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The bubonic plague


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The bubonic plague: what it is, what are the causes, why it came back from the past

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The bubonic plague

  1. 1. Alessandro C. This presentation was created by a student from technical institute Class 2a Biology
  2. 2. SOURCES Wikipedia abcNEWS Madagascar WHO The Black Death BBC news VICE – Return Bioweapon Plague NAME: SITE: Biology
  3. 3. SUMMARY Bubonic plague, introduction Signs and symptoms Cause Treatment History Return Curiosity Biology
  4. 4. BUBONIC PLAGUEIntroduction
  5. 5. Bubonic Plague, IN GENERAL Bubonic plague is one of three types of bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis. Three to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu like symptoms develop. This includes fever, headaches, and vomiting. Bubonic Plague, introduction
  6. 6. COMPLICATIONS Swollen and painful lymph nodes occur in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin. Occasionally the swollen lymph nodes may break open. A bubo on the upper thigh of person infected with bubonic plague. Lymph nodes = is an oval or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach Bubonic Plague, introduction
  7. 7. CAUSED BY The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals. It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague infected animal. Bubonic Plague, introduction
  8. 8. In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node, causing it to swell. Diagnosis is by finding the bacteria in the blood, sputum, or fluid from lymph nodes. FLEA’S BITE Bubonic Plague, introduction
  9. 9. PREVENTION Prevention is through public health measures such as not handling dead animals in areas where plague is common. There aren’tVACCINES for Plague Prevention NOVACCINES, YESTREATMENT With treatment the risk of death is around 10% Bubonic Plague, introduction
  10. 10. 70 million PEOPLE Plague is believed to be the cause of the Black Death that swept through Asia, Europe, and Africa in the 14th century and killed an estimated 70 million people. FirstWorldWar SecondWorldWar Black Death 20 millions 60 millions 70 millions Bubonic Plague, introduction
  12. 12. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The best-known symptom of bubonic plague is one or more infected, enlarged, and painful lymph nodes, known as buboes. After being transmitted via the bite of an infected flea, the Y. pestis bacteria become localized in an inflamed lymph node where they begin to colonize and reproduce. Signs and Symptoms
  13. 13. Series of Illnesses Because of its bite-based mode of transmission, the bubonic plague is often the first of a progressive series of illnesses. Bubonic plague symptoms appear suddenly a few days after exposure to the bacterium Signs and Symptoms
  14. 14. SYMPTOMS Symptoms include: o Chills o General ill feeling (malaise) o High fever (39 °C; 102 °F) o Muscle cramps o Seizures o Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection (bite or scratch) o Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears o Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose. Signs and Symptoms
  15. 15. EXTREME SYMPTOMS Other symptoms include heavy breathing, continuous vomiting of blood (hematemesis), aching limbs, coughing, and extreme pain caused by the decay or decomposition of the skin while the person is still alive. Extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae (black dots scattered throughout the body), delirium, and coma. Vocabulary: Lenticulae = blacks points throughout the body Signs and Symptoms
  16. 16. CAUSEthe
  17. 17. IN PARTICULAR Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (the rat flea). The Cause
  18. 18. RARE CIRCUMSTANCES In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plague, the disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human. The Cause
  19. 19. TREATMENT
  20. 20. Treating BUBONIC PLAGUE Treatment Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. These include amino glycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicin, Tetracyclines (especially doxycycline), and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Mortality associated with treated cases of bubonic plague is about 1–15%, compared to a mortality of 40–60% in untreated cases. Descriptions: Aminoglycosides = is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis Streptomycin = is an antibiotic Gentamicin = aminoglycoside antibiotic Tetracyclines = is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections Fluoroquinolone ciprofloaxin = is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
  21. 21. Having PLAGUE People potentially infected with the plague need immediate treatment and should be given antibiotics within 24 hours of the first symptoms to prevent death. Treatment
  22. 22. Other TREATMENTS Other treatments include oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support. People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague are given prophylactic antibiotics. Using the broad-based antibiotic streptomycin has proven to be dramatically successful against the bubonic plague within 12 hours of infection. Treatment
