Segregation vs. IntegrationClaire Eubanks and Patrick Truesdell
Thesis:The period from Jim Crow through the Civil RightsMovement saw great social upheaval in America. Thecenturies-oppressed blacks, in a new state of mindbrought about by the Second World War, would finallydemand that the manacles of segregation and the chainsof discrimination be cast off and replaced by the spirit ofbrotherhood. This challenge to the white pillars ofsociety would not go without opposition, especially fromthe racist South. Thus, the stage was set for conflictbetween those clinging to a by-gone way of life andthose demonstrating for freedom and equality.
The Beginnings of Segregation Conflict 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson -Established “separate but equal” – Races can be segregated as long as the facilities and services provided are equal 1909 – W.E.B. Du Bois co-founds NAACP -Argues for complete equality of the races 1914 – Woodrow Wilson orders the re-segregation of federal workplaces after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities 1916 – 1940 – The Great Migration of Blacks from the South to the North
Howard University and the NAACP Challenge Segregation Early 1930s – Howard University faculty begins effective legal challenges to segregation, partly because they were refused positions at White universities. Charles Hamilton Houston – head of Howard Law School and one of the most important civil rights attorneys in American history 1934 - Charles Houston leaves the Howard University School of Law to head the Legal Defense Committee of the NAACP in NYC Recruits Thurgood Marshall as part of the interracial staff 1936 (August) – Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin
NAACP Legal Strategy 1938 – Thurgood Marshall becomes leader of NAACP legal committee The legal strategy developed by the NAACP in the 1930s was to get the Supreme Court to make a series of judgments in favor of racial integration. These precedents would be used to strengthen their case against segregation in schools: 1938 Missouri ex. rel. Gaines v. Canada 1948 Sipuel v. Oklahoma State Regents 1950 McLaurin v. Oklahoma 1950 Sweatt v. Painter
Segregation and Integration in the ’40s. 1939 (Easter Sunday) – Marian Anderson sings on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial after being denied permission to sing for an integrated audience in Constitution Hall 1941 (June) – A March on Washington threatened by A. Philip Randolph pressures FDR into issuing the Fair Employment Practices Commission to end discrimination of Blacks in defense industries 1946 (June 3) - In Morgan v. Virginia, the Supreme Court invalidates provisions of the Virginia Code which require segregation where applied to interstate bus transport. 1947 – Jackie Robinson becomes part of the Brooklyn Dodgers, integrating Major League baseball 1948 (July 28) - Harry S. Truman orders the end of segregation in the military.
Sparks in the 50’s 1954 (May 17) – Brown v. Board of Education overturns Plessy v. Ferguson in the Supreme Court, ending the “separate but equal” doctrine 1955 (August) – Fourteen year-old Emmett Till is brutally beaten and murdered for whistling at a white woman in Money, Mississippi. The media attention largely sparks the Civil Rights Movement. 1955-1956 - Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to make room for a white passenger. She was arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. When word reached the black community, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was organized and lasted 381 days.
White Opposition to Integration 1954 (July 11) White Citizens’ Council (WCC), an American white supremacist organization, was formed. By 1955, there was over 60,000 members. 1956 (February – March) – The Southern Manifesto, a document written in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places, was signed by 99 politicians. During the 50’s, members of individual KKK groups began to bomb houses of civil rights activists. There were so many bombings in Birmingham, Alabama, that it earned the name “Bombingham.”
MLK, Protests, and Civil Rights Acts 1957 (January 10) - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an African-American civil rights organization, is formed when MLK invites 60 some black ministers to a conference. 1957 (September 9) – The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is enacted. Primarily a voting rights bill, it was the first civil rights legislation by Congress since Reconstruction. 1960 – The Greensboro sit-ins, a series of nonviolent protests, led to the Woolworth’s department store chain to reverse its policy of racial segregation. 1960 (May) – The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a law that penalized anyone who obstructed anyone’s attempts at voting or registering to vote.
Integration and Segregation in the 60’s 1961 (May 4) – The first group of Freedom Riders, organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), leave Washington D.C. intending to integrate interstate buses. 1963 (January 18) – Incoming Alabama governor George Wallace calls for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in his inaugural address. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Outlawed segregation and unfair voter application requirements; supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson 1967 (June 13) – Thurgood Marshall becomes first Black Supreme Court Justice Fair Housing Act of 1968 - prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental of housing based on of race, color, nationality, religion, sex, and disability.