 
• The fumes are extracted from exhaust duct extr...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Sample 1 (EVA) – FTIR analysis
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Sample 2 (TPO) – FTIR analysis
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Sample 3 (EVA + PET/PET/Primer) – FTIR analy...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Sample 4 (EVA + PVF/PET/PVF ) – FTIR analysi...
Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone 
Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Sample 5 (EVA +PA/PET/PA) – FTIR analysis
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Samples 
• Samples for TGA coupled to FTIR 
- Sample1: EVA 
- Sample2...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Setup 
• TGA NETZSCH TG 209 F1 Libra® simultaneously coupled 
to the ...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Temperature-dependent mass change (TG), rate of mass 
chan...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Temperature-dependent mass change (TG), rate of mass 
chan...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• 3D plot of all detected IR spectra of Sample 1 (EVA) 
and ...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• 3D plot of all detected IR spectra of Sample 2 (TPO) 
and ...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (orange) and 
Sample 3 ...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (green) at 170 °C 
comp...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (light green) 
Sample 2...
Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA 
coupled to FTIR - Results 
• Spectra comparison: Sample 3 - EVA + 
PET/PET/Primer (red)...
Conclusion 
• The use of FTIR applied to the cone calorimeter allow to 
identify only the outlet gasses produced by the 
c...
Conclusion 
• The polymers included in the PV modules have direct 
effect on combustion products toxicity. 
• In case of a...
Acknowledgement 
• The authors wish to thank Dr. Eng. Giovanni Longobardo 
for his help in setting up the PV module specim...
Thank you for your attention 
Brandoni Solare S.p.a. 
Via O.Pigini, 8 
60022 Castelfidardo (AN) 
ITALY 
@mail: 
c.liciotti...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ANALYSIS OF THE COMBUSTION FUMES AND GASES RELEASED DURING THE BURNING OF SOME C-SI PV MODULES

628 views

Published on

Along with the strong growth of PV installations, also the
number of fires involving PV systems has grown. The fire
risk analysis due to PV systems has been taken into strong
consideration. About that, 3 were the most considered
issues:
1) PV modules and components fire behavior;
2) causes of fire ignition related to PV components;
3) risk of electrocution in firefighting activities in proximity
to photovoltaic generators.
To protect the firefighter and to respect the environment,
the type of fumes and gases that are released into the
environment during a fire of a PV system should also be
considered.
This paper shows the analysis of the fumes and gases
released during the burning and pyrolysis of some c-Si PV
modules.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

