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African Literature

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African Literature

  1. 1. • African literature consists of a body of work in different languages and various genres, ranging from oral literature to literature written in colonial languages (French, Portuguese, and English).
  2. 2. HISTORY • The first African literature is circa 2300- 2100, when ancient Egyptians begin using burial texts to accompany their dead. These include the first written accounts of creation - the Memphite Declaration of Deities. Not only that, but 'papyrus', from which we originate our word for paper, was invented by the Egyptians, and writing flourished. In contrast, Sub-Saharan Africa feature a vibrant and varied oral culture.
  3. 3. • They provide useful knowledge, historical knowledge, ethical wisdom, and creative motivation in a direct fashion. Oral culture takes many forms: proverbs and riddles, epic narratives, oration and personal testimony, praise poetry and songs, chants and rituals, stories, legends and folk tales. This is present in the many proverbs told in Things Fall Apart, and the rich cultural emphasis of that book also is typically African.
  4. 4. PERIOD OF COLONIZATION • With the period of Colonization, African oral traditions and written works came under a serious outside threat. Europeans, justifying themselves with the Christian ethics, tried to destroy the "pagan" and "primitive" culture of the Africans, to make them more pliable slaves.
  5. 5. THEMES OF AFRICAN LITERARY WORKS • Oral literature, including stories, dramas, riddles, histories, myths, songs, proverbs, and other expressions, is frequently employed to educate and entertain children. • Oral histories, myths, and proverbs additionally serve to remind whole communities of their ancestors' heroic deeds, their past, and the precedents for their customs and traditions.
  6. 6. • Born at Qunu, Africa on July 18, 1918. • When his father died, he was trained for becoming the chief of his local tribe. • While at the university he was being aware of the unfair nature of South African Society. • He involved in politics with his friend Oliver Tambo. • He finished his degree and become a Lawyer. • In 1952 they opened the first Black Law firm on South Africa.
  7. 7. • In 1960, the Sharpville massacre of 63 black South African’s changed the whole political climate. • 1962, Nelson Mandela had been arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment. • 1990, he was released on the prison. • May 10, 1994, he was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa.
  8. 8. • Mandela led over the transition from minority rule and apartheid. • Despite the initial joy of winning the election the ANC faced a difficult challenge to improve the lives of the black population. • His eldest son died because of the HIV.
  9. 9. • June 1999, he was retired as President but he continued to be a international figure of great stature. • In 1993, Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
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