Pimlus atlas - final - september 2010

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Pimlus atlas - final - september 2010

  1. 1. industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC prepared for The City of Philadelphia prepared by _interface studio llc CHPlanning Ltd. september 2010 anindustrial land use & market strategy for the city of philadelphia: industrial land atlas
  2. 2. City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Cover: Disston Precision, Inc., Tacony Right: Rhoads Industries, Philadelphia Navy Yard
  3. 3. industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC acknowledgmentsadvisory committee project team special thanks to... consultant team This Industrial Market and Land Use Strategy was undertaken with funding by the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) and the City of Philadelphia. The plan was led by PIDC with the support of the Philadelphia Department of Commerce and the Philadelphia City Planning Commission, and guided by a dedicated Advisory Committee comprised of representatives of City and regional departments and agencies charged with stewardship of Philadelphia’s industrial lands. Suzanne Biemiller, Office of the Mayor, City of Philadelphia Duane Bumb, Philadelphia Department of Commerce Teresa Gillen, Redevelopment Authority of the City of Philadelphia John Grady, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Joseph Houldin, Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center Alan Greenberger, Deputy Mayor for Planning and Economic Development Steve Jurash, Urban Industry Initiative Peter Kelsen, Zoning Code Commission Peter Longstreth, President, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Richard Redding, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Jennifer Barr, Philadelphia City Planning Commission David Fecteau, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Jim Green, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Octavia Hall, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Natalie Hseuh, Zoning Code Commission Gary Jastrzab, Philadelphia City Planning Commission David Knapton, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Andrew Meloney, Philadelphia City Planning Commission David Ortiz, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Cornell Pankey, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Laura Spina, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Michael Thompson, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Brian Ivey, City of Philadelphia, Division of Technology Thomas Neirynck, City of Philadelphia, Division of Technology Kristin Sullivan, Mayor’s Office of Sustainability Marisa Waxman, City of Philadelphia, Revenue Department Christopher Zearfoss, Mayor’s Office for Transportation and Utilities Michael Cooper, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Alice Cathcart, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Amanda Davis, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Elizabeth Miller, Community Design Collaborative Carryn Golden, Community Design Collaborative Erin Murphy Boyle, Governor’s Action Team James Fuller, The Hankin Group John Gattuso, Liberty Property Trust Patrick Green, CB Richard Ellis Richard Gorodesky, Colliers International William Hankowsky, Liberty Property Trust Thomas G. Morr, Select Greater Philadelphia Ned Rauch-Mannino, Urban Industry Initiative James Mazzarelli, Liberty Property Trust Barry Seymour, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission Joseph Welsh, The Collegiate Consortium Tom Dalfo, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Matt Honea, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Prema Katari Gupta, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Brian Flanagan, Deputy Mayor’s Office for Planning and Economic Development Eva Gladstein, Zoning Code Commission John Haak, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Alan Urek, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Vince Dougherty, City of Philadelphia, Commerce Department Jon Edelstein, City of Philadelphia, Commerce Department _interface studio, llc Scott Page Bryan Lobel Ashley DiCaro Mindy Watts Leah Murphy AECOM Economics Shuprotim Bhaumik Aaron Smith Jaime Flaherty Initiative for a Competitive Inner City Teresa Lynch Paige Gentry Adam Kamins CHPlanning Shawn Brede Robert Fejeren Tracy Tackett DMJM Harris Timothy Gunner
  4. 4. City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Tasty Baking Co., Philadelphia Navy Yard
  5. 5. industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC table of contentsI Industrial land in Philadelphia: an introduction ....................... 1 II district by district analysis ................................................................... 29 1 american street ................................................................................................................ 30 2 aramingo....................................................................................................................................42 3 callowhill ............................................................................................................................... 54 4 grays ferry ............................................................................................................................ 66 5 hunting park east ............................................................................................................ 78 6 hunting park west ........................................................................................................... 90 7 lawncrest.................................................................................................................................102 8 lower north delaware ................................................................................................... 114 9 northeast.............................................................................................................................. 126 10 northern liberties ........................................................................................................... 138 11 parkside..................................................................................................................................150 12 roxborough.......................................................................................................................... 162 13 south delaware ................................................................................................................ 174 14 southwest............................................................................................................................ 186 15 upper north delaware ................................................................................................ 198
  6. 6. City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas list of figurescitywide overview Figure 1: PIDC Industrial Parks ………………........................................................................................................................……………………. 5 Figure 2: Economic Incentive Zones ...….………….................................................................................................................................…. 6 Figure 3: Surveyed Philadelphia Industrial Districts ………………….…....................................................................................................... 7 Figure 4: Industrial Area Characteristics …………….......................………………………................................................................................. 8 Figure 5: Highway Infrastructure ……………………………………...................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 6: Traffic Volume ……………………………………..................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 7: Rails and Ports ………………………………...................……............................................................................................................. 10 Figure 8: Land Uses in Surveyed Industrial Distircts......................................................................................................................……. 11 Figure 9: Breakdown of Industrial Land Uses Only ………………………………......................................................................................... 11 Figure 10: Land Use in 1954 ……………………………………......................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 11: Industrial Zoning: 2009 ……………………………………................................................................................................................ 14 Figure 12: Industrial Zoning Typologies: 2009 …………………………………….............................................................................................. 14 Figure 13: Industrial Zoning Comparison, 1954-2009 …………………………………................................................................................…. 15 Figure 14: Industrial Zoning Changes between 1999 and 2009 ……………….………………...............................................................…. 16 Figure 15: Industrial Parcels Larger than 10 Acres ...............................................................................................................................18 Figure 16: Physical Land Vacancy, Surveyed Districts ……………………………......................................................................................... 19 Figure 17: Building Vacancy, Surveyed Districts ………………................................................................................................................. 20 Figure 18: Market Pressure in Industrial Districts ……………………………………........................................................................................ 21 Figure 19: Market Pressure: Callowhill, Northern Liberties, American Street & Lower North Delaware............................................. 21 Figure 20: Improvement Value per Square Foot by District ….……………………………............................................................................. 19 Figure 21: Levels of Industrial Intensity ……………………………………......................................................................................................... 25 Figure 22: Comparing Industrial Intensity ………………............................................…………………….......................................................... 26 Figure 23: Potential Industrial Land Supply, 2009 ……………………………………......................................................................................... 27 Figure 24: Industrial Land Assembly Potential, by Acreage 2009 …….................................................................................................... 28
