REPRESENTATION OF EMOTIONS, FEELINGS AND VALUES: A DIARY FROM THE HEART A Graduate Research Project By: CLAUDIA ADRIANA RENDÓN-GARDUÑO Submitted to the College of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University-KingsvilleIn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of: MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2001 Major Subject: Art
ABSTRACT The artist Claudia Rendón searches to explain the emotions,feelings and values that are revealed in a series of art objects. Sixacrylics begin the exploration by depicting life, the learning process,intensely fortified, respect, conflict and imbalance, and finally lifetriumphing against complete destruction. The cycle of life is completed inthe artwork. Following these symbols, delicate movements of the face and/orbody express real life emotions, feelings and values. Different colorselection as well as technique used by many artists has diverse impacton the creator. The viewer feels a variety or emotions, feelings andvalues as a reaction when the art object is encountered. Claudia Rendónis attempting to penetrate into the viewer mind and heart and inject theseed of balanced emotions, feelings and values. The series of portraitsfrom the heart is validated by research into the lives of great artists aswell as the artist’s personal experiences.(Note: This graduate research project is translated in Spanish) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION From remote times, man has been represented in diversesituations of daily life. The principle and aim of these manifestations is tocommunicate with the beings of the same species and with divinities aswell. Within the forms of communication two great areas, the verbal andthe nonverbal exist. In the verbal are found the diverse languagespronounced through the spoken word. The nonverbal areacommunication occurs through many more elements than included inspeech. Often the nonverbal language supports verbal language bymeans of signs, face gestures, corporal positions, colors and forms. In nonverbal language expression is found in the fine arts.Within these, painting, sculpture, engraving, etc., are essential forcommunication. Through these arts the human being is representedphysically along with representations of thoughts, feelings, emotions andthe entire legacy of, culture. Through generations human kind has foundthat values, as much individual as social, usually become attached to theoriginal culture.
Through personal experiences Claudia Rendón learned toperceive emotions, feelings and values that appear, as if magically, in theartistic work of most cultures. By observing and perceiving withsensibility other artists work, Claudia Rendón identifies with certainvalues and a connection is found with personal experiences. Thisconnection a strongly influences the artwork of Claudia Rendón. Certain symbols stand out as important in order to representconcepts such as the “Cycle of Life”, in Claudia’s artwork. Life isconsidered to be a seed that is affected by water, sun and earth. Handsapproach the seed to represent knowledge from past generations thatneeds to be learned. Upon becoming a tree, life achieves a strong andfortified form, because all the elements are available, including water,sun, earth and wind. Also deep and strong roots are represented.Communication with all that is outside of the tree of life occurs when onefeels as strong as the trees roots, as in the Aztec symbols that inspire theartist. When abuse of power occurs the delicate balance between lifeand the individual is lost, therefore the destruction begins, representedby a cloudy sky. The cycle concludes when the apparently destroyedtree grows strong roots; emotions, feelings and values are alive andcapable of generating new seed, in other words, new life. The artist finds through instinct that the portrait allows seeing therepresentation of emotions, feelings and values that the personageshave experienced, this was observed in the people that are around theartist’s heart. Claudia Rendón has observed, that the way to representemotions, values and feelings in art, makes the difference in the waypeople can perceive the actual message the artist wants tocommunicate. The artist thinks that in real life, a delicate movement ofthe face or of the body can express any emotion, value or feeling andbecome a symbol. When these symbols are successful, no verbalexplanation is needed. Observation and interpretation that uses a clear,easy, and elegant way, of these expressions is what Claudia Rendónadmires. From age three the artist’s father taught visual representation.Many hours were spent in museum and galleries. The artist wassensible and learned how to interpret emotions, feelings and values fromthe art objects of other artists, regardless of the time or style of thoseartists. In those museum’s experiences, courses and from books,Claudia learned about colors, shapes, composition, volume, and design.All this together, in addition of experiences in daily life with sculptor
father, art historian mother and folkloric ballerina sister, made a fantasticartistic environment for Claudia. The art objects that most influenced Rendón’s work where thosethat had a deep and clear representation of the ecology, the ethnicalroots and the hard work that antiques of any civilization represent orexpress. Survival and friendship between two different peoples(countries, religions, or cities, etc.), family union and values, justice,serenity of the soul, and on the other hand, injustice and abuse of power,hate, destruction of nature balance, were powerful visual as well asconceptual influences. Along with the above concepts, the artist searches to matchinitial idea and final result reached by the composition, design of theshapes, forms or volumes and utilization of colors and materials. ForClaudia Rendón, the final and professional presentation of the completedwork is also very important. Many artists have influenced Claudia’s work,particularly those that deal with social, nature or human matters. Andalso have deep expression penetrating the mind and the soul of theviewer. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE In this chapter, the artist Claudia Rendón will review the artiststhat have been most influential and appreciated through the course ofstudy and the journey of life. These are broken down into four distincttime periods; artists that are labeled “historical” by art historians, artiststhat are generally grouped with the Modern and Contemporary styles,artists from Mexico, and artists that Claudia has been directly or indirectlyassociated with throughout life. HISTORICAL ARTISTS Art that has been influential to Claudia Rendón are thePrehispanic art of Mexico, and the Italian Renaissance. Artistic activity was not only highly respected and important inPrehispanic life, but it was also essential to the functioning of society. Inthis society there was no written language and the visual arts had amajor role in communicating and preserving cultural traditions. Manyaspects of religious ritual, and of social and ethnic distinctions, weremeaningless unless expressed visually in works of art. Because the
major function of art was to communicate and preserve information, thePrehispanic cultures placed much emphasis on symbolicrepresentation. “Prehispanic art is, in a general way and evenconstantly, of a religious origin, this does not mean that this is always so,nor that is should always be seen by us as an art that expresses adeterminate belief, myth or figure.” (Xirau, Ramón, p.3) All objects in Prehispanic art, even those associated with highreligious and military status, such as sacrificial knives, warriors’costumes, and divine images, were made in fulfillment of specific uses.The material of which an object was mademay be as important as the function, for both practical and symbolicreasons. Among different materials there are major differences in styleand iconography. This is partly the result of guild and workshopspecialization, for different guilds evidently carved the major stonemonuments in Tenochtitlan and the smaller stone sculptures throughoutthe rest of the Valley of Mexico. In Prehispanic art, the units of meaning are actual glyphs, individual symbols, composite emblems, deities, and figures in action. These units can be compared with dates, personal names and place names (glyphs), nouns and adjectives (symbols), complex concepts (emblems and deities), and verbs (figures in action). (Pasztory, Esther. p. 72) As the Nahuatl and many other native languages, are richer innouns than in verb inflections, Prehispanic art is richer in emblems thanin actions. The Prehispanic civilizations fundamental religious beliefcentered on the eternal return of all things. A world that is born, dies andis reborn, a double sign of the morning and twilight stars, a constantchange and death that give life, beginning with the last fire and the lastembers. All ancient art of Mexico possesses, even though originated fromdifferent cultures and forms of expression, characteristics that arecommon as they are fundamentals: It is a religious-magical art that expresses “the essential dualism of the precortesian world” and the concept of a cyclical world made of life- death-life, creation-destruction-creation. It is –as is Egyptian art or European art of the XIII century- a collective art that surpasses the forces of the individual: collective constructions, collective ritual sacrifices, collective worship that demands collective work. Sacred and collective universe;
It is an art presided by the spirit –the god, the gods-by a spirituality that tends to express the terrible, the sublime. (Galarza, Joaquin. p.24) Paul Westhiem writes: “The art of old Mexico is the attempt togive plastic expression to the concept of the divine, up to where humancondition permits. (Ancient Mexican Art, 2nd ed. Era, 1972) In Prehispanic arts, codices, drums, ball games, axes,anthropomorphic or not, childbirth, procreations, skulls, men and womensquatting, painted figures from Nayarit, masks that are faces and masksthat hide faces, urns like jaguars, serpents, lights, suns (also temples,paintings, statues and statuettes) are, very frequently, signs and symbolsof beliefs, myths, expressions of another world that are also in this world.These have tremendous influences upon the artwork of Claudia Rendón.In Prehispanic art, a synthetic expression of large concepts is found. It isdifficult to find the exact symbol to represent a signal or movement thatcharacterizes an item, animal or human being, nevertheless Prehispaniccultures where experts in utilizing observation of nature and finding aprecise synthesis to represent those individual characteristics. Anothercommon feeling that Claudia Rendón found represented in Prehispanicart was the pride of belonging to a specific place or group. Pride isrepresented with strong and strait angles between one shape andanother. In addition, the colors used by the Prehispanic cultures meant ajoy for life, as is also the case in the artwork of Claudia Rendón. Michelangelo affects the artist by representing emotions,feelings and values, in all work. The masterpieces endure through thepassage of time. People identify with what is seen and feeling touchesfeeling. The master puts gesture in the work and from the gestureemotions arise. Most of Michelangelo’s art was made for religious purposes andhave passion. Control allowed style to bypass the thematic. Themastery of the piece places the viewer in a position where admiration ofthe subject allows feeling to be engraved when looking at the artwork. The artist of this research paper admires the “David” becausethere is a concentrated and accurate portrayal of emotion found in theglance or look of the face. The right hand is in a position to give accuratedirection to the stone missile. There is balance with the outside axisslightly tilted, in challenging attitude worthy of representing the importantbiblical personage. In children, carved and painted by Michelangelo, suitableproportions to reality are followed to insure complete identity, yet havestylistic intensity. For the purpose of causing an immediate feeling of
