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  1. 1. Globalization: transportation Audrey Lim (3) Janine Khoo (16) Elinor Lim (20) Grace Lim (21)
  2. 2. Transport The movement of people/goods from one place to another using vehicles. definition <ul><li>Land - e.g.. Trains, cars, bicycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Water - e.g.. Ships, ferries, canoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Air – e.g.. Spacecraft, aeroplanes, helicopters. </li></ul>Types/Modes <ul><li>Physical barriers and distances have been conquered. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility has increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the most remote and inaccessible parts of the world are linked by air routes and sea routes with the more accessible parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>practically every part of the world can be reached. </li></ul>benefits
  3. 3. Developments in transport Technological advancement. The use of science and technology to improve the current way of doing things. Due to <ul><li>In the past – by foot or by riding on animals ( horses, donkeys.) </li></ul><ul><li>4000 BCE – vehicles drawn by animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of the wheel, the steam engine and the internal combustion engine led to – development of trains, cars and other vehicles. </li></ul>Land <ul><li>In the past – log rafts, wooden canoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Later on – sailing boats powered by wind. </li></ul><ul><li>After that – ships powered by steam engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Today – ships that run on diesel. </li></ul>Maritime <ul><li>In the past – hot-air balloons, airships, hang-gliders. (relied on wind to move, hence no way to control movement) </li></ul><ul><li>Later on – aeroplane. </li></ul><ul><li>Today – jet aircrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport hubs – countries/cities with a variety of well-connected transport networks or systems. </li></ul>air
  4. 4. Land <ul><li>In the past – by foot or by riding on animals ( horses, donkeys.) </li></ul><ul><li>4000 BCE – vehicles drawn by animals. </li></ul><ul><li>In less developed countries – manually-powered vehicles such as trishaws and bicycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional roads are mainly muddy tracks or country dirt roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam engine - led to the invention of steam locomotives/trains, giving rise to the development of rail transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal was once used to produce steam but has been replaced by diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Railcars, trams, cable cars, trains, MRT </li></ul><ul><li>Internal combustion engine – led to the invention of automobiles ( cars, buses, lorries) giving rise to the development of speedy road transport. </li></ul><ul><li>The car is the most common form of transport today. </li></ul><ul><li>Roads in rich nations are hard surfaced, metalled roads, highways, freeways & expressways. Tunnels roads, bridges & viaducts (roads across valleys) are common too. </li></ul>traditional Rail transport (modern) Road transport (modern) <ul><li>The rail transport systems are efficient and speedy means of transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Take more direct routes & avoid mountains although tunnels through mountains do occur sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>Used to transport bulky goods & people </li></ul><ul><li>Road transport is the most flexible as roads link even the smallest towns. (roads are easier and cheaper to build than railways) </li></ul>benefits benefits
  5. 5. Maritime <ul><li>Takes place – oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and canals. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past – rafts, boats and sailing ships were used. These depended on the wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam engines – steamships were developed doing away with the reliance on wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances – development of ocean liners, container vessels, oil tankers and submarines across oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>In poorer countries manually-powered rowing boats are still used. </li></ul><ul><li>Across shallow seas & channels, ferries & hydrofoils are used to shuttle people. </li></ul><ul><li>Gondolas are used to shuttle people living in houses along the canals in Venice, Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>River boats are treated as floating markets along canals in Bangkok, Thailand. </li></ul>Traditional Modern
  6. 6. Air <ul><li>Traditionally – hot air balloons, air ships and gliders that depend on wind were used. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of the engine-powered plane (1903) gave rise to jet planes, helicopters, supersonic aircrafts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocket or space-craft slowly came into being </li></ul><ul><li>Jet transport is speedy and the most efficient for transporting perishable goods like meat, flowers and high-value vegetables. </li></ul>Traditional Modern
  7. 7. <ul><li>Invention of steam engine led to the invention of steam locomotives or trains, leading to the development of rail transport </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of the internal combustion engine led to the invention of automobiles leading to the development of speedy road transport </li></ul><ul><li>Jumbo jets, supersonic aircrafts, intelligent airports & plotting of air routes -> made air travel speedy, safe & efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Supertankers, container vessels, ocean liners, upgrading of harbours & shipping facilities -> made water transport efficient </li></ul>Ways in which technological advancements affect developments in transport