  7. 7. industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC american street Figure 25: American Street Industrial District Key Map …….....................................................................…………. 31 Figure 26: American Street Industrial District Context ………................................................................................. 34 Figure 27: American Street Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………..……......................... 35 Figure 28: American Street Industrial District Access to Public Transit ………..................................................…. 36 Figure 29: American Street Industrial District Land Use ……............................................................................…. 37 Figure 30: American Street Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ….............................................. 38 Figure 31: American Street Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………......…………..............................………………. 38 Figure 32: American Street Industrial District by Sector …………………………………...........................................…. 39 Figure 33: American Street Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………………..................... 39 Figure 34: American Street Industrial District Vacancy ……………………………………............................................... 40 aramingo Figure 35: Aramingo Industrial District Key Map ………………………………........................................................……. 43 Figure 36: Aramingo Industrial District Context ……………………………………........................................................... 46 Figure 37: Aramingo Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………………….…………....................... 47 Figure 38: Aramingo Industrial District Access to Public Transit ………………………………...............................……. 48 Figure 39: Aramingo Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….......................................................…. 49 Figure 40: Aramingo Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ……...................................................... 50 Figure 41: Aramingo Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………………………………............................................…. 50 Figure 42: Aramingo Industrial District by Sector ……………………………………........................................................ 51 Figure 43: Aramingo Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………………................................ 51 Figure 44: Aramingo Industrial District Vacancy ………………………….........................................................…………. 52 callowhill Figure 45: Callowhill Industrial District Key Map ………………........................................................……………………. 55 Figure 46: Callowhill Industrial District Context ……………………………………........................................................... 58 Figure 47: Callowhill Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………………………......................…. 59 Figure 48: Callowhill Industrial District Access to Public Transit ……………………...............................………………. 60 Figure 49: Callowhill Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….......................................................…. 61 Figure 50: Callowhill Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison …………………………...........................…. 62 Figure 51: Callowhill Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ………………………………..............................…….................. 62 Figure 52: Callowhill Industrial District by Sector ……………………………………........................................................ 63 Figure 53: Callowhill Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………………………................................….63 Figure 54: Callowhill Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………….......................................................... 64 grays ferry Figure 55: Grays Ferry Industrial District Key Map ………………….................................................................…………………. 67 Figure 56: Grays Ferry Industrial District Context …………………………………….................................................................... 70 Figure 57: Grays Ferry Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………………………...............................…. 71 Figure 58: Grays Ferry Industrial District Access to Public Transit ……………………………………......................................... 72 Figure 59: Grays Ferry Industrial District Land Use ……………………………………................................................................. 73 Figure 60: Grays Ferry Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ……………………………………............................ 74 Figure 61: Grays Ferry Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………….............................................…………........................... 74 Figure 62: Grays Ferry Industrial District by Sector ……………………………………................................................................. 75 Figure 63: Grays Ferry Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………………......................................... 75 Figure 64: Grays Ferry Industrial District Vacancy ……………………………......................................................................…… 76 hunting park east Figure 65: Hunting Park East Industrial District Key Map ……………………………….......................................................…… 79 Figure 66: Hunting Park East Industrial District Context ………………………………….........................................................… 82 Figure 67: Hunting Park East Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………………………….....................… 83 Figure 68: Hunting Park East Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………………..............................… 84 Figure 69: Hunting Park East Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….....................................................… 85 Figure 70: Hunting Park East Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ………..................................................… 86 Figure 71: Hunting Park East Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………………...............................………………................… 86 Figure 72: Hunting Park East Industrial District by Sector ………………………………......................................................……87 Figure 73: Hunting Park East Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………….............................…… 87 Figure 74: Hunting Park East Industrial District Vacancy ………………………………….......................................................… 88 hunting park west Figure 75: Hunting Park West Industrial District Key Map …………………......................................................………………… 91 Figure 76: Hunting Park West Industrial District Context ………………………………........................................................…… 94 Figure 77: Hunting Park West Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………………………....................…… 95 Figure 78: Hunting Park West Industrial District Access to Public Transit ……………………………….............................…… 96 Figure 79: Hunting Park West Industrial District Land Use …………………………………....................................................… 97 Figure 80: Hunting Park West Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ………..............................................… 98 Figure 81: Hunting Park West Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ……………….............................……………………............... 98 Figure 82: Hunting Park West Industrial District by Sector …………………………….....................................................……… 99 Figure 83: Hunting Park West Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ………….............................………………………… 99 Figure 84: Hunting Park West Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………......................................................… 100
  8. 8. City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas lawncrest Figure 85: Lawncrest Industrial District Key Map ………………………………..........................................................…… 103 Figure 86: Lawncrest Industrial District Context ……………………………………............................................................ 106 Figure 87: Lawncrest Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………………………........................… 107 Figure 88: Lawncrest Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………………...............................… 108 Figure 89: Lawncrest Industrial District Land Use ……………………………….......................................................…… 109 Figure 90: Lawncrest Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ………………………………….................... 110 Figure 91: Lawncrest Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………………...............................………….......................… 110 Figure 92: Lawncrest Industrial District by Sector ………………………………….......................................................… 111 Figure 93: Lawncrest Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………………............................... 111 Figure 94: Lawncrest Industrial District Vacancy ……………………………….........................................................…… 112 lower north delaware Figure 95: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Key Map …………………………....................................………… 115 Figure 96: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Context …………………………………......................................… 118 Figure 97: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………...........….........