tenderness and innocence the children project the need for adultaffection. These children characteristics are both the subject and thecomposition to Michelangelo. Vasari, the great art historian of theRenaissance, states: “It would be impossible for any craftsman or sculptor no matter how brilliant ever to surpass the grace or design of this work, or try to cut and polish the marble with the skill that Michelangelo displayed.” (www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-early.html)There is about as much anguish and frustration the art of Michelangeloas there is in the real life of any human being. The sculptures quicklymake contact with the emotions and feelings of the viewer. Often, in theunfinished state, there is greater visual impact than in the finished one.Claudia Rendón believes that a state in between the finished andunfinished is the most vigorous in all of Michelangelo’s work. Bringing lifefrom the stone, a theory espoused by many artists, is spoken of byVasari: “It is certainly a miracle that a formless block of stone could ever have been reduced to a perfection that nature is scarcely able to create in the flesh.” (www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-early.html) “La Pieta” is simply the purest representation of tenderness andlove that exists between mother and son. The strength that this workachieves reaches the depth that the subject implies. A delicate womanholds the weight of a dead man, without expressing any kind of effort. Michelangelo was an expert in observing and representing byusing diverse techniques and endless details of the human emotions,feelings and values. The artist hopes to transmit these same directionsin personal work. MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS Modern and contemporary artists that influence Claudia Rendónare August Rodin, Edvard Munch, Piet Mondrian, Constantin Brancusi,Rene Magritte, M.C. Escher and Alexander Calder. In August Rodin’s artwork Rendón found nature to be strongand real. There was study and observation in the strokes taken with theclay knife. Every art, every hand and even every finger was an individualitem.
Rodin’s method of working, writes Paul Gsell, was singular. He had in his studio a number of nude models, men and women, in movement or reposing. Rodin paid them to supply him constantly with the picture of nudity in various attitudes and with all the liberty of ordinary life. He was constantly looking at them, and this was always familiar with the spectacle of muscles in movement. Thus the nude which to-day people rarely see, and which even sculptors only see during the short periods of the pose, was for Rodin an ordinary spectacle. Thus he acquired that knowledge of the human body unclothed which was common to the Greeks through constant exercise in sports and games, and learned to read the expression of feeling in all parts of the body. The face is usually regarded as the only mirror of the soul, and mobility of features in supposed to be the only exteriorization of spiritual life. But in reality there is not a muscle of the body which does not reveal thoughts an feeling. (Ludwing Goldsheider. p.16) By looking at the details, Rodin’s audience is able to see thefeelings and passions of the faces and hands found in the work. Rodincuts the hollows of the face deeply to assure strong shadows, andtextured surfaces catch the subtle variations of light and heighten thesense of life and movement. Rodin was the first sculptor to make sculptures of body sectionsas a finished piece. This influenced many movements in modernsculpture and affects Rendón positively. In the strong emotions perceived from people, Rodin gains the look of determination. Aggressive textures and expressions are found in the work. As with Claudia Rendón, the important thing is to transmit a specific idea, emotion or feeling through the artwork. The technique allowed Rodin to eliminate all that might counteract or draw attention from the important subject. “As to polishing nails or ringlets of hair, that has no interest for me, It detracts attention from the leading lines and the soul which I wish to interpret.” (Ludwing Goldsheider. p.17) “The Thinker”, is one of Claudia Rendón’s favorites. The pieceshows that it is possible to represent an inner feeling in art. In otherwords, the “Thinker” is not trying to communicate or express somethingto the self, not to the world outside. “The Thinker” also was part of the original conception of ‘The Gate of Hell’, of which it might be said that it constitutes the soul. Moreover, Rodin at first wanted his statue to be called ‘The Poet’. In the artist view, the poet was that Dante whose work he loved so passionately and whence he had drawn so many wonderful designs. But this Dante met
the same fate as the ‘Balzac’ at a later date. Rodin went beyond his first conception and widened the theme he had thus first chosen until it became a universal symbol. (Summerville, Ludwig Goldsheider. p.117) “Nijinsky”, a sculpture by Rodin of a ballerina is expressivebecause of dynamic position. “The Eternal Idol”, on the other hand, isheavenly because of the calm in the disposition of the face. It is aperfect example of how to render emotion. There is also a symbolicattitude that can mean many things. A young woman is half seated half kneeling, with her head bending forward and a dreamy look in her face, while a man, kneeling before her, restraining his desire, his arms are behind his back, softly bends his head and plants a kiss under the left breast, over the heart. He has a restrained fervor that is at once mystical and amorous. She has a reserved sphinx- like expression. Is she, too awakening to the current of love, or is she wondering at man’s passion, which is unfathomable, for the beauty, which he as yet hardly knows? The originality of the pose is unique in sculpture, rendering it one of the loveliest commentaries on the relations between man and woman that exist in art. (Summerville, Ludwig Goldsheider. p.121) Edvard Münch’s artwork draws Claudia Rendón’s attention.When Münch made an artwork, it was done for touch more than sight.The deep thing of the spirit is felt by more than one sense. The Expressionist’s art, like that of Münch, was one of spiritual pain. Their works were acts of self-liberation, outlets for souls and minds stirred by events and conditions that eventually led to the near global conflagration known as World War I. But whereas the majority of the Expressionists were politically oriented, manifested anti-establishment attitudes, yearned for critical examination of all conventions and strove for an exposure of social evils, Munch was the great introvert who joined no group, had no preference for any party program, political or aesthetic. The Swiss psychiatrist Oskar Pfister could have had him in mind when, about 1922, he characterized the Expressionist as one who “creates out or the depth of things, because he knows himself to be in those depths. (Werner, Alfred. p. VI) In “The Scream”, the viewer can appreciate inarticulate sound.The expressive force is in the techniques of the great master. Thesinuous lines resonate in Claudia Rendón’s mind. This artist thinks thatart is just like the effects of “The Scream”. Good art does not needgreater explanation to be felt and understood. When the viewer identifies
with the artwork through similar emotions, feelings or values there is agreat result, a coming together of earth and space. Münch explains: All in all, art results from man’s desire to communicate with his fellows. All methods are equally effective. Both in literature and in painting the technique varies according to the aims of the artist. Nature is a means to an end, not an end in itself. If it is possible to produce the desired effect by changing nature, then it should be done. A landscape will alter according to the mood of the person who sees it, and in order to represent that particular scene the artist will produce a picture that expresses his own personal feelings. It is these feelings, which are crucial: nature is merely the means of conveying them. Whether the picture resembles nature or not is irrelevant, as a picture cannot be explained’ the reason for its being painted in the first place was that the artist could find no other means of expressing what he saw. The finished work can only give a hint of what was in the artist’s mind. (Stang, Ragna. p. 15) The work of Münch is a description of a psychological situationthat supposes a new conception of the value founded in the function ofthe symbol. There is a meaning attached to something that does nothave a clear terminus. Claudia Rendón also uses symbols in thismanner. At any rate, what he created between about 1884 and 1909 is sufficient to secure him a chapter in the history of modern art, as a major transitional figure from late nineteenth-century Naturalism and Impressionism to the core of twentieth-century Expressionism and Symbolism. (Werner, Alfred. p. viii) The type of synthesis that Claudia appreciates in Münch is foundin panels like “Melancholy”, “Sunset” or “Inger in the Beach”. Theseworks have bent lines and chromatic surfaces that dominate. The robusttexture found here moves away from the Realism that had been reigningin art throughout the previous century. Though this may not be evident at a quick glance, Münch’s best work amalgamates the finest qualities of “abstract” art with the “realistic” message that makes a work or art spontaneously accessible to the beholder. He did not sacrifice form to idea, but condensed, synthesized and simplified shapes, and suppressed details of faces and landscapes. In his paintings he chose certain colors, such as bloody and mystical blues, mainly for their emotional, symbolic qualities’ like many an artist of the 1950’s, he also allowed paint to drip, to splash, unconcerned whether
