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Normandy Landings (D-Day)


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Normandy Landings (D-Day)

  1. 1. NormandyLandings Clarissa Nitihardjo IB History HL 002171-012 Bandung International School
  2. 2. PREPARATION FOR D-DAY• Grand Alliance (Britain & America) started to prepare since 1942• Allies chose June 1944 and beaches of Normandy• Germans thought Allies would choose Calais and Boulogne• General D. Eisenhower was in charge – Supreme Commander over all Allied soldiers – Because majority of equipment and forces would come from USA
  3. 3. PREPARATION FOR D-DAY• Equipments – 2 ―Mulberry‖ harbors – ―Gooseberry‖ shelter piers – Waterproof tanks and lorries – Specially design tanks for beaches – 7000 SHIPS! • 4000 would land soldiers and their weapons • 3000 bombard from sea or carry supplies • > ¾ were British
  4. 4. PREPARATION FOR D-DAY• Men had to be specially trained – On English south coast  cleared from inhabitants – Could not be hidden from Germans • However Germans still didn’t know where the landings would take place • Decoy from Allies  Calais was regularly bombed
  5. 5. D-DAY• OPERATION OVERLOAD – Weeks before: Allies bombed bridges, roads and railways  German difficult to reinforce• Beginning of June 1944 everything was ready – Eisenhower: 6 June • Troops were already on landing craft • They could suffer from seasickness – Germans: impossible due to heavy seas
  6. 6. D-DAY• Airborne troops were dropped in advance to seize bridges and protect landing• Warships bombarded coastline• 6:30 a.m. the landings began• Five beaches – Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, Sword – Four landings went well – Omaha: against top division of German army – Omaha: 3000 American casualties in first few hours
  7. 7. D-DAY• Germans could not prevent the landings – Caught off guard – Allied command of the air• Source B As the landing craft reached the beach they faced heavy shelling, machine gun and rifle fire. It came from the cliffs above the beach. Men were hit as they came down the ramps of the landing craft and as they struggled through the defenses towards the land. Many others were killed by mines. –US Army report on Omaha landings
  8. 8. Newspaper headlines for D-Day, 6 June
  9. 9. Timeline6 June - End of the day, Allies captured 10km of beach. - Mulberry harbors and Gooseberry piers were brought across the Channel27 June - Cherbourg was captured  became Allies’ port. - First three months after D-Day: Allies landed 4million tons of supplies and nearly 0.5million vehicles8 July - Captured Caen15 Aug -Second invasion in the south of France - Less than 1 month, joined up the armies in the north25 Aug - Paris was entered3 Sep - Brussels was liberated
  10. 10. Why was D-Day a success? ALLIED STREGHTS GERMAN WEAKNESSES• Thorough preparations (since 1942) • Lost control of air space over Normandy• Leadership of Eisenhower  • Weak on the four beachesAllied armies = ―team‖• Location of landing was kept a secret• Controlled the air and sea • Slow on sending reinforcement to Normandy area•Used air force to bomb • Hitler was still convinced it wascommunications and slow down decoy and the real landing would beGerman reinforcement near Calais• Took lessons from Dieppe—no attackon defended ports
  11. 11. European War Ends
  12. 12. ARNHEM OPERATION (SEPT 1944)• Montgomery: opportunity to quicken the advance• Aim: parachute troops behind the Germans in west Holland and outflank German Siegfried defenses• 17-18 Sept at Eindhoven, Nijmegen and Arnhem• Ground advance linked up with Americans at Eindhoven and Nijmegen – Weeks of fighting: withdrew with loss of half their troops• Slow advance towards Rhine continued – Nov: Metz, Strasbourg, Belfort were in Allied hands
  13. 13. BATTLE OF THE BULGE (DEC 1944)• Hitler’s last gamble to win – Extended the age limit to 16-50  1 million extra troops – Concentrated his limited resources on one last offensive• Aim: break through to Antwerp, separate Allies and force them to agree to peace• 16 Dec: 30 Divisions attacked Americans – Americans were driven back 40 miles
  14. 14. BATTLE OF THE BULGE (DEC 1944)• German success was due to – Surprise—Americans did not expect an attack – December mists: American planes failed to detect German• German couldn’t breakthrough to Antwerp – Americans held on the vital road at Bastogne – Powerful forces attacked the bulge created by German
  15. 15. BATTLE OF THE BULGE (DEC 1944)• Results – Delayed the Allied advance to Berlin – Hitler used up his last reserves of resources – Russian troops would reach Berlin first
  16. 16. CROSSING THE RHINE• General Patton (America) – forced a crossing near Mainz on 22 March• General B. Montgomery (Britain) – near Wessel 23 March• German – disintegrate
  17. 17. RUSSIAN FRONT• Germans had retreated since Stalingrad in January 1943• End 1944: Russians cleared Germans out – Liberated Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia
  18. 18. Timeline25 April Russian forces finally encircled Berlin Eisenhower halted30 April Hitler shot himself in his underground headquarters in Berlin2 May Berlin fully in the hands of the Red Army5 May German forces in the West surrendered
  19. 19. REASONS FOR GERMAN DEFEAT• STRENGTH OF THE GRAND ALLIANCE – Britain: base for the invasion of France and bombing of Germany – USSR: vast reserves of manpower – USA: wealth, resources, forces• HITLER’S MISTAKES – Failure at Dunkirk and Battle of Britain – Fateful decision to attack Russia – Slow reinforcements to Normandy
  20. 20. REASONS FOR GERMAN DEFEAT• SURVIVAL OF BRITAIN 1940-1 – Due to Churchill’s leadership• FAILURE OF OPERATION BARBAROSSA – Germany had to fight a war on two fronts – Defeat at Stalingrad• ALLIED AIRPOWER – Total air control in Normandy  full advantage• D-DAY LANDINGS – Diverted German forces from Eastern Front
  21. 21. THANK YOU 