• Body language is a product of both genetic and environmental influences.• More refined Gestures are learned or modified through learning usually by unconscious observation of the environment.
• Body language refers to any kind of bodily movement or postures, including facial expressions, which transmit a message to the observer.• Every part of the human body, either in motion or stillness conveys a meaning which depends upon the physical, social and cultural context of the action.
• Body language is a term for communication Studies show that,• Communication through BL------55%• Communication through Tone----38%• Communication through Words---7%
• Body language is the meaning behind the unspoken words.• Body language is the communication of personal feelings,emotions,attitudes,thoughts through BL movement either consciously or unconsciously-voluntarily or unvolunarily.• Bl forms the part of the category of PARALANGUAGE which describe all forms of human communication that are not verbal language.• BL contrdicts the spoken word,because the body is more articulated than words in communicating emotion.• The tricky thing about body language is that we are often unaware of how we are reachig toit.
Refers to the Movements,Gestures and poses intentionally made by a person.
INVOLUNTARY B’LANGUAGERefers the movements made by a person which often takes the form of facial expression.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONSFacial Expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. EX:Smile,Frown.The expressions for happiness,sadness,anger and fear are similar throughout the world.
GESTURESDeliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. EX:waving,pointing,using fingers to indicate numbers.Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
PARALINGUISTIC• This refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. EX: tone of voice,loudness,inflection,pitch. consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence.Hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
• The state of being near in space or time.• People often refer to their need for “personal space” which is also an important type of non verbal type of communication. EX:social norms,situational factors,personality characteristics and level of familiarity.
• When people encounter people or things that they like,the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate.• Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions,including hostility,interest,attractionEX:looking,staring and blinking
Communication through touch is another important nonverbal behaviour.
APPEARANCE• Our choices of colouring,clothing,hairstyles and other factors affecting appearances are also considered a means of no verbal communication. EX:interpretations
EYE CONTACT• Eye contact is an important aspect of social interaction, and it is something that many shy and socially anxious people have difficulty with.• Often people with social anxiety describe looking at someone in the eyes as anxiety- provoking and uncomfortable.
REASONS TO STUDY BODY LANGUAGE• Body language increases your attractiveness.• Body language reveals your emotions• Body language reduces confusing words,messages.• Body language improves your communication skills.• Body language gives you better first impression.
IMPROVING YOUR B’LANGUAGE• Keep your arms and legs open• Develop eye contact,but don’t stare• Relax your shoulders• Nod when they are talking• Sit up straight• Lean but not too much• Smile and laugh• Keep your head up• Use your hands confidently• Keep a positive attitude
• There are six types of body language one has to be aware of Eye contact Facial expression Head movements Gestures and body movements Postures and stances Proximity and social distance Hand shake
• If u make too much eye contact or if you stare too hard at other people, they will feel uncomfortable.• Staring too directly at another person can be intimidating.• You need to learn a good balance between making eye contact and looking away.• Some people feel very uncomfortable looking directly into another person’s eyes.• Glance away from the other person for very brief seconds at a time,but always bring your attention back to your converation partner’s face.• It is also important to know that most people don’t want to be stared at intensly during a conversation.
INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EYE CONTACT• While you are speaking to another person,keep listening to what the other person is saying,and show your interest in them by looking at their face the majority of time.• Don’t keep glancing around the room too much,or look at other people too often,keep looking at the person you are with.• If you look around too much means you are bored with them and can’t wait to get away.
• Smile more often,and keep nodding at the other.• Let your facial muscles be relaxed so that you are not smiling nervously.• Let your facial expression change as the conversation changes.• Look at what you find genuinely interesting about the other person and their opinions.• Making good eye contact while you are making conversation is a very important way you can show other people that you value them and enjoy their company.
EYES ARE SO TRANSPARANT THAT THROUGH THEM ONE SEES THE SOUL
USE OF EYE CONTACT• The different purposes of eye contact are 1.Showing attention. 2.Showing interest. 3.Inviting interaction. 4.Providing feedback.5.Revealing attitudes.
FACIAL EXPRESSION1.Expression implies a revelation about the characteristics of a person a message about something internal to the expresser.2.In the context of the face and nonverbal communication,expression usually implies a change of a vision pattern over time.So too the face can express relatively static characteristics.3.The concept of facial expressions,thus,include:
• A characteristic of a person that is represented,i.e the signified;• A visual configuration that represents this characteristics,i.e the signifier;• The physical basis of this appearance,or sign vehicle eg:the skin,muscle movements,fat,wrinkles,etc• Typically,some person or other perceiver that perceives and interprets the signs.
• Facial expression of emotion is similar among human beings regardless of age,culture,religion or region.• Facial expression is universal.• Smile is the essential ingredient of a facial expression.Smile sends positive message,smile adds wamth and aura of confidence.• Others will be more receptive if you remember to smile.
USES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION• Facial expression can be used to express the following emotions and feelings.1.Showing happiness2.Sadness3.Displeasure4.Anger5.Fear6.Interest/disinterest
HEAD MOVEMENTS• The position of your head speaks to people.When you find two people talking,you find besides the mouths and faces,the heads talking.• Head movements are significant not only in talking but also in listening.• If the head movements are not used carefully and appropriately,it can adversely affect the relationship.
USE OF HEAD MOVEMENTS• Head movements are used for variety of purposes.1.Indicating attitude2.Replacing speech3.Supporting what is said4.Contradicting what is said5.Indicating the direction I which one has to travel
6.Expressing doubt7.Expressing reluctance8.Recognizing someone9.Expressing arrogance10.Expressing feeling of superiority11.Expressing easy going and casual approach.