these accidental effects might mar the “beauty” of the surface in the traditional sense of the word. (Werner, Alfred. p. viii) Piet Mondrian is a constant influence in Claudia Rendón’sartwork. In Mondrian’s artwork the raw material was white surfaces,straight lines and rectangles colored in vibrant tones of red, yellow, blue,white, black and gray. With such tools Mondrian tried synthetically to doa balanced art that represented harmonious universe, humanity andnature. Becoming thus the main exponent of a new abstract paintingclass called Neo-Plasticism, Mondrian was influencing not only to thecontemporary plastic artists, but to the architecture and the industrialdesign. Mondrians concept of pure plasticity consisted partly in the simplification of the means of expression to the bare essentials. He not only banished representation and three-dimensional picture-space but also the curved line, sensuous qualities of texture and surface, and the sensuous appeal of colour. This restrictedness he regarded as a sort of mystical pursuit of the Absolute, which he justified in terms of his theosophical beliefs. His extensive influence was not limited to artists whose style had direct affinities with his own. He also had a profound influence on much industrial, decorative, and advertisement art from the 1930s onwards. His influence was spread by his writings as well as his paintings. (http://www.xrefer.com/entry/144732) For Claudia Rendón, Mondrian’s work presents spiritual values.Mondrian preferred to firmly maintain an ideology that was different fromthat which was accepted at the time. This philosophy is related to the artof Rendón, in that Mondrian’s incessant search for equilibrium,introducing a new concept in the restlessness that to Rendón is apowerful dynamic. The positive and the negative are the causes of all action ... The positive and the negative break up oneness; they are the cause of all unhappiness. The union of the positive and the negative is happiness. The palpable oneness of the solitary flower or tower, being subject to time and change, had to give way to the subliminal oneness of a vivid equilibrium...important task of all art is to destroy the static balance and to establish a dynamic one ". (http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/mondrian.html) Constantine Brancusi is often is considered a pioneer ofabstraction going further than others trying to condense an idea oraction, even something ethereal, like emotions, feelings or values. Toreach his objective, Brancusi gives to his artwork a visual elegance with
an excellent and clean synthesis of the form and also has a sensitive useof materials. Brancusi reflects this way: When you see a fish you don’t think of its scales, do you? You think of its speed, its floating, flashing body seen through water. Well, I have tried to express just that. If I made fins and eyes and scales, I would arrest its movement; give a pattern or shape of reality. I want just the flash of its spirit. (Jianou, Ionel. p.13, 14) Brancusi tries to get the spirit behind appearances. Believing inequilibrium the ordering of value in good things, Brancusi presents badthings in equal quantity. It was important to emphasize the respect thatmust exist between individuals. It was also important to have the rightattitude in solving situations in art and in life. In order to have strongspirit, strong roots must exist. He would place groups of sculptures in close spatial relationship, thus indicating the importance of the empty space between them…. In the monument for the Romanian heroes at Targu Jiv took the ethnological point of view, where the monuments are the cosmical representation of the human life, started at birth symbolized by the Silence Table, and closed with the death, symbolized by the Endless Column. The distance between them which represents the time given to a human life, is interrupted by the Kiss Gate, the symbol of marriage and of the start of a new vital cycle. (http://cpcug.org/user/stefan/brancus.html) In the art of René Magritte, Claudia Rendón discovered that thepeople do not realize the complicated way everyone lives life. ToRendón an uncertainty feeling and fear appears when one confronts astranger. Inflexibility is seen in the people when no routine situationsappear. There is little interest in learning new ways to solve thosesituations as well. Magritte explains: To equate my painting with symbolism, conscious or unconscious, is to ignore its thru nature.... People are quite willing to use objects without looking for any symbolic intention in then, but when they look at paintings, they cannot find any use for them. So they hunt around for a meaning to get themselves out of the quandary, and because they do not understand what they are supposed to think when they confront the painting...They want something to lean on, so they can be comfortable. They want something secure to hang on to, so they can save themselves from the void. (Gablik, Suzi. p. 1970) Magritte gives the opportunity to revalue ordinary or very usualobjects when these elements are put in an unusual environment. The
important objects are given a new meaning than allowed in normal,everyday situations. Absence becomes evident, like a human value, oran emotion of life, or a pleasant feeling. These can be equated with agood friend, a kiss when waking up or a shining blue sky. Magritte says: The images must be seen such as they are. Moreover, my painting implies no supremacy of the invisible over the visible. (The letter hidden in the envelope is not visible; neither is the sun when it is hidden by a curtain of trees.) The mind loves the unknown. It loves images whose meaning is unknown, since the meaning of the mind itself is unknown. (Gablik, Suzi. p.12) The optical illusions of M.C. Escher are admired by Rendón.Escher patterns a complex mathematical structure called tessellationsthat are seen by Claudia Rendón as an excellent representation of therespect that must exist about the space between individuals in society.Everything sees changes as the space changes. To discover thetensions between spaces is a big part of both Escher’s and Rendón’s art. All Escher work is based on mathematical study and wasrecognized by eminent scientists and crystallographers, acquiring aparticular mastery in representing three dimensions in two dimensions.Where additions were introduced unusual vanishing points force theobjects to obey. Diverse points of view in the same image are found.The spectator is always going to find different datum points fromup/down, and right/left, that cause apparent confusion, but at the sametime are always ordered. Claudia Rendón interprets this effect in M.C.Escher’s artwork as the explanation for life without chance. There is arhythm and cycle, and when this order is broken by any imbalance, thenthe chaos and the lack of understanding are imminent. As Escherexplains it: I try in my prints to testify that we live in a beautiful and orderly world, not in a chaos without norms, even though that is how it sometimes appears. My subjects are also often playful: I cannot refrain from demonstrating the nonsensicalness of some of what we take to be irrefutable certainties. It is, for example, a pleasure to deliberately mix together objects of two and of three dimensions, surface and spatial relationships, and to make fun of gravity. (Locher, J.L. p.19) Alexander Calder revolutionized art by introducing of theconcepts of mobile and stabile. There’s an inescapably relationshipbetween the elements of time, movement and space, in mobiles andstabiles. The interaction between the art of Calder and the spectator is
direct, because in addition to being able to appreciate the finished work,it is possible to penetrate the internal spirit. For Claudia Rendón, theseconcepts are important, because sometimes in life it is necessary to beflexible and mobile. Firmness or stability is necessary for the samereason. Calder is not attracted to themes verified. On the contrary,interest and challenges are food for Calder’s ideas. In a series of figureswithin a circus context, Calder manages to have movement associatewith the logic of balance. Calder quickly discovered the leaders of the radical Avant-Grade, the Abstaction-Création Group. Under their influence, Calder soon began to explore the theories of Boccini and Maholy-Nagy, imagining the sculpture of the future, a sculpture in motion. Calder motorized some of his creations, but eventually abandoned this approach in order to define a sculpture capable of engendering itself through the sophisticated play of equilibriums and disequilibriums, using weights and counterweights. (Lemaire, Gérard-Georges. p.10) Claudia Rendón also tries to transmit this idea in art. Things donot work alone. There is a measurement of equilibrium anddisequilibrium. There is always a constant balance with good and badthings. MEXICAN ARTISTS Mexican artists revealing the spirit of Mexico that are included inthis research are José Guadalupe Posada, José Clemente Orozco,Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. José Guadalupe Posada uses popular subjects with fullmovement compositions in which the intention of the engraved lines hasforce. The master manages a synthesis of personages to give apersonality to the images, creating coarse and vigorous scenes. Posada had no place in the official circles of Mexican art, and he was unconcerned about immortality, though he has achieved it where more respected artist of his time have gained and are now forgotten. He knew as much about form and movement as any man I have ever met. It was he who revealed to me the inherent beauty in the Mexican people, their struggle and aspirations. And it was he who taught me that supreme lesson of all art, that nothing can be expressed except through the force of felling, that the soul of every masterpiece is powerful emotion. (Diego Rivera. p. 18)
Posada popularized the skulls or “calaveras” as well as multipleimages on the abuses of the government of Porfirio Diaz and intriguepolicies of the time. Today these constitute a chronicle of the society andthe policy of the times. For Rendón it is very important to leave a graphicregistry of “modus vivendi” that characterizes different societies. Jose Guadalupe Posada is considered a “popular” artist thatrepresents the reality of the Mexican people. In like manner ClaudiaRendón attempts to get the public to identify with emotions, feelings andvalues that conform to a human being. In the Mexican muralist movement, José Clemente Orozcoused subjects of social and political content in post-revolutionary Mexico.A radical position was identified. The subjects in murals were betweenthe fraternity, the universal revolution, the human slavery, work, arts,sciences, migrations, human values, but mainly, the values of Mexicanpeople. Dr. Stacy May, comments: Orozco’s work has many of the qualities that we like to associate with the College. It is completely masculine. It is forthright and unmannered and contemporary. It is democratic and deeply concerned with social values. It would be ridiculous, certainly, for us to claim kinship with this Mexican painter in a parochial sense, but to the larger plane of American life Orozco is as autochthonous as New Hampshire granite, or the Mississippi River, or Samson Occom himself. To the latter worthy the art of José Clemente Orozco would have been far more intelligible than any of the works that have come out of Concord. It is important, too, that Orozco’s painting is sufficiently abstract and sufficiently universal in theme to give promise of wearing well over the years to come. (Reed, Alma. p.6) Such interests are represented in diverse murals, using atechnique that Rendón admires and uses in artwork. There is free brushwork and strong contrast of color in “El Hombre de Fuego” (The man infire). Claudia Rendón wants the spectator to see the impact themessage. In each artwork like in the artwork of Orozco, the human beingis apparently a unique subject to represent. That is why the architecture,the instruments of work and the landscape, appear reduced to simpleelements. Diego Rivera paints a diversity of images that go fromvanguardism to nationalism, using techniques from oil to watercolor tofresco. This great Mexican artist painted the portrait, the landscape andrepresentations of Mexican history. The most influential work to ClaudiaRendón was the representation of children, including the circumstancesthat affect children within daily life.
