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• African literature consists of a
body of work in different
languages and various genres,
ranging from oral literature to
literature written in colonial
Portuguese, and English).
• The first African literature is circa 2300- 2100,
when ancient Egyptians begin using burial texts
to accompany their dead. These include the
first written accounts of creation - the
Memphite Declaration of Deities. Not only that,
but 'papyrus', from which we originate our
word for paper, was invented by the Egyptians,
and writing flourished. In contrast, Sub-Saharan
Africa feature a vibrant and varied oral culture.
• They provide useful knowledge, historical
knowledge, ethical wisdom, and creative
motivation in a direct fashion. Oral culture
takes many forms: proverbs and riddles, epic
narratives, oration and personal testimony,
praise poetry and songs, chants and rituals,
stories, legends and folk tales. This is present
in the many proverbs told in Things Fall Apart,
and the rich cultural emphasis of that book
also is typically African.
PERIOD OF COLONIZATION
• With the period of Colonization, African
oral traditions and written works came
under a serious outside threat.
Europeans, justifying themselves with
the Christian ethics, tried to destroy the
"pagan" and "primitive" culture of the
Africans, to make them more pliable
THEMES OF AFRICAN LITERARY WORKS
• Oral literature, including stories, dramas,
riddles, histories, myths, songs, proverbs, and
other expressions, is frequently employed to
educate and entertain children.
• Oral histories, myths, and proverbs
additionally serve to remind whole
communities of their ancestors' heroic deeds,
their past, and the precedents for their
customs and traditions.
• Born at Qunu, Africa on July 18, 1918.
• When his father died, he was trained for
becoming the chief of his local tribe.
• While at the university he was being aware of
the unfair nature of South African Society.
• He involved in politics with his friend Oliver
• He finished his degree and become a Lawyer.
• In 1952 they opened the first Black Law firm on
• In 1960, the Sharpville massacre of 63
black South African’s changed the whole
• 1962, Nelson Mandela had been arrested
and sentenced to life imprisonment.
• 1990, he was released on the prison.
• May 10, 1994, he was inaugurated as the
first democratically elected State
President of South Africa.
• Mandela led over the transition from
minority rule and apartheid.
• Despite the initial joy of winning the
election the ANC faced a difficult
challenge to improve the lives of the
• His eldest son died because of the
• June 1999, he was retired as
President but he continued to
be a international figure of
• In 1993, Nelson Mandela was
awarded the Nobel Peace