1 m = distance to your finger tip1 000 m = distance to bridge1 000 000 m = distance to NW territories1 000 000 000 m = twice the distance to moon1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = distance to the star in the constellation1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 = size of the universe = # planets in the universe
0.001 m = thickness of your nail0.000 001 m = width of a bacterium0.000 000 001 m = width of molecules (DNA)
Nanotechnology and the Community - Nils Petersen
1 000 m 1 Yottameter =1024 m 1 000 000 m 1 000 000 000 m = 109 m1 000 000 000 000 000 000 m = 1018 m = 1 Exameter
0.001 m 0.000 000 001 m = 10-9 m = 1 nanometer = 1 nm 0.000 001 m
Department of ChemistryFaculty of Science Nanotechnology and the Community A primer on nanotechnology
The intended message:Nanotechnology will be Pervasive – it will affect all sectors of society Persistent – it will be with us forever Powerful – it will be an economic driver globallyFor communities to take advantage of this emergingtechnology framework will require Planning – and that is what the project is all about Pervasive-Persistent-Powerful
Mt Everest = 8 km on earth Equivalent to 8x10-3 cm or 8 micrometers on grapefruit Earth is 100 times smoother than a grapefruit Nanoparticles are seldom spherical and therefore very rough Seldom all the same size1.2 nm gold nanoparticle 12 cm grapefruit 12 000 km Earth 1:100 000 000 1:100 000 000 How do we think about a nanometer?
100 nm cell membrane 1 cm pad of paper 1 000 m elevation 1:100 000 1:100 000 How do we think about a nanometer?
Surface Effects:Material (Intensive) Properties Change: Source: K.J. Klabunde, 2001 and M.Meyyappan (2006) Nanotechnology – what are we talking about?
Clay – Oil – Water mix too well Surface properties lead to an emulsion that will not separate easily – heat is needed Oil – Green Solid – Red Water – Brown Small particles will not settle – tailing pondshttp://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/etb/cwrc/English/AST/Teams/Emulsions/emulsions_e.html The problem with Oil Sands is tiny solids (clays) in the oil
Quantum Mechanics tells us: EDiscrete Energy Levels (Quanta)(think floors of a building)Energy Levels Depend on Size(Tall & narrow building or E ELow & wide building) ΔE1 > ΔE2Determines:Color of materials - wavelength R R λ1 < λ2 Energy levels depend on size
Quantum Dots range in size from 1 to 10 nm or more. The change in size different energy levels for the electrons different wavelengths for absorption and emission of light different colours Particles are from Si, Ge or CdSe. Blue is small – Red is largeApplications range from diagnosis (tracers) to solar energy (absorbers) 1 nm www.evidenttech.com 6 nm Quantum Dots are illustrate quantum confinement
A simple application of plasmon resonanceThe association of the antibody with the antigencauses an aggregation of the gold nanoparticlesleading to a shift in the plasmon absorption Sold in very large numbers as(red to blue) >99% reliable pregnancy test A neat optical example
We have now learned to:visualize design and control at the nanoscale So why is nanotechnology important now?
MoviesOriginal_slices.avi .... as acquired 8hrs of dataInner_view_x_rot.avi … reconstructed 3D rendering of voids.Processing developed by Martin Kupsta (NINT). Visualize and control
Visualize Control (cutting) Design Control (assembly) Visualize-Design-Control
Visualize Control (etching) Design Control (assembly) immersion in reagents remove polymer 100 nm Visualize-Design-Control – Nanotechnology will be Persistent
Pigment Shell Latex Emulsion Aggregation Coalescence Polymerization .. . . . . .. Monomer Mixing Heating Toner 2-10 A 40 – 200 nm /Heatin (Cross-section) Particle Latex g 3-7 microns Polymer Wax Precision particle design with control of morphology & structure Toner particles of smaller size, tunable shape, and narrow size distribution Enviro-friendly toner (less toner per printed page) and toner manufacturingCourtesy of Hadi Mahabadi, Ex-VP XRCC Xerox EA Toner development
$ Value AddedNanomaterials by Design Application-Based Problem Solving $ Nano- Nano-enabled Nanomaterials intermediates Products Unprocessed Intermediate Products End-User Products Nanoscale with integrated incorporating Structures Nanoscale Features Nanotechnology• nanoparticles • coatings, toners • automobiles• nanofibers • textiles • clothing, personal care products• carbon nanotubes • optical components • electronic devices• nanowires • memory chips • business products• dendrimers • semiconductor material • pharmaceuticals, plastics The Nanotechnology Value Chain Courtesy of Hadi Mahabadi, Ex-VP XRCC
http://www.nanotechproject.org/ Markets are growing
http://www.nanotechproject.org/ A variety of sectors already
http://www.nanotechproject.org/ A variety of product types
http://www.nanotechproject.org/ Curling Iron Soap Cream Pregnancy Test Mostly inert materials
Fullerenes (C60) Aluminum OxideSingle Walled Carbon Nanotubes Cerium OxideMulti Walled Carbon Nanotubes Zinc OxideSilver Nanoparticles Silicon DioxideIron Nanoparticles PolystyreneCarbon black DendrimersTitanium Dioxide Nanoclays OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials Priority Testing List Materials of Industrial (and Regulatory) Interest
GMR Nobel Prize Physics 2007First Generation: Passive Materials Work in 1988 Composites, cosmetics, coatingsSecond Generation: Active Materials Catalysts, memory, antibacterialsThird Generation: Smart (responsive) systems “Intelligent particles”, drug deliveryFourth Generation: Intergrated systems Convergence of Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno-Technologies (NBIC) Nanotechnology is Pervasive
R&D Venture SCI Patent Final Product People Funding Capital Papers Applications Markets employed in ($M) Investments (#) (#) ($M) nanotech ($M) (#)World2000 1,200 210 18,085 1,197 30,000 60,0002008 14,000 1,400 65,000 12,776 200,000 400,000CAGR 36% 27% 17% 34% 27% 27%US2000 370 170 5,342 405 13,000 25,0002008 3,700 1,170 15,000 3,729 80,000 150,000CAGR 33% 27% 14% 32% 25% 25% AT THIS RATE OF GROWTH WILL BE A $3T MARKET BY 2020 Nanotechnology is Powerful
RegulationsTrade barriers Larry Kapustka LK ConsultancyPublic acceptance Calgary, Alberta Canada TAPPIToxicology Edmonton, Alberta 24 June 2009Life cycle analysis Planning is important
Attention to oversight is emerging across the world
•“Nanotechnology is the inevitable consequence of our questto miniaturize – most technologies will be in nano by 2020” (Ray Kurzweil, Federal S&T Forum, Jan 12, 2005) NANOGEARS NANOBEARING Nanotechnology is here to stay and will be everywhere