Children and the world inspired and made Rivera realize theappreciation of Mexican reality and representation of social and politicalrestlessness. Rivera allowed emotions, feelings and values to reach asociety that was waiting for inspiration. Claudia Rendón admires thesensitivity that the master had toward infantile characteristics andgestures. These traits express emotions, feelings and values, many ofwhich are respected and favored by the adult world. It is evident that Rivera had strong and defined expressivity. Theart is illustrative, ample and specific, real, clear and objective. Thechildren of Diego Rivera represent children from everywhere. The master Rivera had liked one of its permanent subjects to the children but not only to the Mexican indigenous children that represented repeatedly in the murals, but the universal boy, beyond its ethnic characteristics and of their social and cultural circumstances. Thus, it painted to childhood like one of the stages of the human development that needs to be object of attention, care, respect and protection. (Miguel Rojo Limón. p. 9) The moral that David Alfaro Siqueiros leaves Claudia Rendón,is to “Have the technology to the service of the art, being the manmaster, not slaved of the technology”,(http://www.siqueiros.inba.gob.mx), when accruing new techniques,modern materials and tools and incorporating other elements. The resultwas an expressive and energetic art capable of transmitting the messageappropriately. Activism and strong social and political commitment wasreflected. “Sunrise of Mexico” is a paean of joy painted on the spur of the moment, the moment when the Mexican oil fields were taken away from English and American interest and were returned to the nation. It is one of the rare pictures by Siqueiros in which the mood is not at all tragic. The change of scale from head to arms and hands, the sculpturesque modeling of some parts and the willful lack of definition in others (as if the artist’s eye could not distinctly see a model in swift motion), illustrate Siqueiros’ theory of painting not in terms of ecstatic vision by rather in the composite image of a motion picture. (Virginia Stewart. p.59) Siqueiros contrasts color, and uses fluid line loaded of emotion incompositions in which the geometry is structural and hidden. Impeccablequality is the result and all pictorial effects lead inevitably to deepemotion of the spectator. Claudia Rendón makes artwork with the intention to arrive at alltype of public, without mattering if they are expert or lovers of the art.
For Rendón like for Siqueiros the important thing is to transmit themessage to the people in general. In his mural conceptions, Siqueiros assumes that the man-in-the street who enters a public building decorated with murals will view the work neither as professional art critic nor as art lover. Nevertheless, Siqueiros respects this hypothetical man and plans his pictures in such a way that a sidewise glimpse will prove satisfying to anyone who hurries through the building on his everyday affairs. (Virginia Stewart. p.59) PERSONAL INFLUENCES Other artists influential to Claudia Rendón’s artwork and the spiritof this paper are Gabriel Vargas Bernal, Alberto Uderzo, JoaquínSalvador Lavado “Quino”, Carmen Lomas Garza and Mario RendónLozano. The values that Gabriel Vargas represents in the “BurrónFamily” are of optimism, tenacity, integrity, dignity and the greatness ofthe Mexican people. These are deeply rooted values in spite of thesocioeconomic situation that is of concern. Borola: With enthusiasm, the deficiencies are smaller; one can laugh of the hardships and from which it comes to us above. Regino: Doubt does not fit that the Mexicans are endure ness, we resist all without complaint. (La Familia Burrón. Segunda Época. No. 336. p. 5) Gabriel Vargas knew to observe the Mexican people withsensitivity. The two dimensions of art were filled with emotions, feelingsand values of a whole nation. Claudia Rendón has learned of the oldand new Mexico from the work of Vargas. The circumstances of theMexican people seemed to be the same through every year of the BurrónFamily existence and times have not changed the Mexican problem. The humorist Leon Ferrari (who made in Mexico a version of the Cuban comic strip Anita de Montemar) bet 10 thousand pesos to him arguing that the sketcher could not create a feminine personage with the characteristics of the main personage of Superlocos. Vargas accepted the challenge and left to cross the streets of the city, in search of inspiration. He visited vicinities, cabarets, markets, bars and pulque bars. Thus the Burrón Family created, formed by a honest and working barber (exact copy of a friend of the author), a willful and inserted woman who, in spite of living in the poverty, she tried to act like aristocrat (personage inspired by the mother of another friend), and 2 adolescent children who suffer the own restlessness of their age and social
condition (based on own experiences of the young sketcher). The first number came to the light in 1948. (http://www.eureka.com.mx/ecsa/ga/vargas/vargas.htm) The formal merits of the “Burrón Family” do not depend on themasters, but on the perfect integration of the drawing, the language, thetechnique, and message. Claudia Rendón found essential values in the everyday liferepresented in the work of Alberto Uderzo. The artist has incorporatedthe thematic elements of Uderzo in personal work. The personagesinhabiting the Gallic village of Uderzo were brave and significantly able toovercome the adversities that abound in the world. When one sees thediverse situations that may arise, when respecting and helping fellowman become more needed, just then can the correct sanctions be placedupon abuse? When friends are not left in necessity and the place ofliving defended against all invasions, then the emotions are open tobrave soldiers. Rendón translates these values into personal art. If the art serves to communicate the message then it is importantto Claudia to have portrayed the full significance of chance to the subject.By differentiating chance Claudia will approach value, the final result andthe ultimate value. As Alberto Uderzo explains it: First and foremost, it is the story that is most important, other than what one might think. I cant imagine how you could draw without a good story! I was often asked this question because people thought that I drew and that Goscinny added the dialogs afterwards. No, thats not the way its done. Just like for shows, movies or plays, theres an author who writes, and who gives directions so the decorators build the right sets, and the director works with the actors around the text. Its exactly the same thing for a comic. So, now Im writing a text that will only be converted into drawings at the very end. (http://www.asterix.tm.fr/english/index.htm) Claudia Rendón admires also, Joaquín Salvador Lavado“Quino”, neatness of line, the synthetic drawing, without text, with adirect message, as well as the elegance of the figure form, the harmonyin the proportion and the expression in the human beings. Beforebeginning to draw, Claudia, like Quino, considers it important todocument the event in order to cut down the errors in the scene. Whenthe historical moment is used Quino presents work that can be respectedby all observers. Quino expresses: But this is accompanied by a discipline: that of knowing a subject very well before drawing. He also instilled a work ethic in me that included having respect for the profession, for the reader and for oneself. Also to consider
each drawing, as insignificant as that drawing may seem at the time, as if I were decorating the Sistine Chapel. This is where I get the obsession for knowing a subject well before I draw it. (http://www.quino.com.ar/english/maestros.html) Quino is an observer of one who appreciates true hearts,wanting to share with the world. The subjects always are effectivebecause there is deep human and social sensitivity: For example, an ideal political situation is the one that appears in the restaurants, the client whom it loves to eat is the town and the young man who depends on maître, and this one of the humor of the cook, is those that exert the power. Therefore no handling real personages but situations referred to the reality that is an advantage. It is an a temporal social humor that allows us to resort to ancient sources to inspire to us by a present problematic. Nothing better than to approach to the Old Testament to verify that the corruption, the treason, the ambition of being able, the fear to the death, the love, the familiar relation, etc. accompany to us from always and are acquiring different forms. (http://www.clubcultura.com/humor/quino/reportaje/13.htm) From Quino, Claudia Rendón learned that a good drawing cangive force to a good idea. If is not a good drawing, the idea is destroyedcompletely. Just like Carmen Lomas Garza, Claudia Rendón identifies withthe moments lived with the family during childhood. Decisive momentsfor the formation character are shaped in both Garza’s and Rendón’swork. Fundamental importance is attached to the moments that led tothe representation of cultural origin in the family relationships. The pictures in this book are all painted from my memories of growing up in Kingsville, Texas, near the border with Mexico. From the time I was a young girl I always dreamed of becoming an artist. I practiced drawing every day; I studied art in school; and I finally did become an artist. My family has inspired an encouraged me for all these years. This is my book of family pictures. (Carmen Lomas Garza. p. 3) The scenes that represent Lomas Garza, of the families’ dailylife, especially the Mexican American family, in which basiccharacteristics are similar to the life in Mexico, touch Claudia Rendóndeeply. Each individual in the paintings of Garza is indispensable for thedesign of work and family function. Although the scenes are simple anddaily, and could seem almost insignificant, there is nevertheless arelationship to moments that are in memory and give a sense of life, as in