… 119 Figure 98: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Access to Public Transit ………………………………...........…… 120 Figure 99: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Land Use ………………………………......................................… 121 Figure100:LowerNorthDelawareIndustrialDistrictLandUse&ZoningComparison……....................................…122 Figure101:LowerNorthDelawareIndustrialDistrictZoning,2009………...................................…………............……122 Figure 102: Lower North Delaware Industrial District by Sector …………………………………...................................… 123 Figure 103: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………………….............…… 123 Figure 104: Lower North Delaware Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………....................................… 124 northeast Figure 105: Northeast Industrial District Key Map ………………………........................................................…………… 127 Figure 106: Northeast Industrial District Context …………………………….............................................................…… 130 Figure 107: Northeast Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………….....…….............................… 131 Figure 108: Northeast Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………….....................................… 132 Figure 109: Northeast Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….......................................................… 133 Figure 110: Northeast Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison …………………..................................… 134 Figure 111: Northeast Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ………..............................……………………........................… 134 Figure 112: Northeast Industrial District by Sector ……………………………………....................................................... 135 Figure 113: Northeast Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………..…………...................................... 135 Figure 114: Northeast Industrial District Vacancy ………………………………….........................................................… 136 northern liberties Figure 115: Northern Liberties Industrial District Key Map ………………………..........................................…………… 139 Figure 116: Northern Liberties Industrial District Context ………………………............................................…………… 142 Figure 117: Northern Liberties Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ……………………………........……… 143 Figure 118: Northern Liberties Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………….................……… 144 Figure 119: Northern Liberties Industrial District Land Use ……………………………….........................................…… 145 Figure 120: Northern Liberties Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ………………........................… 146 Figure 121: Northern Liberties Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ………..............................………………………....…… 146 Figure 122: Northern Liberties Industrial District by Sector ………………………………..........................................…… 147 Figure 123: Northern Liberties Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ………………………………….................… 147 Figure 124: Northern Liberties Industrial District Vacancy ……………………………...........................................……… 148 parkside Figure 125: Parkside Industrial District Key Map ………………………...........................................................…………… 151 Figure 126: Parkside Industrial District Context …………………………………............................................................… 154 Figure 127: Parkside Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………………………........................… 155 Figure 128: Parkside Industrial District Access to Public Transit ………………………………..................................…… 156 Figure 129: Parkside Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….........................................................… 157 Figure 130: Parkside Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison …………………………………................… 158 Figure 131: Parkside Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ……..............................……………………....................………… 158 Figure 132: Parkside Industrial District by Sector ………………………………..........................................................…… 159 Figure 133: Parkside Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ……………………………….................................…… 159 Figure 134: Parkside Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………...........................................................… 160 roxborough Figure 135: Roxborough Industrial District Key Map ………………………….....................................................………… 163 Figure 136: Roxborough Industrial District Context ………………………………….......................................................… 166 Figure 137: Roxborough Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure …………………………………...................… 167 Figure 138: Roxborough Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………………............................… 168 Figure 139: Roxborough Industrial District Land Use …………………………………....................................................… 169 Figure 140: Roxborough Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ……................................................… 170 Figure 141: Roxborough Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ……….............................…………………………...............… 170 Figure 142: Roxborough Industrial District by Sector …………………………………….................................................... 171 Figure 143: Roxborough Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………………………............................… 171 Figure 144: Roxborough Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………......................................................… 172
  9. 9. industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC south delaware Figure 145: South Delaware Industrial District Key Map ……………………………...................................................……… 175 Figure 146: South Delaware Industrial District Context ………………………………….....................................................… 178 Figure 147: South Delaware Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ……………………………….................…… 179 Figure 148: South Delaware Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………………..........................… 180 Figure 149: South Delaware Industrial District Land Use …………………………………..................................................… 181 Figure 150: South Delaware Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison …………………………...................… 182 Figure 151: South Delaware Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ………………………….............................……............…… 182 Figure 152: South Delaware Industrial District by Sector …………………………………..................................................… 183 Figure 153: South Delaware Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………………………..........................… 183 Figure 154: South Delaware Industrial District Vacancy …………………………………….................................................... 184 southwest Figure 155: Southwest Industrial District Key Map …………………………............................................................………… 187 Figure 156: Southwest Industrial District Context …………………………………….............................................................. 190 Figure 157: Southwest Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………………………..........................…… 191 Figure 158: Southwest Industrial District Access to Public Transit …………………………………...................................… 192 Figure 159: Southwest Industrial District Land Use …………………………………...........................................................… 193 Figure 160: Southwest Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison …………………………............................... 194 Figure 161: Southwest Industrial District Zoning, 2009 …………….............................…………………….....................… 194 Figure 162: Southwest Industrial District by Sector …………………………………...........................................................… 195 Figure 163: Southwest Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector …………………………………..................................… 195 Figure 164: Southwest Industrial District Vacancy ……………………………………............................................................ 196 upper north delaware Figure 165: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Key Map ……………………........................................……………… 199 Figure 166: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Context ………………………………..........................................…… 202 Figure 167: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Transportation Infrastructure ………………………………......…… 203 Figure 168: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Access to Public Transit ……………………………………............... 204 Figure 169: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Land Use ………………………………….......................................… 205 Figure 170: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Land Use & Zoning Comparison ……………...........................… 206 Figure 171: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Zoning, 2009 ………….............................……………………….… 206 Figure 172: Upper North Delaware Industrial District by Sector ………………………………….......................................… 207 Figure 173: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Industrial Use by Sector ………………………………...............…… 207 Figure 174: Upper North Delaware Industrial District Vacancy ………………………………….........................................… 208 Pappajohn Woodworking at Spring Mill, Frankford. Source: Damon Landry / L Squared Studio
  10. 10. 1 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas
  11. 11. 2 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC I an Introduction industrial land in philadelphia industrial land in philadelphia
  12. 12. 3 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas then...
