Ethnograph 11 Jul07


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  • Researcher frequently collect qualitative data by the following ways
  • Ethnograph 11 Jul07

    1. 1. Qualitative research data collection <ul><li>Data collection of qualitative research : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio/Video recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal notes, memos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaries </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Qualitative research data analysis <ul><li>Stages of data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping into clusters, groups, patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making speculative inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking negative cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory generation </li></ul></ul>Where Ethnograph V5.0 can help
    3. 3. Examples of a interview report with handwritten codes <ul><li>There are a lot of remarks/code made by researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the data (interviews) maybe in hundreds, difficult for researchers to analyze if not organized systematically (e.g. a trend is echoed by many subjects) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction of a computer based research tool
    5. 5. What is Ethnograph v5.0 ? <ul><li>A kind of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software </li></ul><ul><li>helps researcher to compile, organize and manipulate data </li></ul><ul><li>facilitates researcher analytic process </li></ul>
    6. 6. Several steps for Data Entry <ul><li>Step 1 Creating projects </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 Entering Qualitative Data (manually) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 Importing Qualitative Data (from outside sources) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 Coding the data </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5 Edit the code definition and code family tree </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6 Applying the code for other data files </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1. Creating projects <ul><li>Project : is a list of data files that you want to treat as a group </li></ul><ul><li>Child project : is entirely option; </li></ul>To create a project (1 min)
    8. 8. 2. Entering qualitative data (e.g. interviews) <ul><li>the text editor allows researcher to type in text manually. </li></ul><ul><li>It also automatically imports, numbers and adds the data file to the project. </li></ul>To create a data file using the Ethnograph Editor (1 min 30 sec)
    9. 9. 3. Entering qualitative data (cont’d) <ul><li>To create a data file using the Word Processor (e.g. MS-word) (2 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>another method is to import from frequently used sources, e.g. ms-word files the software can re-format it to suit Ethnograph’s use </li></ul>
    10. 10. 4. Two ways of Coding/Classifying Quick codes and Code Sets <ul><li>To Enter the Code words using code sets & quick codes (2 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>researcher make subjective judgment of coding keyword for future analysis – input from researcher at early stage </li></ul>
    11. 11. 5. Editing code book definition and family tree <ul><li>researcher can define the code words and view the entire relationship of the code book family tree (establishing relationship) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing the Code book & creating a code family tree (1 min) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 6. Applying the coding for other data files <ul><li>Two ways to enter codes : use either Master List or Family Tree to Enter Codes (3 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher can use both master list or family tree to enter codes for parts of interview clippings </li></ul>
    13. 13. Data Analysis <ul><li>Steps 7 to 12 are for data analysis </li></ul>
    14. 14. 7. Conducting a single code and multiple code searches <ul><li>Researcher can use one single/multiple code/key word/filters to search for data files containing the segment/paragraphs where the code words appear, this is helpful when there are large amount of qualitative data </li></ul>How to start a single and multiple searches with “Search” (1min 30 sec)
    15. 15. Searching for single code
    16. 16. Searching for multiple codes <ul><li>This multiple code search is to search for code words that are overlapping each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Important sometimes for researcher to do a Boolean “AND” search on two code words </li></ul>
    17. 17. Conducting a single code and multiple code searches (cont’d) <ul><li>Results generated : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract of the content of segment where the code word appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of segments where the code word appears and display on screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which data file does the code word belong to (e.g. interview with Group1, pointed out by subject, e.g. a female student studying Geology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the code word has been marked previously for future reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also indicates the line of code words on the data files and whether there are nested segments </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. 8. Creating memos <ul><ul><li>To record their thoughts into the data file (2 mins) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Researcher can input memo when he came across ideas associated with the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Memo could be attached to segment </li></ul><ul><li>attached to file </li></ul><ul><li>attached to a search output </li></ul>
    19. 20. 9. Creating Search Filters - Face Sheets <ul><li>Create a Face Template, enter variables </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Face Sheet values for different groups of subject </li></ul><ul><li>Face Sheet is about an entire data file (e.g. background of a group of students) </li></ul>How to create Face Sheet template ( 1 min )
    20. 21. Entering face sheet values for different groups Group 1 belongs to public school and had not changed subject major Group 2 belongs to private school students and had changed subject major 2 times
    21. 22. 10. Using Face Sheets as Search Filters <ul><li>Enter Face Sheet conditions, e.g. from Public school, has not changed subject major </li></ul><ul><li>Enter code words, e.g. DARWIN </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnograph will search all files to yield result </li></ul>How to use Face Sheet as Search Filters (1 min)
    22. 23. 11. Creating search filters - Identifier Sheets <ul><li>How to create Identifier Sheet Template (1 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Identifier Sheet Template, enter variables </li></ul><ul><li>Enter values for different individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Id sheet is a set of information about particular sections or subjects within a file </li></ul>
    23. 24. Entering identifier sheet values for different subjects Group 1 M2 subject whose parents income is $10,000 per month and the education level is not high Group2 M1 subject whose parents income is $67,000 per month and the education level is not high
    24. 25. 12. Using Id Sheets as Search Filters <ul><li>How to Use Identifier Sheets as Search Filters </li></ul><ul><li>(1 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Id Sheet conditions, e.g. parents’ income (between $35,000 and $999999 and level of education = “college” as the parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Enter search code words, e.g. DARWIN </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnograph will search all files to yield result </li></ul>
    25. 26. Results generated <ul><li>Results generated similar to those searched by single keyword </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the search filter/criteria of the researcher and the match with the interview subject, there may be results </li></ul><ul><li>Or they may be no match </li></ul>
    26. 27. Comments about Ethnograph <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive and easy to learn within relatively short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Generates results from large set of data files in a short period time </li></ul><ul><li>some steps/format need to be followed, yet this is common for all other QDA tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>could not help researchers to think/analyze </li></ul><ul><li>still rely on human intelligence to generate the search queries/hypotheses/theory </li></ul>
    27. 28. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen. L., Manion. L., Morrison. K. Research Methods in Education. (2006) 5 th ed. London. RoutledgeFalmer </li></ul>