Garza’s painting “Beds for Dreaming”, long and brotherly conversations,concerning the distance, time or place, with sister Isolda. My sister and I used to go up on the roof on summer nights and just stay there and talk about the stars and the constellations. We also talked about the future. I knew since I was 13 years old that I wanted to be an artist. And all those things that I dreamed on doing as an artist, I’m finally doing now. My mother was the one who inspired me to be an artist. She made up our meds to sleep in and have regular dreams, but she also laid out the bed for our dreams of the future. (Carmen Lomas Garza. p. 30) Mario Rendón Lozano, is doubtless, influenced the artwork andthe personality of Claudia Rendón. It is through Mario Rendón’sconcepts and explanations that Claudia not only understands the artworkof all the other artists written about here. It is Mario Rendón’s artworkwhere Claudia finds the references that will govern both artwork and life. During many years, I took like object for my plastic work vegetables, mainly the xerophyte plants and the seeds. There I found the suitable forms to represent the subjects that then interested to me, mainly the one of the family. (Mario Rendón Lozano. Catalog: Mi Encuentro / Mi Historia. p. 1) Observing the daily life of Mario Rendón, and the artistictrajectory, makes Claudia realize the importance of moral principlesgoverning the individual and the world. These moral principles will allowresponse to the actions that sustain the ideals of each person, and willbe reflected in the fruit of all work. Later, I initiated a new stage looking for expressive possibilities in the human figure, but a series of alterations in my daily life happened and a trip to the foreigner coincided so that my sculpture task underwent a drastic change of course. (Mario Rendón Lozano. Catalog: Mi Encuentro / Mi Historia. p. 1) The themes and techniques of Mario Rendón allow Claudia tohave a perception of the world beyond that understood by the ordinarysoul. When the master makes series of sculptures that are simplysketches, have aggressive textures and impressive expressions, Claudiais able to understand and empathize with the feelings contained in thework regarding the socio-economic situation in Mexico. The socialsignificance is written off by Mario as follows:
If at the present moment, the being woman still represents a series of additional problems to which commonly we as men have in our daily life, product of the religious dogmas and a partial and deficient education, we nevertheless found, that these cruel problems concentrate and worsen in the mazahuas women who come to the great city in search of the sustenance for themselves and their children, facing the fact of fighting dramatically to the most adverse conditions, unprotected, humiliated and in many occasions persecuted. (Mario Rendón Lozano. p.34) The daily coexistence with the concepts, sculpture and pictorialwork of the master, combined with several national and internationaltrips, allowed Claudia to learned and value the culture of Mexico. WhenMario Rendón began to use the representations, images and symbols ofold pre-Columbian civilizations, and used the images to expressnationalist ideas, Claudia found personal emotion, feeling and value. The necessity of express now of different way, to look for more suitable forms for new feelings, my indigenous blood and my distance with Mexico took me towards to this sensational and unique encounter with the thought and the plastic world which today we know like Mesoamerica. (Mario Rendón Lozano. Catalog: Mi Encuentro / Mi Historia. p. 1) Mario Rendón understands that having self-knowledge allowsexpression of moral principles based on good human values. Adversitymust be faced, including some that is devastating, because far frombeing destroyed; this type of individual will be able to transmit emotions,feelings and values to future generations; as a result creating a cycle oflife. The Aztec Warrior has been able to rebuild himself and flourish even though he seemed to be destroyed. He reconstructs himself and grows because the original seed of his self and has most profound feeling and roots continue to live within him and his blood. (Mario Rendón Lozano. p.75) Claudia also admires Mario Rendón for restlessness in theinvestigation of new materials and techniques. In creating the modern,the avant-garde, the new, Mario pushes the envelope to arrive at a pointin time that merges the past with the present. The new materials blendwith the ideas that have existed for centuries. I began the sculptures using the concept of the solid block. This allows me to achieve a series of carvings directly on the concrete. I work with a contemporary architectural material from the point of view of a sculptor and have developed a new technique, which I call ‘Rendocreto’. I have applied
some texture and color in the way of the sculptors of ancient Mexico. (Mario Rendón Lozano. p.76) With an even-tempered and disciplined temper, Mario Rendón isable to solve any challenge in daily life. In the process artisticchallenges, through the dominion of the technique, capacity of synthesis,sensitivity to human matters and a mastery of diverse materials, arecarried out professionally in artwork. Is the sculptor of the group, his natural is reposed, observant, very laborious and imaginative. Discreet and pulchritude, does not fight controversy nor verbal battles, but in the plasma of his creations: clay, limestone, iron, polyester, Carlit stone, weld and stony materials. …In all his work, there is a doubtless reference to the man. The beings which surge of his hands... seem to talk about to reduction of the human program, but more like a future synthesis than like a regression towards the past. (Lic. Miguel Álvarez Acosta. Catalog: Formas, Concreto, Amor. p. 1. Junio 1970) CHAPTER 3 ARTISTIC WORK OF CLAUDIA RENDÓN THE CREATIVE PROCESS In this chapter, the creative process of Claudia Rendónrepresents emotions, feelings and values. The artist feels it important tostress the need of having access to the necessary elements that allowthe analysis of circumstances emitting just judgments regarding lifeepisodes. The art work created at Texas A&M University-Kingsville, isliterally a “Diary from the Heart”, hoping that through these images amessage can be transmitted to the viewer. It is important to haveknowledge of the different points of view, the good one, and the bad one.People can have all the elements that complement one another, and inthat way, reach equilibrium. In other words, the fact of knowingsomething bad makes the human mind realize the existence of the goodand vice versa. Both concepts must be in equal quantity. Otherwise, ifeverything is good at all times, the concept of what is wrong begins to beforgotten, and the ambition of getting something better appears. Whatused to be good is not good any longer, and stars becoming somethingbad, and vice versa. That’s the case of the extremes, and the extremesare not good for healthy relationship with others. This is why equilibriumis so important to Claudia Rendón.
ART WORK # 1 / OBRA # 1 “LIFE – VIDA” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 16” x 23” – 41 cm x 58 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Birth, the first event that happens to people whenthey enter the world, is wonderful. In order to born, tohave life, co participation of two essences is required. Inthis painting, life is represented by a seed in the processof germination, all promoted by water, sun and earth. El primer suceso que ocurre a todo mundo, esmaravilloso. El hecho de nacer, de tener vida, requierede la cooparticipación de dos escencias. En éste caso lavida es representada con una semilla, la cual necesitaagua, sol y tierra para germinar.
ART WORK # 2 / OBRA # 2 “THIS IS IT – ESTO ES TODO” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 20” x 16” – 50 cm x 41 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Essential things that help in transmitting life canonly be seen in the eyes of the heart. What is going tonourish an individual being? This question is answeredby the concept of positive values. Here in painting “Thisis it – Esto es todo”, a pair of hands brings to the smallplant the nourishment of value. The reception of valuesby the plant promotes growth that leads the individual tofeel with the heart. Lo esencial solo puede verse con los ojos delcorazón. Lo que va a nutrir de una manera positiva laescencia, sera la capacidad sentir y asimilar valorespositivos. En esta pintura un par de manos ofrecen losvalores fundamenteles para fortificar. El hecho de quesean asimilados correctamente, dependerá de lasensibilidad de cada individuo.