  23. 23. HISTORY Outbreaks
  24. 24. ThirdFirst Historic summary History Plague Outbreaks Second EUROPE
  25. 25. FIRST Started in 541 a.C. and Finished in 750 a.C. The first recorded epidemic affected the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian I, who was infected but survived through extensive treatment. The pandemic resulted in the deaths of an estimated 25 million (6th century outbreak) to 50 million people (two centuries of recurrence). History
  26. 26. SECOND – the BLACK DEATH Started in 1300 a.C. and Finisched in 1440 a.C. In the Late Middle Ages (1340–1400) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit in 1347, killing a third of the human population. It is believed that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution. History
  27. 27. THIRD and… not final? The plague resurfaced for a third time in the mid-19th century. Like the two previous outbreaks, this one also originated in Eastern Asia. The initial outbreak occurred in China's Yunnan province in 1855. The disease remained localized in Southwest China for several years before spreading. History
  28. 28. MOVIE Watch a movie that sums up what we said History
  29. 29. RETURNthe
  30. 30. Introduction The Black Death caused about 50 million deaths across Africa, Asia and Europe in the 14th Century. It wiped out up to half of Europe's population. The RETURN USA PERU’ REP. DEM. CONGO MADAGASCAR
  31. 31. PLAGUE in MADACASCAR WHO and Madagascar’s Ministry of Health have completed a second investigation of the plague situation in that country.The investigation was further supported by experts from the Plague Central Laboratory at the country’s Institute Pasteur. The RETURN 11 February 2015
  32. 32. Period The outbreak, which began in September 2014 and peaked from November through to end-December, has slowed for the time being. However, the plague season on the island continues until April The RETURN
  33. 33. Plague in ANTANANARIVO Evidence that the disease has gained a foothold in slum areas of Antananarivo, the capital city, reinforces the need for heightened vigilance. On November 2014, 2 cases (1 probable, 1 confirmed) were detected there. The RETURN
  34. 34. WORLDWIDE Worldwide, the distribution of plague is geographically localized to areas where conditions of landscape and weather favour a high concentration of rodents and fleas. The RETURN
  35. 35. Other Important Cases I think that it’s very simple to talk about the countries with poverty, dramatic situations and decadence… So, we will talk about a very strange episode that happened during last summer in one of the most important countries in economic and social standing The RETURN The United States
  36. 36. Person to Person Plague has a well-documented high epidemic potential, especially in its pneumonic form, which can spread directly from one person to another via coughing. The RETURN
  37. 37. Human Cases in US There have been 15 cases in the US so far this year - compared to an average of seven, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - and the figure of four deaths is higher than in any year this century. The RETURN
  38. 38. Bacterium The bacterium responsible - Yersinia pestis - was introduced to the US by rat-infested steamships in 1900, according to Daniel Epstein of the World Health Organization (WHO). The RETURN
  39. 39. TIME AND PLACES Most cases occur in summer, when people spend more time outdoors. The areas in question are New Mexico, Arizona, California and Colorado, according to the CDC. The RETURN
  40. 40. CURIOSITY
  41. 41. Curiosity SOME FEARS The plague has been classified as a "category A bioweapon", he says. An average of seven cases of plague per year is one thing, but the risk of biological warfare, even if it's a remote one, is quite another.
  42. 42. ISIS The laptop's contents turn out to be a treasure trove of documents that provide ideological justifications for jihadi organizations - and practical training on how to carry out the Islamic State's deadly campaigns. Curiosity
  43. 43. FOUND The ISIS laptop contains a 19-page document in Arabic on how to develop biological weapons and how to weaponize the bubonic plague from infected animals. Curiosity
  44. 44. The document says… “The advantage of biological weapons is that they do not cost a lot of money, while the human casualties can be huge.” Curiosity
  45. 45. TEST the DISEASE The document includes instructions for how to test the weaponized disease safely, before it is used in a terrorist attack. “When the microbe is injected in small mice, the symptoms of the disease should start to appear within 24 hours,” Curiosity
  46. 46. SUMMARY Actually we haven’t news. We don’t know if Isis has discovered something more, if they can make this weapon or if they will use it. The only certainty that we have, is that the plague isn’t a dead disease Curiosity
  47. 47. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION School year 2015/2016