  13. 13. 4 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC ...now
  14. 14. 5 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas context There are approximately 17,805 acres of land zoned for industrial use in the City of Philadelphia, representing nearly 21% of the City’s land area. For the purposes of this study, 15 districts totaling 15,804 acres were identified for survey and analysis by the consultant team. While the boundaries of the study were initially outlined by the Planning Commission and based on industrial zoning, institutional knowledge, and prior surveys, the consultant team expanded these boundaries to further include areas of potential significance to the industrial economy in Philadelphia. Much current and historical land use associated with industry is tied to the activities of the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC). Through the efforts of PIDC, the Philadelpha City Planning Commission (PCPC), the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority (RDA) and other agencies, a number of industrial parks were established and developed throughout the City beginning in 1959. Today, some of the most diverse and viable industrial uses in the City are still tied to these areas - most notably the Byberry and Red Lion industrial parks in the Northeast, the Eastwick A industrial park in the Southwest, and the Navy Yard. PIDC Industrial ParksFigure 1:
  15. 15. 6 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC incentive zones Today, a number of incentives are available to encourage economic development and job growth in Philadelphia. Federal, state and local programs correspond to specific physical geographies defined throughout the City and in many cases overlap the surveyed industrial districts. Empowerment zones, HUD Renewal Community zones, and formerly, state-designated Enterprise Zones often correspond to older, mixed industrial - residential neighborhoods found across north and west Philadelphia . The incentives offered to firms locating or expanding in these areas range from state and local tax credits and exemptions to employment credits to eligibility for low-interest loans. NOTE: Four Pennsylvania state Enterprise Zones located in Philadelphia have expired in recent years: West Parkside (2001), Port of Philadelphia (2002), American Street (2004) and Hunting Park West (2006). Economic IncentiveFigure 2: Zones
  16. 16. 7 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas districts The 15 industrial districts selected for survey and analysis by the consultant team vary widely in size, character, and degree of industrial utilization as well as in density, scale, and surrounding uses. The districts span the city of Philadelphia, from the International Airport in the Southwest to the far Northeast. However, there are many similarities amongst various districts with regard to the opportunities and challenges their geography presents. Six groupings allow the districts to be considered at a broader, more functional scale within the context of city and region: SOUTH BY SOUTHWEST WATERFRONT The three most southerly districts – an area described here as the South by Southwest Waterfront consisting of the Southwest, Grays Ferry, and South Delaware districts – enjoy an access “trifecta” of adjacency to the Philadelphia International Airport, the Packer Marine Terminal and associated piers, and both the I-95 and I-76 freeways. This excellent access has also been the cause of an ongoing erosion of historically industrial land in these districts by big box and commercial development. Some of the land area, such as Mud Island along the lower Schuylkill River, is unsuitable for virtually any type of development because it consists largely of fill dredged from Delaware River shipping channels, or is marshy and susceptible to flooding. Nonetheless, a dense complex of refineries, tank farms, and shipbuilding cranes remain clustered here near the mouth of the Schuylkill River and greet one when entering the City from the south. INNER URBAN Just north of Center City Philadelphia lay three districts that could be described as Philadelphia’s Inner Urban industrial areas – Callowhill, Northern Liberties, and American Street. Their unique combination of industrially-zoned land with close-in access to the central business district, and stock of small and often relatively low-rent workshop, warehouse, and loft spaces make them ideal for certain industries, such as Center City food distribution, equipment repair, construction supply, and B2B fabrication, for example. However, these districts also suffer from their location within a dense urban grid of narrow streets, making truck circulation difficult. The parcel assembly and acquisition often necessary for business expansion can also be problematic and even impossible due to separate ownership of a great number of small parcels. In addition, this area has seen much residentialand commercial redevelopment and interest in recent years, resulting in challenging conditions for maintaining larger-scale industrial uses, both in terms of compatibility of use and economics of land price. NORTH PHILADELPHIA URBAN Further north are three more districts that comprise a broad swath of industrial terrain strung out and clustered around the vestiges of Philadelphia’s extensive freight rail network that criss-crosses North Philadelphia. The North Philadelphia Urban districts – Hunting Park East & West, and Aramingo – once lay at the core of a mighty industrial complex that garnered the City the title of “Workshop of the World”. Multi-story factory lofts a century old or more are ubiquitous here and sit cheek by jowl with dense urban rowhouse neighborhoods, which were often built by the factory owners to house their workers. One such example is the residential neighborhood surrounding the former Budd Company factory in what is now the Hunting Park West district. Many industrial firms in this area are “legacy” firms with a long history of operation. They enjoy a strong heritage of industrial associations and easy access to a diverse labor pool. These districts also straddle some of the most disinvested areas of the City and suffer high crime rates. Aging, often obsolete facilities and relatively poor freeway access add to the challenges for modern industrial concerns located here. Surveyed Philadelphia Industrial DistrictsFigure 3: DELAWARE WATERFRONT Two large districts comprise a distinct Delaware Waterfront industrial typology – the Lower and Upper North Delaware districts. Directly south lies the Central Delaware waterfront, which is currently the subject of master planning efforts aimed at increasing green space and re-connecting adjacent neighborhoods to the river. At one time most of Philadelphia’s Delaware River frontage was industrial; today, waterfront industry has receded to parts of these Delaware Waterfront districts and to the South by Southwest districts discussed earlier. A great diversity of industrial activities remain along the North Delaware waterfront, ranging from petrochemical and container terminals and storage tank fields, to water and sewage treatment plants and power generating stations, to modern manufacturing and processing plants. There is also a significant presence of vacant and underutilized lands, often directly abutting the river, that are highly visible from the stretches of I-95 and SEPTA/ AMTRAK that parallel the waterfront here. These vacancies are largely attributable to land speculation and owner inertia. THE NORTHEAST Far from Center City, there is an industrial district that comprises a distinctive industrial typology – the Northeast. This industrial area surrounds the Northeast Philadelphia Airport near the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Woodhaven Road. The district extends north to the city limits, and includes a smaller area along the city boundary to the west surrounding the former