ANALYSIS OF THE COMBUSTION FUMES AND GASES RELEASED DURING THE BURNING OF SOME C-SI PV MODULES

  1. 1. ANALYSIS OF THE COMBUSTION FUMES AND GASES RELEASED DURING THE BURNING OF SOME C-SI PV MODULES Claudio Liciotti1, Piergiacomo Cancelliere 2, Michele Cardinali1, Vincenzo Puccia3, 1 Brandoni Solare S.p.A., 2 Italian National Fire Services, Active Fire Protection Department 3 Italian National Fire Services, Padova Fire Services 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference RAI Congress & Exhibition Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands September 23rd , 2014
  2. 2. Outline • About Us • Introduction and motivation • Aim of the work • Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Samples - Setup - Results • Analysis of pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Samples - Setup - Results • Conclusion • Acknowledgement
  3. 3. About Us • Brandoni Solare S.p.A. is an Italian PV module producer. • Founded in 2007. • Current capacity 55MW/yr. • Focuses on PV modules design and production (customized solutions). • R&D focus is on BIPV and PV module reliability.
  4. 4. Introduction and motivation Residential Segment BIPV • Mechanical resistance and stability • Safety in case of fire • Hygiene, health and the environment • Safety in use • Protection against noise • Energy economy and heat retention Special requirements DRAFT prEN 50583
  5. 5. Introduction and motivation • Factors required for fire hazard assessment [1] Fire Safety Hazard Structural integrity Fire grow rate Fire toxicity Smoke Risk Material ignitability Ignition Sources • PV modules are installed on the roof (outside the building) • During a PV system burning, the fire exposes firefighters and other rescue personnel not only to thermal and to electrocution hazards, but also to the fumes. [1] Anna A. Stec and T. Richard Hull, “Assessment of the fire toxicity of building insulation materials”, Energy and Buildings, 43 (2-3), pp. 498-506 (2011).
  6. 6. Aim of the work • The c-Si PV modules contain large amount of plastic materials that could also produce dangerous combustion products. • Modules with different kind of raw materials were analyzed in: - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR; the aim of this test is analyze the fumes and gases released during the combustion of c-Si PV modules. - TGA coupled to FTIR to analyze the fumes and gases released during the pyrolysis of c-Si PV modules.
  7. 7. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Samples • Samples for Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Sample1: EVA - Sample2: TPO - Sample 3: EVA + PET/PET/Primer backsheet - Sample 4: EVA + PVF/PET/PVF backsheet - Sample 5: EVA +PA/PET/PA backsheet • Samples dimensions 100 mm x 100 mm • The plastic materials are laminated on a 4 mm glass
  8. 8. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Setup • Cone Calorimeter Noselab ASTM E 1354/ ISO 5660. • System well ventilated • Specimen combustion • Radiator pre-set 50 kW/m2
  9. 9. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Setup • The fumes are extracted from exhaust duct extraction by a probe • The combustion fumes were analysed with FTIR (Perkin Elmer Spectrum One).
  10. 10. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results • Sample 1 (EVA) – FTIR analysis
  11. 11. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results • Sample 2 (TPO) – FTIR analysis
  12. 12. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results • Sample 3 (EVA + PET/PET/Primer) – FTIR analysis
  13. 13. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results • Sample 4 (EVA + PVF/PET/PVF ) – FTIR analysis
  14. 14. Analysis of combustion fumes - Cone Calorimeter coupled to FTIR - Results • Sample 5 (EVA +PA/PET/PA) – FTIR analysis
  15. 15. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Samples • Samples for TGA coupled to FTIR - Sample1: EVA - Sample2: TPO - Sample 3: EVA + PET/PET/Primer backsheet - Sample 6: TPO+ PET/PET/Primer backsheet • The sample was cut into small pieces, transferred into an alumina crucible (Al2O3 - 85 μL) and placed into the TGA. • Sample holder: standard sample carrier. • Sample mass: 4-6 mg.
  16. 16. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Setup • TGA NETZSCH TG 209 F1 Libra® simultaneously coupled to the Agilent 7890A Gas chromatograph and the Agilent 5975 MSD („mass selective detector“) and coupled to the BRUKER Optics FTIR TENSOR. • Measure: Temperature-dependent mass change (TG), rate of mass change (DTG) and the Gram Schmidt, 3D plot of all detected IR spectra.
  17. 17. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Temperature-dependent mass change (TG), rate of mass change (DTG) and the Gram Schmidt curve of Sample 3 (EVA + PET/PET/Primer)
  18. 18. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Temperature-dependent mass change (TG), rate of mass change (DTG) and the Gram Schmidt curve of Sample 6 (TPO+ PET/PET/Primer)
  19. 19. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • 3D plot of all detected IR spectra of Sample 1 (EVA) and Sample 3 (EVA + PET/PET/Primer) heated to 1000 °C Sample 1 Sample 3
  20. 20. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • 3D plot of all detected IR spectra of Sample 2 (TPO) and Sample 6 (TPO+ PET/PET/Primer) heated to 1000 °C Sample 2 Sample 6
  21. 21. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (orange) and Sample 3 - EVA + PET/PET/Primer (light blue) at 370°C compared with the database spectrum of acetic acid (blue). Sample 1 Sample 3 acetic acid
  22. 22. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (green) at 170 °C compared with the database spectrum of dimethyl butane (blue). Sample 1 dimethyl butane
  23. 23. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Spectra comparison: Sample 1 - EVA (light green) Sample 2 - TPO (blue) and Sample 3 - EVA + PET/PET/Primer (black) at 480 °C compared with the database spectrum of C25H52 (pink). Sample 2 Sample 1 Sample 3 C25H52
  24. 24. Analysis of Pyrolysis fumes – TGA coupled to FTIR - Results • Spectra comparison: Sample 3 - EVA + PET/PET/Primer (red) and Sample 6 – TPO + PET/PET/Primer (orange) at 820 °C compared with the database spectrum of carbon dioxide (blue). Sample 6 Sample 3 CO2
  25. 25. Conclusion • The use of FTIR applied to the cone calorimeter allow to identify only the outlet gasses produced by the combustion as carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (C02). • FTIR applied to the cone calorimeter is not usefully to make an analytical analysis of the materials decomposition • The coupling of FTIR with TGA give a wide and useful information about the degradation of the material during the pyrolysis. With this method is possible to identify the gasses produced at different temperature during the pyrolysis process.
  26. 26. Conclusion • The polymers included in the PV modules have direct effect on combustion products toxicity. • In case of an outbreak of a fire in a PV system, the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and carbon oxides (CO) released require, obviously, the breathing apparatus to be used by the rescue team members while they are doing firefighting and rescue operations.
  27. 27. Acknowledgement • The authors wish to thank Dr. Eng. Giovanni Longobardo for his help in setting up the PV module specimens and the reaction to fire test rig. • The authors wish also to thank the Thermoanalytical Section of the NETZSCH Applications Laboratory for their support in the test analysis.
  28. 28. Thank you for your attention Brandoni Solare S.p.a. Via O.Pigini, 8 60022 Castelfidardo (AN) ITALY @mail: c.liciotti@brandonisolare.com Web Site: www.brandonisolare.com

×