ART WORK # 3 / OBRA # 3 “WITH ALL THE ELEMENTS – CON TODOS LOS ELEMENTOS” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 16” x 23” – 41 cm x 58 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 The life of each individual can be intensely fortifiedif all the elements are available. The little plant nowbecame a tree, which trunk is hard and healthy thanksthat this tree can perceive and assimilate all balancedelements in a harmonious form. La vida de cada individuo puede ser fortuita,plena, intensamente fortificada, si se cuenta con todoslos elementos a favor. La plantita se ha convertido enárbol, cuyo tronco es fuerte y saludable, gracias a quepuede asimilar todos los elementos equilibrados, en unaforma armoniosa.
ART WORK # 4 / OBRA # 4 “COMMUNICATION – COMUNICACIÓN” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 20” x 16” – 50 cm x 41 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Once the individual is self confident, exteriorcommunication with other individuals occurs.Communication is represented by the Aztec symbol,which is located up in between all other elements, withoutdisturbing vital space, which is important in order to havea good communication. Una vez que el individuo, el árbol, se encuentrabien consigo mismo, se puede llevar a cabo lacomunicación hacia el exterior, es decir, con sussemejantes. Es representada por el símbolo azteca, lacual se encuentra ubicada enmedio de todos loselementos, sin irrumpir en el espacio vital de ningún otroelemento, guardando de ésta forma, respeto por losmismos, elemento necesario para lograr una buenacomunicación.
ART WORK # 5 / OBRA # 5 “ABUSE OF POWER – PREPOTENCIA” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 16” x 23” – 41 cm x 58 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Conflict occurs when abuse of power is used byone element over the others. In this painting, abuse ofpower is represented by black clouds invading vital spaceof others elements. When interrupting communicationbetween individuals delicate natural equilibrium is broken El conflicto que genera la prepotencia de algunode los elementos, sobre el resto de ellos. Quedarepresentado en esta pintura con nubes negrasinvadiendo el espacio vital del resto de los elementos,interrumpiendo la comunicación entre individuos yrompiendo de ésta forma el delicado equilibrio natural.
ART WORK # 6 / OBRA # 6 “LIFE AGAINST THE TREASON – VIDA SOBRE LA TRAICIÓN” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 20” x 16” – 50 cm x 41 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 The result of abuse of power is represented by all thebeneficial elements from the origin, now against the individual,the tree. This destruction is the consequence of brokennatural balance. Nevertheless, the roots and trunk wherealready fortified and healthy. Now more life can be generatedby this reconstituted tree and the cycle of life perpetuated. El resultado destructivo del abuso de poder, quedarepresentado con todos los elementos originalmentebenéficos, tornados en perjudiciales para el individuo, para elárbol. Dicha aparente destrucción es consecuencia de laruptura del sagrado equilibrio natural. Sin embargo, debido aque en un origen las raíces y el tronco crecieron fuertes ysaludables, combaten a la destrucción, sin dejar que ésta defin a la vida del individuo, sino muy por el contrario, éste escapáz de renacer e inclusive de generar otra vida, dando asícontinuidad al Ciclo de la Vida.
ART WORK # 7 / OBRA # 7 “HELLO FROM MEXICO! – HOLA DESDE MÉXICO!” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 12½” x 16” – 32 cm x 41 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 The artist and sister are in the homeland, calledXochimilco, flowers place, in Mexico City. This washome while the parents attended school in Italy andFrance, creating huge sculptures and marble pottery.While separated, the children tried to hold on to thememory of parents in the heart. La artista y su hermana se encuentran en casa,en Xochimilco, lugar de flores, en la ciudad de México.Permanecieron ahi durante el período en que los padresatendieron cursos en Italia y Francia, donde crearongrandes esculturas y vasijas de mármol. Durante laseparación las niñas se aferraban al recuerdo de suspadres, en el corazón.
ART WORK # 8 / OBRA # 8 “MY HOME – MI CASA” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 13” x 17” – 33 cm x 43 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Claudia’s fifteen years of life were spent in thishome. Originally the home was owned by Claudia’sgrandparents and used as an automotive workshopwhere the grandfather worked on cars. After thegrandfather died the workshop was divided in half, onehalf for the mechanic son and one for the sculptor son,Claudia’s father. The grandmother still lives in the higherhouse and is represented by the walking figure. Othersin the family are depicted as cars. Claudia pasó quince años viviendo en ésta casa,la cual originalmente perteneció a su abuelo quien eramecánico. Después de su muerte, el taller quedódividido en dos; una mitad para el hijo mecánico y la otramitad para el hijo escultor, el padre de Claudia. Laabuela todavía vive en la casa de arriba, representadacaminando. Los otros miembros de la familia sonrepresentados por sus automóviles.
ART WORK # 9 / OBRA # 9 “OUR MAGIC – NUESTRA MAGIA” Watercolor on paper – Acuarela sobre papel 22” x 16” – 56 cm x 41 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Claudia had a son, Darío. Mother and son love isshown here by the touch of nose and eye contact. Theelectricity and magic of mother-son love radiatesthroughout this watercolor. Claudia tiene un hijo, Darío. El amor entre madree hijo es representado por el toque de narices y laMirada profunda. La electricidad y magia de este cariñoes irradiado a través de esta acuarela.
ART WORK # 10 / OBRA # 10 “AGAINST THE FLOW, BUT SMILING! – CONTRA CORRIENTE, PERO SONRIENTE!” India Ink – Tinta china 22” x 15” – 56 cm x 38 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 The strong daily flow against the artist and son isrepresented by dense horizontal lines. Though the dailyfight for life responsibilities are carried on the shoulders,as are joy and happiness. These are the power of themotor that generates energy. La fortaleza de la inevitable contracorriente a laque la artista se enfrenta todos los días junto con su hijo,es representada por densas líneas horizontales. Noobstante, que hay que luchar con las responsabilidades ylos problemas a cuestas, tambien se van cargandomuchas alegrías, las cuales finalmente son elcombustible del motor que genera la energía.
ART WORK # 11 / OBRA # 11 “FREEDOM – LIBRE” Watercolor on paper – Acuarela sobre papel 14” x 11½” – 35.5 cm x 29 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Claudia Rendón, the artist, at age ten, with anoptimistic attitude, open arms and heart, is ready toreceive the best of life, and to let go of the past,represented by black birds. Claudia Rendón, la artista, a la edad de diezaños, tiene una actitud optimista, con corazón y brazosabiertos, para recibir lo major de la vida, liberando elpasado representado por aves negras.
ART WORK # 12 / OBRA # 12“SILKSCREENS AT SCHOOL – PANTALLAS DE SEDA, EN LA ESCUELA” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 17” x 13” – 44 cm x 33 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 In this self portrait, the artist represents the dailyadversity of school days. There is no choice, but toface them, after all. En este autorretrato, la artista representa lasadversidades con las que tropieza durante su quehaceracadémico. No quedando más remedio queconfrontarlos de frente.
ART WORK # 13 / OBRA # 13 “SELF PORTRAIT – AUTORRETRATO” India Ink – Tinta china 21” x 15” – 54 cm x 38 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 A self portrait of the artist, representing thevolcanic energy that is inside by the thick and freebrush lines. There are no eyes drawn in this picture.Internal concentration needs to be generated in order toreach a specific objective. En este autorretrato de la artista, estárepresentada la energía volcánica interior, a través delíneas gruesas y de trazo libre. La ausencia de ojos enel dibujo, significa la concentración a lo interno que seestá generando, para alcanzar determinado objetivo.
ART WORK # 14 / OBRA # 14 “DREAMS – SUEÑOS” India Ink – Tinta china 22” x 15” – 56 cm x 38 cm Kingsville, TX., 2000 The artist is attempting to take away the dirt ofthe world from Darío, a concept that is the dream of anymother. La artista trata de proteger y alejar a Darío de unmundo cruel y sucio. Éste es el sueño de cualquiermadre.
ART WORK # 15 / OBRA # 15 “MELANCHOLIA – MELANCOLÍA” India Ink – Tinta china 22 ½” x 17 ½” – 57 cm x 44.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 The weigh of melancholy, is carried in the chest,where the heart is, and where it weighs more. La carga de la melancholia, es cargada en elpecho, donde está el corazón y donde pesa más.