  17. 17. 8 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Industrial Area CharacteristicsFigure 4:Budd Company plant, which is currently the Island Green Country Club and phytoremediation area. The Northeast was largely undeveloped as recently as the 1950’s, and afforded opportunities for “greenfield” industrial development in the period following World War II. The industrial parcels found here today are comparatively modern (within City stock) in configuration, with large square and rectangular lots and one-story modern facilities that allow efficient truck circulation. Access to I-95 is excellent via Woodhaven and Academy Roads. There is also good access to I-76, via Roosevelt Blvd / Route 1. This district is perhaps the most vibrant and active industrial zone in the City. It also coexists successfully with surrounding residential neighborhoods due to buffering boulevards and an industrial park mode of development, generally found in suburban areas and consisting of large setbacks, low lot-coverage ratios, and attractive building façades. OTHER INDUSTRIAL NODES The remaining three industrial districts – Roxborough, Parkside, and Lawncrest – consist of smaller stand-alone neighborhood oriented districts located along rail and, in the case of Roxborough, the upper Schuylkill River. Lawncrest is a large employment hub anchored by the US Naval Supply Depot, and Cardone Automotive Industries. Parkside, located near Fairmount Park in West Philadelphia, contains a significant cluster of large and development-ready parcels of vacant land and buildings. The Roxborough industrial district consists of a disparate jumble of construction supply and auto shops along Umbria Ave, broadcast towers and waste transfer facilities on the hillsides above, and a single remaining factory – the Paper Works Industries/ AbitibiBowater plant – on Venice Island in the Schuylkill River.
  18. 18. 9 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas highway infrastructure The regional highway system is the dominant mode of transportation for goods movement in Philadelphia. In 2002, 78 percent of all imported goods (by weight) arrived by truck and 62 percent left the region by truck. Forecasts for the year 2035 show little change in this distribution among the modes of freight movement. The highway infrastructure within Philadelphia, as in most northeast cities, faces significant challenges in supporting traffic growth. The two major interstate highways that traverse Philadelphia - I-76 was completed in the 1950s and I-95 was begun in the late 1970s - were constructed such that major expansion would entail significant impacts to adjacent communities and environmentally- sensitive areas. The age of these highways, combined with a climate that exposes pavements and structures to regular freezing, thawing and de-icing agents, has rendered many of these facilities in need of rehabilitation. Highway InfrastructureFigure 5: Traffic VolumeFigure 6: PARCELS ACRES % OF SURVEYED AREA <1,000ft FROM MAJOR TRUCK ROUTE ACCESS 10,607 11,604 73% <1,000ft FROM ACESS RAMP 2,756 6,632 42% <1 MILE FROM EXPRESSWAY 12,718 14,041 89% Truck, Ramp & Expressway
  19. 19. 10 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC rail & ports Three Class 1 railroad systems – Norfolk Southern, CSX, and Canadian Pacific – operate in Philadelphia. The freight railroad system represents the second most important mode of transporting goods into the region, at 16 percent by weight. Only 3 percent of the goods leaving the region, however, are exported via rail. There are current and ongoing projects to add capacity to some of the major freight rail lines within Philadelphia. CSX is planning to invest over $200 million into the Trenton Line in improvements to vertical clearance and double-tracking. The Trenton Line is a vital link in CSX’s distribution network from Philadelphia to the Midwest. This route includes the River Line and Water Level Routes along the Hudson River and Great Lakes, respectively. Another $48 million is slated for similar capacity improvements on the Philadelphia Subdivision, CSX’s connection to points south of the City. This route is ultimately constrained in Baltimore by the clearance restrictions on the Howard Street Tunnel, and therefore represents a less favorable option for distribution. With the expansion of the Panama Canal, larger ships transporting containerized cargo from Asia will make calls directly at East Coast ports in lieu of calling at West Coast ports and distributing goods to the East Coast via rail. Many East Coast ports are preparing for the increase in ship traffic by expanding existing terminals, deepening channels, and planning new terminals. Some forecasts predict increases of three- and four-fold over 2004 volumes by the year 2020. Currently Philadelphia is a minor player in container markets, but these improvements may present an opportunity for the Port to grow. The Philadelphia International Airport handles the fastest growing method of transporting high-value goods to Philadelphia. Preliminary projections are for inbound international air value to grow by 695 percent 2020. Rails & PortsFigure 7: Source: USGS, SEPTA, PennDOT, Railmap MULTIMODALFREIGHTACCESS PARCELS ACRES % OF SURVEYED AREA PORT Adjacent 42 818 5% <2 Miles 5,292 5,274 33% FREIGHT RAIL Adjacent 810 7,677 49% AIRPORT Adjacent 58 787 5% <2miles 651 6,052 38% Canadian Pacific
  20. 20. 11 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Land Uses in Surveyed Industrial DistrictsFigure 8: Breakdown of Industrial Land Uses OnlyFigure 9:
  21. 21. 12 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC land use An exhaustive three-month survey and analysis of 16,113 parcels located within the 15 study district boundaries concluded that approximately 2,023 properties were under some level of industrial use at the time of the survey (including transportation & goods movement uses, such as airports) - totaling 10,196acres. Thus,while21%ofCitylandsarezoned industrial, our analysis found that the equivalent of 12.5% of City land area is being positively utilized for industrial activities within the surveyed areas. This leaves approximately 5,608 acres of surveyed land either vacant or being utilized for other purposes – mainly commercial and institutional. The industrial activity present on these properties varied widely in intensity or level of utilization of the land from small, partially vacant warehousing operations, maintenance or scrap yards, and workshops on up to busy marine terminal facilities, foundries, food processing plants, and distribution centers.