  8. 8. <ul><li>better vehicles faster and increased carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered physical barriers such as mountains and oceans e.g., bridges & causeways, railway lines, highways, tunnels constructed across mountains and underwater (Hong Kong & Kowloon, English Channel between France & England) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, single-lane, unpaved roads give way to hard surface metalled roads, multi-lane expressways e.g. North-South Highway in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Made possible accessibility to even the most remote place. Roads built to form networks to reach places. </li></ul><ul><li>Shrunk space or reduced distance between 2 places (absolute distance) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the time taken to travel between 2 places (relative distance) </li></ul>developments in transport
  9. 9. Shrinking world The world seems to have become a smaller place as it is now faster and easier to communicate with each other and travel between places. In a shrinking world, businesses can be carried out across countries with greater ease. This has helped to develop a culture of entrepreneurship. People take risks and initiative to develop new businesses. Information, ideas, culture and values can also spread from one place to another easily. Shrinking world entrepreneurship globalisation
  10. 10. Singapore : transport hub <ul><li>Singapore has a strategic position at the crossroads of international air and sea trading centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists stop over for a short holiday before proceeding to neighboring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Business travellers stop over for meetings and conventions as facilities are readily available. </li></ul><ul><li>Planes stop at Singapore to refuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Ships call at Singapore for trade, maintenance and refueling. </li></ul><ul><li>- Singapore is the world’s largest trans-shipment hub/collecting or distributing center. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport hub Availability of dense and efficient land transport networks, an efficient and well-connected airport and an efficient seaport. <ul><li>MRT(mass rapid transport linking the main residential areas and business centres </li></ul><ul><li>LRT(light rail transit) serving several housing estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular bus and taxi services </li></ul><ul><li>Bus terminals are usually within walking distance of MRT stations to facilitate switching from one mode of transport to another by commuters. </li></ul>Land transport
  12. 12. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport hub <ul><li>Singapore has four terminals at Changi Airport </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is connected to more than 170 cities worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain her reputation as an efficient airport and her status as an aviation hub, her facilities have been consistently upgraded and added. </li></ul>Air transport
  13. 13. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport hub <ul><li>Since Singapore lies within the World’s sea trading routes, the port of Singapore enjoys excellent connectivity and is accessible to and from all parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is connected to more than 600 ports worldwide and commercially associated with over 200 shipping lines. </li></ul><ul><li>PSA corporation (Port of Singapore corporation) operates Singapore’s container terminals and is reputed for maintaining a safe port and performing highly efficient port and container services. </li></ul><ul><li>She is an international cargo hub as well as a regional cruise hub for Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore cruise center handles leisure cruises from Singapore to other countries like Malaysia and Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain her status as a maritime center and her reputation for efficiency in maritime services, port facilities have been constantly upgraded and added. </li></ul>Maritime Transport
  14. 14. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport and communications hub Availability of dense and efficient communications networks <ul><li>Singapore has internet connectivity to over 20 countries like United States, Japan, India and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Many households and schools have access to broadband and and wireless internet facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore has great international telecommunications connectivity to over 100 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>-people in these countries can keep in touch instantaneously through the telephone or cell phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore also has an extensive network of submarine cable systems and has direct high-capacity submarine cable connectivity with China and India. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain her reputation as a country with extensive internet connectivity, information security is provided by the infocomm development authority of Singapore. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport and communications hub Presence of a reliable and stable government <ul><li>Political stability is an attraction to foreign direct investments </li></ul><ul><li>The business friendly climate with transparent laws, protection of business and intellectual property and relatively low corporate corporate taxation is an advantage to foreign investors </li></ul><ul><li>The government is supportive of high-quality infra-structure such as dense and efficient networks of transport, power and water supply, efficient airport and efficient seaport. </li></ul><ul><li>About 6000 multinational companies have located their presence here. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factors contributing to Singapore’s Development as a transport and communications hub Availability of skilled workforce <ul><li>A generation of technologically savvy workers has been nurtured by the government through public and private training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Locals are exposed to internet access, versatile and ready to adopt new technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability and versatility are an advantage in transport and communications which have constant changes and new technological developments. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of locals speak English which is the main language used in business transactions throughout the world. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thank You!