• Male and female use head movements differently• Male nod their head more than women• Women lower their head more than men signailing a submissive gesture• Men tilt their heads forward in a greeting more than women.
• Head up position:indicates positive or neutral attitudes about what he/she is hearing,ocassionally nodding• Tilted position:indicates that the person hearing has developed interest in what the speaker says• Head down position:indicates negative or judgemental attitude about what she/he is hearing
GESTURES AND BODY MOVEMENTS• Gestures communicate as effectively as words-may be even more effectively.• We use gestures every day,almost instinctively.• But no two people will use similar gestures.• This is simply because gestures are spontaneous.
• To be absolutely safe and sure in the world of gestures,the best piece of advice is to “ask” and be “aware”.• Body language is extremely important,particularly in non-literature or semi-literature societies in which commitment is made through ritual gestures,formal spoken words and symbolic objects.• Gestures mean making expressive movements with hands and arms.• Real mastery over body language can be developed only when we learn to use gestures appropriately.
USE OF GESTURES• Gestures can be used to express the following feelings such as1.Openesses2.Defensiveness3.Readiness4.Reassurance5.Frustration6.Confidence
GESTURES HAVING UNIVERSAL MEANING• Clapping as a sign of approval• Raising ones hand to gain attention• Shaking the fists to show anger• Yawning out of boredom• Patting o the back to encourage• Rubbing the stomach indicating hunger• Rubbing the palms together in anticipation
GESTURES AND PERSONALITY• Gestures can help us make an assessment about the kind of personality an individual has.• Authoritarian personalities tend to use less bodily movement than democratic type personalities.
POSTURE AND STANCE• Posture refers to a position or way in which a person stands,walks etc• Stance refers to the manner in which a person stands,walks etc
3.Lying down sleep,relax,comfort,complete streach,4.Arm,Elbow nudge,smake,dodge,straddle,tapping,5.Hand and fingers: thumb,index,middle,ring,baby or pinky.2500 years old Aristophanes wrote a play named “THE CLOUDS” which is first played in 423 BC.Romans called this as “DIGITUS IMPUDICUS”
• Thumbs up and down: success and defeat.• Dog call: curl index back.(philipines)• Clenched fist: interpreted as a sign of aggression or anger.• Finger snap: two meanings,offensive,rying to remember what is forgotten.• Ok: forming a circle with the thumb and index finger,other pointing upward.EUROPE: its zeroBRAZIL,GERMANY AND CERTAIN MEDITERIANS IT MEANS VOLGUR************.
• The ‘V’ sign: victory in AmericaInsult in GREAT BRITAN,AUSTRALIA,IRELAND,NEW ZEALAND. THE CORNA: index and the pink finger pointed up with the two middle fingers and thumb curled under---satanic connotation----symbolic orns of devils. THE I LOVE U SIGN: thumb,index and pink finger out.ITALY this is a curse.
• We like to keep our distance from others and there are specific social rules about how close we can go to others in particular situations.• This social distance is also known as BODY SPACE and COMFORT ZONE and the use of this space is called proxemics.
• Regulating the distance between us and other people provides us with several benefits,includingSAFETY: when people are distant,they can’t surprise attack us.COMMUNICATION: when people are closer it is easier to communicate with them.AFFECTION:when they are closer still,we can be intimate.THREAT:the reverse can be used-you may deliberately threaten a person by invading their body space.
• INTIMATE ZONE: This is the zone in which people are actually touching or able to touch each other. The distance is (0.5m) approximately one and half feet.Ex: Romance of all kinds happen in this space. Entering the intimate zone of somebody else can be very threatening.
• PERSONAL ZONE: This is the zone where people are able to shake hands or at arm’s length from each other. The distance is(1-2m) approximately one and half to four feet.EX: The conversation gets more direct and this is a good distance for two people who are talking in earnest about something.
• SOCIAL ZONE:This is the zone where people are at a audible distance.The distance is(2-3m) approximately four to ten feet.This is the zone used in every day’s business activities.EX:feeling a connection with other people.When they are closer,then we can talk with them without having to shout,but still keep them at a safe distance.
• PUBLIC ZONE:This is the zone where people are at a seeable distance.The distance is (3m) approximately over ten feet.• The public zone is generally over 12 feet.• People will try to keep at least 12 feet between other people who are walking in front.
UNIVERSAL TRUTHS• People behave differently while lying down than when standing up.• People lying down tend to remember more than when standing up.• People lying down are more imaginative than when standing up.• People standing make faster decision than in sitting or lying position.• If your body language dosen’t match your words you are wasting your time.• You may not be aware of what you are saying with your body, but others will get the message.
HAND SHAKE 1.Many societies in the modern times are ‘touch-starved’. It is socially unacceptable to touch.There is an unwritten rule that says,“the less you know someone, the further away u must be.”2.Touch deprivation is in itself harmful. It leads to sleeplessness, violance, depression, sexual aberration, crimes and so on……
• Touch is much more than a physical interaction. It has to do with the acknowledgement of our shared humanness. It is intense wish for contact and communion that is present in each of us.• Handshake has an immediate effect on the outcome of an encounter with other person. Pay attention to where your hands are. Never keep your hands in the pockets.• Having your hands anywhere above the neck is considered unprofessional.
16 DIFFERENT BODY LANGUAGE• Aggressive BL: which shows that the person can be a physical danger to any one if disturbed.