  22. 22. 13 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas zoning Philadelphia’s zoning code was established in 1933 and was originally based on land use survey maps that were produced during the depression by the Works Progress Administration. The City’s first zoning code was a reflection of existing land use patterns that had developed organically over time. In 1962, as a comprehensive revision of this zoning code was undertaken and planning officials recognized the extent to which land use patterns where changing, the City created the Zoning Remapping Program in order to deal systematically with proposed zoning changes. In the early days of the City’s zoning efforts, only two classifications existed to describe what was then a diverse and active complex of factories, refineries, mills, shipping piers, workshops and warehouses. One, a designated “industrial” zone and the other, described as a “least restricted” zone. Industrial activity in this period was still largely aligned with the rivers and rail infrastructure dating to the 19th century in Philadelphia. Over the years, however, modern industrial development has gravitated toward undeveloped peripheral areas of the City such as the Northeast and Southwest. The area of the City zoned for industrial use has actually increased over the years due in large part to the establishment and growth of the Northeast industrial district. In 1954, 13,650 acres were zoned industrial, while by 2009 that figure had increased to 17,805 acres. There are also now a total of ten industrial zoning classifications. Recently, an analysis of the City’s current zoning code was conducted by Clarion and Duncan Associates. The firms drew three main conclusions from their assessment. First, the City has too many industrial zoning classifications, and these should be consolidated along the lines of light, general, and heavy industry. Currently, for example, the City has five limited industrial zones that differ almost exclusively in setbacks and lot coverage. In addition, the vast majority of industrial acreage in Philadelphia consists of only three zones: L2 (14%), G2 (45%), and LR (32%) . Next, the permitted land uses within industrial zones are antiquated and need to be modernized to “allow for a broader range of light industry and ‘business park’ developments” . Unnecessary or out-of-date permitted uses include leather tanning, slaughterhouses, wagon repair and typewriter manufacturing. Finally, the City has an excess of land currently zoned industrial and should permit limited rezoning of some of this land for other uses within a comprehensive planning process. Based upon our analysis, this should be considered only if future industrial areas are assured a strong measure of protection from such re-zoning in the future. Despite recent comprehensive planning initiatives that have gained traction in Philadelphia, many industrial properties – some quite large and well-positioned for modern industrial users - have already been re- zoned for other uses without sufficient consideration of the cumulative impact on the City’s industrial land supply and economic development goals. The Northeast, now home to a large industrial concentration, was farm land in the 1950s. Land Use in 1954Figure 10:Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records
  23. 23. 14 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Industrial Zoning Typologies: 2009Figure 12: Industrial Zoning: 2009Figure 11:
  24. 24. 15 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Industrial ZoningFigure 13: Comparison, 1954-2009 1962 Landuse map, depicting a still heavily industrial Pennsport area, including Baugh & Sons Fertilizer Plant, Globe Steel Drum Co., and American Commercial Alchohol Corp. Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network Figures 13 (left) and 14 (facing page) illustrate the change in zoning from the period 1954 to 2009. Figure 13 juxtaposes “snapshots” of the industrial zoning extent in 1954 with that of 2009 in order to illustrate the cumulative losses and gains over the past 55 years. With the emergence of the Northeast as a major industrial center, and the growth of the Southwest, the marine terminals, and the Food Distribution Center, total industrially-zoned acreage has actually increased by more than 30%. Recently, however, this trend has begun to reverse itself. Many large formerly industrial sites in the City have been re-zoned for commercial, residential, or entertainment development in the last ten years. These piecemeal conversions have cumulatively eroded Philadelphia’s limited stock of competitive sites for industrial development.
  25. 25. 16 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Industrial Zoning Changes between 1999 and 2009Figure 14: Note: Soil conditions in portions of the re-zoned Navy Yard area make new industrial development prohibitive.
  26. 26. 17 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas environment Much of Philadelphia’s early industrial development evolved along area river and rail corridors. While modern industry has migrated toward different resources - and often away from environmentally-sensitive zones such as floodplains and wetland areas - there remains a legacy of contamination and cleanup that must be addressed as older industrial sites are recycled for new industrial or other uses. While the EPA’s Mid- Atlantic regional office has many resources available for developers considering the cleanup and reuse of Philadelphia brownfield properties, including grants and technical assistance, the concentration of such sites in older areas of the City nonetheless presents a significant challenge for new development or expansion.