ART WORK # 16 / OBRA # 16 “MY GHOST – MI FANTASMA” Pastel on paper – Pastel sobre papel 12” x 9” – 30.5 cm x 23 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 The contrast of orange and yellow against theblack, makes it bright and alive. This image representsthe energy that deaths can remain alive in the memory,through good or bad actions. El contraste del anaranjado y amarillo contra elnegro, realzan y dan vida a esta imagen querepresenta la energía que puede dejar un espíritu en elrecuerdo de los vivos, gracias a sus acciones, ya seanbuenas o malas.
ART WORK # 17 / OBRA # 17 “THE GHOST OF BLANCA – EL FANTASMA DE BLANCA” Pastel on paper – Pastel sobre papel 12” x 9” – 30.5 cm x 23 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Colors are related with the death day of Mexico.The memory of a ghost from the artist’s childhoodallows purple and hot pink to come out. Con el morado y el rosa mexicano, colores queestán relacionados con el día de muertos en México,queda representada la energía que emana el recuerdodel fantasma de la infancia de la artista.
ART WORK # 18 / OBRA # 18 “DARÍO” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 18” x 13” – 46 cm x 33 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 The silkscreen on the opposite page is a portraitof Darío Rendón. The background represents thepersonality of the artist’s son. Darío is a happyMexican child with a strict demeanor that is almostsquare and aligned in Dario’s daily activities. La serigrafía de la página opuesta retrata aDarío Rendón. El diseño del fondo, representa lapersonalidad del hijo de la artista. Darío es un niñomexicano felíz , pero con un carácter rígido y extricto,todo tiene que estar perfectamente alineado yreticulado en sus acciones cotidianas.
ART WORK # 19 / OBRA # 19 “EN MI CORAZÓN – IN MY HEART” Acrylic on wood – Acrílico sobre madera 16” x 23” – 41 cm x 58 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Darío is depicted in the center of Claudia’s heart,protecting with a hand and rounding with the warmnessof home, represented by the house Aztec symbol, andtransferring the heritage of the country of birth. Darío se encuentra en medio del corazón deClaudia, quien lo protege con su mano, rodeándolo asu vez, con calor de hogar, representado por el símbolopara casa azteca, y heredándole la cultura de su paísde orígen.
ART WORK # 20 / OBRA # 20 “DARÍO” Conté pencil on paper - Lápiz conté sobre papel 22 ½” x 19” – 57 cm x 48 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Dario’s eyes reflecting brightness that gives theillusion and innocence of life. This portrait was drawnfrom the passport picture when mother and son arrivedto Kingsville, TX. La alegría de Darío es reflejada a través de lainocencia de sus ojos. El retrato se sacó de lafotografía que usó en su pasaporte cuando llegaronmadre e hijo a Kingsville, TX.
ART WORK # 21 / OBRA # 21 “LISA AND THE CHILDREN – LISA Y LOS NIÑOS” Conté pencil on paper - Lápiz conté sobre papel 19” x 25” – 48 cm x 63.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Dario’s teacher is Lisa Turcotte from theUniversity Nursery School, shown here with someclassmates enjoying the day and learning at TAMUK’sfarm. La maestra de Darío, Lisa Turcotte de laguardería de la universidad, junto con algunoscompañeritos, se encuentran disfrutando del día yaprendiendo en la granja de TAMUK.
ART WORK # 22 / OBRA # 22 “DREAM OF A BOMB – SUEÑO DE UNA BOMBA” Charcoal on paper – Carboncillo sobre papel 30” x 22” – 76 cm x 56 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Darío with a toy named Sergio, looking at all thedifficulties that are waiting outside in the real world.Darío is confident because he is standing on the solidground where fortified roots are holding all in existence. Darío junto con su muñeco Sergio, ve en elhorizonte las dificultades del mundo adulto que leaguardan. Sin embargo, sabe que cuenta con raícesfuertes que le permitirán estar en pie paraconfrontarlas.
ART WORK # 23 / OBRA # 23 “GOOD MORNING, MOM! – BUEN DÍA, MAMI!” India ink – Tinta china 56 cm x 38 cm – 22” x 15” Kingsville, TX, 2000 The simplicity and happiness of Darío whensaying good morning, is represented in this image byclean and simple plot. This is an attempt to representthe transparency of the light mood when Darío iswaking up. La sencillez y alegría con que da los buenosdías Darío, es representada en esta imagen con trazoslimpios e igualmente sencillos. Al mismo tiempo laescacés de trazos pretende dar como resultado unaimagen casi transparente, que equivaldría a la ligerezadel despertar de Darío.
ART WORK # 24 / OBRA # 24 “DARÍO-SCORPIO – DARÍO-ESCORPIÓN” India ink – Tinta china 22 ½” x 17 ½”–57 cm x 44.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Darío looks this way when on the verge of deepanger, which is kept in the heart, represented by thickblack lines for the shoulders and neck. This way theimage feels heavy and rigid. Cuando Darío se enoja, carga el peso de suamargura sobre sus hombros y lo guarda en lo másprofundo de su corazón. Esto es representado a basede líneas gruesas en los hombros y cuello, haciendosentir la imagen pesada y rígida.
ART WORK # 25 / OBRA # 25 “YOUR TRANSPARENCY – TU TRANSPARENCIA” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 10” x 8 ½” x 9 ½” – 25 cm x 21.5 cm x 24 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 When somebody is talking to Darío,transparency allows tenderness and innocence ofDario’s soul. That light and happy expression isrepresented in this ceramic. Cuando platicas con Darío, sus ojostransparentes te dejan ver la ternura de su alma. Lainocencia y alegría brotan por su mirada invadiendo latuya. Esa expresión ligera y alegre es la que serepresenta en esta cerámica.
ART WORK # 26 / OBRA # 26 “MARIO” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 25¼” x 20” – 64 cm x 51 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Mario Rendón Lozano, the artist’s father, isalways content and knows how to exist among others.The foundation of Mario’s ideas exists in wellresearched knowledge. This is represented byharmonious color in the face and a rhombus web forknowledge. Mario Rendón Lozano, el padre de la artista,siempre está conteno y sabe como llevarse bien conlos demás. Las ideas que forjan el carácter y el trabajode Mario, son fundamentadas en el estudio. Esto estárepresentado con colores armoniosos en la cara y unared de rombos representa sus conocimientos.
ART WORK # 27 / OBRA # 27 “MY TEACHER – MI MAESTRO” Lithograph – Litografía 20” x 13” – 51 cm x 33 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 Claudia remembers the artist father in the studio,always working, in deep thought and tranquility. Claudia recuerda a su padre en su estudio,siempre trabajando, profundamente concentrado ytranquilo.
ART WORK # 28 / OBRA # 28 “BLANCA” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 25½” x 20” – 65 cm x 51 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 In this silkscreen of Blanca Garduño, the artist’smother, the influence of Magritte’s surrealism isrepresented. Esta serigrafía que representa a BlancaGarduño, la madre de la artista. Esta imágen estáinfluenciada por el surrealismo de Magritte.
ART WORK # 29/ OBRA # 29 “YOUR FORTITUDE – TU FORTALEZA” Embossed metal – Metal repujado 30” x 24” – 76 cm x 61 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 This artwork represents the ideas and believesof Blanca Garduño, the artist’s mother. These ideasand beliefs are Blanca’s foundation, recognition of astrong temperament, which allows Blanca to succeed inmost difficult situations. Esta pieza representa las ideas y creencias enlas que se fundamenta Blanca Garduño, madre de laartista. Es a su vez, un reconocimiento a sutemperamento fuerte, que la ha mantenido de pie antelas adversidades que ha confrontado.
ART WORK # 30 / OBRA # 30 “ISOLDA” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 25½” x 20” – 65 cm x 51 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Isolda Rendón, the artist’s sister, always tries togive the impression of being under control. Carryingthe weight of the world under water is fragmentingIsolda’s soul. Isolda Rendón, la hermana de la artista, siempretrata de dar la impresión de que todo lo tiene bajocontrol. No importa que vaya cargando el mundo sobresus hombros, lo cual fragmenta su alma.
ART WORK # 31 / OBRA # 31 “HOMAGE TO ISOLDA – HOMENAJE A ISOLDA” Lithograph – Litografía 20” x 13” – 51 cm x 33 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 Isolda is a professional ballerina of Mexicanfolklore. When performing with passion the soul isrevealed to the public. Some dances need masks likethe one in the background. Claudia attempts to givehomage to Isolda’s work with this image. Isolda es bailarina profesional de folkloremexicano. Siempre que sale al escenario, lo haceentregándose con el alma desnuda a su público.Algunos bailables utilizan máscaras como la del fondo,en el vestuario. Claudia le hace un reconocimiento asu esperado trabajo con esta imagen dedicada a suhermana.