  27. 27. 18 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC parcel size Asexpected,Philadelphia’sindustrialparcelsare,onaverage,muchlargerthanresidential or commercial land uses. While Philadelphia’s 2,023 surveyed industrial properties comprise 21% of the land area of the City, they represent less than 1% of the total number of properties citywide (542,209). The City is characterized by two industrial property types: its countless small close-in sites, typically ranging between a half-acre to acre, with poor access to modern infrastructure, and the limited number of larger competitive sites located around the periphery of the City. Only 115 of the 2,023 parcels surveyed fall in the latter category, with land areas greater than 20 acres; if large transportation parcels such as the ports and airports are excluded, the City has only 95 such industrial parcels. The average size of surveyed industrial parcels in Philadelphia is 5 acres; when ports and airports are excluded, the average parcel size falls to just 3.9 acres. Apart from the size of industrial parcels in Philadelphia, site configuration can also be an issue for new industrial development or redevelopment. As shown in the the figure below, a great deal of space is often functionally unavailable to developers due to irregular shape. This is a commonly occuring constraint when assembling properties in urban areas that have experienced repeated cycles of assembly and subdivision of land. Industrial Parcels Figure 15: Larger than 10 Acres
  28. 28. 19 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas land vacancy The total area of vacant land found within the 15 surveyed Philadelphia industrial districts was 2,052 acres. The Northeast district had the greatest number of vacant acres at 467, followed by South Delaware (415), then the Southwest (392). There are a number of factors that make this number misleading, however - the actual amount of land available for future industrial development is much lower than 2,052 acres. First, three major parcels constitute nearly 30% of the vacant land: the former Cramp’s Shipyard; the former Northern Shipping site in Holmesburg; and the former Mustin Naval Airfield at the east end of the Navy Yard. Recent proposals to convert all or parts of these sites to residential and commercial uses represent a real threat to a significant portion of the City’s current industrial land inventory. In other cases, vacant parcels are reserved for future development or may be in pre-construction phases. These parcels must be considered separately from vacancies that are not known to be under contract or development. Given these conditions, the quantity of vacant land that is currently industrially-zoned, and that is not currently under contract or development, falls to just 1,288 acres. This acreage, shown on the map in black, represents 60% of physical vacancy, and 8.1% of total industrially zoned land. Physical Land Vacancy,Figure 16: Surveyed Districts
  29. 29. 20 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC building vacancy Building and land vacancy were treated separately in the survey of Philadelphia’s industrial districts. Building vacancy and utilization rates were calculated for each district based on Bureau of Revision of Taxes (BRT) “livable area” data, combined with surveyed vacancy status and percentage estimates. Where no BRT livable area data existed for a parcel with a vacant building, the square footage was estimated by multiplying the footprint of the building, calculated using Geographic Information Systems software (GIS), by the surveyed number of stories. Using this methodology, the consultant team was able to approximate district-wide building vacancy rates for all 15 industrial districts. These figures are expressed in a rate of vacant to utilized building square footage, and averaged to 8.57%, citywide. The survey found approximately 11,948,000 square feet to be vacant, out of a total inventory of 139,540,000 square feet of building space. A majority of vacant square footage is located within four districts: Hunting Park West, Hunting Park East, Grays Ferry and Parkside. Much of this space is obsolete, characterized by multi- story structures and fixed infrastructure that no longer match modern users’ needs. In three of these cases, the large amount of building vacancy is due primarily to one large property: the former Budd Company site (Hunting Park West); the former Acme Markets distribution center (Parkside); and the former US Army Quartermaster Depot on Oregon Avenue (Grays Ferry). There are also larger than average amounts of building vacancy within the American Street, Aramingo, and Callowhill districts largely due to the presence of older buildings that are often challenging for industrial reuse. Building Vacancy,Figure 17: Surveyed Districts
  30. 30. 21 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas market pressure Many currently industrial areas of the City are facing significant pressure on continued industrial use from rising property values. Increased property values result from nearby infrastructure and amenity improvements, changing community expectations, and speculative interest in changes of use on the part of real estate developers. The accompanying graphic illustrates these pressures. Prior to the slump in the real estate market, for instance, the pressure from new mixed-use and residential development resulted in markedly increased property values from the residential areas of Northern Liberties and Fishtown into industrial parts of Kensington and American Street. More broadly, industrial areas have faced significant pressure to re-zone property to accommodate commercial, institutional, or residential development. To support surrounding residential uses, this has already occurred along South Delaware Avenue with big box retailers such as IKEA and Home Depot, in Parkside and Lawncrest for new supermarkets, and in the Northeast and Aramingo for large- scale shopping centers. Some industrial districts are home to hospitals and schools whose desires for expansion can place additional pressure on the long- term viability of industrial use. While rezoning of obsolete industrial facilities represents a beneficial repurposing of land and buildings, if left unchecked and with no strategic direction, this market-driven process can compromise the viability of the remaining industrial districts. Market Pressure: Callowhill, NorthernFigure 19: Liberties, American Street & Lower North Delaware Market Pressure in Industrial DistrictsFigure 18: Land Value per Square Foot Source: BRT