ART WORK # 32 / OBRA # 32 “YAMILA” Conté pencil on paper - Lápiz conté sobre papel 19” x 13 ¼” – 48 cm x 33.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Yamila Palacios Rendon, the artist’s nice at sixmonths, has a face reflecting the wonder of what’sgoing on while discovering the world. Yamila Palacios Rendón, sobrina de la artista,tiene seis meses en este dibujo. Sus ojos reflejan laadmiración al ir descubriendo las maravillas que elmundo le ofrece.
ART WORK # 33 / OBRA # 33 “YAMILA” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 25 ¼” x 20” – 64 cm x 51 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 When Yamila was one year old, laughter,happiness and talking were the menu of the day.Flowers and color in this work represent the laughs,smiles and jabber of the young child. Yamila tiene un año de edad, y los colores vivosy las flores del fondo, representan su alegría y susganas de platicar con todo el mundo durante el día.
ART WORK # 34 / OBRA # 34 “LEONOR” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 25 ¼” x 20” – 64 cm x 51 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Leonor Lozano Garcia, the artist’s grandmother,transmitted the Mexican traditions of cuisine,celebration, important days and the serenity and joyfulnature associated with life knowledge. Leonor Lozano García, la abuela de la artista, letransmitió las tradiciones mexicanas culinarias, asícomo las celebraciones y días importantes, a través desu serenidad y sus conocimientos de la vida.
ART WORK # 35 / OBRA # 35 “ONCE UPON THE TIME – ERASE UNA VEZ” Silk screen print – Serigrafía 23” x 34” – 58.5 cm x 84 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 Sometimes, the family becomes apart when themembers do not have good communication andcomprehension. This silkscreen print represents thedaily activity of the family that existed for the artist onceupon the time. La familia, en ocasiones se desintegra por faltade comunicación y comprensión entre sus miembros.Esta serigrafía representa la actividad cotidiana de lafamilia que alguna vez tuvo la artista.
ART WORK # 36 / OBRA # 36 “MONTSE” Conté pencil on paper - Lápiz conté sobre papel 15” x 10½” – 38 cm x 27 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Montserrat Suarez, Dario’s friend, is a very shygirl but will show a smile. The fine trace techniqueapplied on her hair, attempts to represent that shyness. Monserrat Suárez, amiguita de Darío, aunque estímida, esboza una sonrisa. El trazo fino de su cabello,pretende representar esa timidez.
ART WORK # 37 / OBRA # 37 “ROBERTO JUAN HERRERA JR.” Conté pencil on paper - Lápiz conté sobre papel 25” x 19” – 63.5 cm x 48 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 Roberto Juan Herrera Jr., the son of the artist’smail carrier, is proud of belonging to the United StatesNavy and wants to give back to the efforts of parents toprovide an education. Roberto Juan Herrera Jr., el hijo del cartero de laartista, se nota orgulloso de pertenecer a la Marina delos Estados Unidos de América, expresando gratitud asu madre y padre por los esfuerzos hechos para lograrsu educación.
ART WORK # 38 / OBRA # 38 “TONY & INO” Watercolor on paper - Acuarela sobre papel 20” x 22” – 51 cm x 26 cm Kingsville, TX, 1999 Ino and Tony Alvarez are good friends of theartist. Ino, in blue, gives the appearance of being ableto solve very difficult situations. Tony, in red, reflectsthe tranquility that allows balance and justice in anytaken decision. Ino y Tony Álvarez son buenas amigas de laartista. Ino, de azul, tiene una expresión que indica laseguridad que siente para resolver situaciones difíciles.Tony, de rojo, refleja la tranquilidad ecuánime que lepermite alcanzar el equilibrio para tomar decisionesjustas y equitativas.
ART WORK # 39 / OBRA # 39“WOMEN’S CENTER LOGO – LOGO PARA EL CENTRO DE MUJERES” Offset print – Impresión en Offset 17” x 11” – 43 cm x 28 cm Kingsville, TX, 2000 This logo was created for the Women’s Center ofTexas A&M University-Kingsville representing womensucceeding in the State of Texas. Este logo fue creado para el Centro de Mujeresde Texas A&M University-Kingsville. Representa a lamujer surgiendo victoriosa sobre el territorio texano.
ART WORK # 40 / OBRA # 40“THE BALANCE OF THE FAMILY – EL EQUILIBRIO DE LA FAMILIA” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ½” x 3 ¾” x 3 ¾” – 6.5 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 The family balance is delicate and difficult tomaintain. That is shown in this piece by a narrow baseand thick body in which three of the artist families arerepresented. El equilibrio de la familia además de serdelicado, es difícil de mantener. Por esa razón, estacerámica tiene una base angosta con un espesorgrueso que sostener representando las tres familiasque conforman la familia de la artista.
ART WORK # 41 / OBRA # 41 “FOR YOUR RITUALS – PARA TUS RITUALES” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 3 ½” x 2” – 9 cm x 5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 All families have a ritual that needs to be done inorder to preserve either the internal traditions or theones from the original place. This ceramic representsthe intimate place where prayers are offered as in Aztectradition. Todas las familias tienen algún ritual que cumplirpara preservar sus tradiciones del lugar de orígen, o alo interno de la propia familia. Esta cerámicarepresenta el lugar íntimo en el que se ofrece pararecibir, tal como en la tradición azteca.
ART WORK # 42 / OBRA # 42 “A LITTLE SECRET – UN SECRETITO” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ½” x 1” – 6.5 cm x 2.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 Where emotions and feelings exist, there isalways a secret. This ceramic is the perfect hiddenplace in the soul for those significant moments ofemotion, feeling and values. Con las emociones y sentimientos, siempre seguarda un pequeño secreto. Esta cerámica es el lugaren el alma donde se guardan esos significativosmomentos de emoción, sentimiento o valores.
ART WORK # 43 / OBRA # 43 “LIFE HAS UNEVEN GROUND – LA VIDA TIENE ALTIBAJOS” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ¼” x 3” – 6 cm x 7.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 In life there is always going to exist good andbad situations but life still goes on. These difficultiesare represented in this ceramic by a zigzag profile. En la vida siempre se van a encontrarsituaciones buenas y malas y sin embargo, siempresigue su continuidad. Dichas situaciones estánrepresentadas en esta cerámica por el perfilzigzagueante que tiene.
ART WORK # 44 / OBRA # 44“THE HEART’S CHALICE – EL CÁLIZ DEL CORAZÓN” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ½” x 2½”– 6.5 cm x 6.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 The heart’s content has been highly valued fromancient civilizations to the present. This valueconsiders the heart to be generator of life andemotions, feelings and values. El contenido del corazón, es altamente valoradodesde las antiguas civilizaciones, hasta la actualidad,como generador de vida y como generador deemociones, sentimientos y valores.
ART WORK # 45 / OBRA # 45 “HEAVEN’S LIGHTNING – RAYITO DE CIELO” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ½” x 2½”– 6.5 cm x 6.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 When hope is lost, there is always a heaven’slightning around that illuminates the road with renewedenergy. Cuando se pierde la esperanza, siempre seencuentra de vuelta en un rayito de cielo que iluminacon energía nueva nuestro camino.
ART WORK # 46 / OBRA # 46 “FERTILE FLOWER – FLOR FECUNDA” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 2 ½” x 3” – 6.5 cm x 7.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 There is always uncertainty when expecting thefruit of a fertile flower. The brown color in this ceramic,represents the earth, from where all the plants and lifebegan. Siempre existe la incertidumbre del fruto, cuandouna flor se encuentra fecundada. El color café de estacerámica representa a su vez, la tierra de donde todaplanta, y por lo tanto todo ser vivo, toma los elementosescenciales.
ART WORK # 47 / OBRA # 47 “ATOLITO” Raku ceramic – Cerámica de Raku 1 ¾” x 2 ¾” – 6.5 cm x 7.5 cm Kingsville, TX, 2001 A cup of white “atolito”, a typical Mexicanbeverage, is a tradition that is enjoyed by families oncold days or festivities. Grandmothers are experts inmaking this delicious beverage. La taza de atolito blanco, bebida típicamexicana, es una tradición que se disfruta en familiacuando hay días fríos o alguna celebración. Lasabuelas son expertas haciendo tan deliciosa bebida.