  31. 31. 22 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC improvement value Utilizing BRT property assessment records - with land and improvements assessed separately - in combination with survey information identifying industrial properties, the consultant team was able to approximate and compare industrial building values across all fifteen of Philadelphia’s industrial districts. (Averaging data for large numbers of properties in each district helped mitigate local inaccuracies in property assessment that have plagued the BRT.) The Northeast and South Delaware districts, with modern facilities and configurations concentrated around the airport and the food distribution center, respectively, show some of the highest value. Callowhill, Northern Liberties, and Roxborough also rank near the top - althought this is likely due to significant residential and commercial market pressure on property in these areas. The North Philadelphia Urban districts, plus American Street, were broadly found to contain lower-than-average improvement values, corresponding to survey observations of a large number of aged, obsolete, and dilapidated facilities. The most modern industrial facilities in the City were located in the industrial parks adjacent to the Northeast Philadelphia Airport (especially Byberry East and the mature industrial area immediately northwest of the Airport between Red Lion and Roosevelt Blvd.), and at the Navy Yard. These include the following recent industrial developments in Philadelphia: a new 345,500 sq. ft. Tastykake facility under construction at the Navy Yard; a 677,000 sq. ft. Philadelphia Regional Produce Market facility (relocating from the Food Distribution Center) on Essington near the International Airport; and a 209,000 sq. ft. expansion of Agusta Westland at the northwest corner of Northeast Philadelphia Airport. Improvement Value per Square Foot by DistrictFigure 20: *Industrial properties only, outliers excluded Source: BRT
  32. 32. 23 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas APPAREL cluster analysis Clustersaregeographicallyproximategroupsofinterconnectedcompaniesandassociatedinstitutionsinaparticular field, including product producers, service providers, suppliers, universities, and trade associations. Clusters arise out of the linkages or externalities that span across industries in a particular location. Clusters themselves differ from NAICS-based industries and subsectors, because they incorporate not just specific economic sub-sectors, but also the firms and businesses that provide inputs for the production process and distribute the end-products. In order to identify clusters that could serve as engines for industrial employment in Philadelphia, ICIC analyzed the performance of the 59 clusters that are present in Philadelphia. This analysis consisted of two distinct steps. The first step was to remove weak and underperforming clusters. ICIC utilized location quotient analysis and
  33. 33. 24 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC FOOD PROCESSING WHOLESALE applied criteria based on relative employment growth rates in the city, MSA, and the US as a whole to identify a short-list 31 clusters as potential targets. The second was to narrow the focus to those clusters with the highest industrial opportunity. At this stage, ICIC used a variety of metrics to identify clusters that were high-performing and fast-growing or had potential for job retention, further narrowing the 31 clusters to eleven “target” clusters (listed, at left, and grouped for purposes of this study into the categories of Advanced Manufacturing, Traditional Manufacturing, and Transportation). In all, these eleven target clusters have the best economic development potential for Philadelphia – and, in fact, already represent 64 percent of industrial employment in Philadelphia. These target clusters formed the basis for the land projections and overall recommendations for industrial growth and retention. Below, three of the eleven target clusters’ constituent firm locations have been mapped in order to graphically illustrate the phenomenon of spatial agglomeration at the heart of the cluster analysis performed in Philadelphia. In the Food Processing cluster, for instance, manufacturing and processing firms seem to have located largely across the North Philadelphia Urban districts and the Northeast, while the distribution functions concentrate adjacent to the port at the Food Distribution Center. Many of the distribution functions of the Wholesaling cluster, on the other hand, have gravitated to the I-95 corridor. Identifying and comparing these patterns has helped the consultant team make better sense of the locational decisions of industrial firms in Philadelphia.
  34. 34. 25 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas industrial intensity The question of how intensively Philadelphia’s industrial lands are – or are not – being utilized is a particularly difficult one to ascertain systematically. While a company occupying one floor of an old factory loft, or performing small-scale fabrication and repair, might not on its own constitute a particularly intensive use of the land, Philadelphia’s industrial might has historically consisted of a broad diversity of just such smaller-scale industries. The consultant team has taken an interpretive approach to determining levels of intensity, layering various dimensions of data with firsthand observation in order to synthesize a comparative mapping of the City’s industrial vitality. Areas described as Group 1 lands represent the City’s most intensive, diverse industrial agglomerations. The combination of high industrial employment and tax revenues, positive land utilization, relative industrial real estate stability, business diversity, and observed industrial vitality set this cluster of industrial nodes apart as some of the most important in the City. Group 2 nodes, while still areas of higher industrial employment relative to the rest of the City, contribute less in tax revenues, are less diverse – some are standalone operations such as large utilities - or are under a certain degree of pressure from real estate market forces. Group 3 areas are actually trending away from industrial use, although in some cases, stable long-term industrial mixed use scenarios could be appropriate. employment + revenue + vitality + diversity = industrial intensity Levels of Industrial IntensityFigure 21:
  35. 35. 26 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Comparing Industrial IntensityFigure 22: Aerial view of the Eastwick A industrial area between Essington and Lindbergh Avenues, south of 70th Street - home to M&M Display, Pepsi, Ottens Flavors, DHS, and Unisource. Source: Pictometry International 2009 and City of Philadelphia
  36. 36. 27 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas industrial expansion opportunities One of the most significant conclusions drawn by this study is that the City’s land capacity for future industrial development that is consistent with market demand and user requirements is quite limited. And, while the recommendations outlined herein actually seek to shrink Philadelphia’s industrial districts down to the most competitive core areas in the City, these areas - especially the Northeast, Southwest and the Delaware waterfront - also contain the most viable concentrations of potential land supply for future growth or redistribution of industrial activity. In the following analysis, the City’s industrial land supply was considered according to four levels, with varying contraints: Level I: Vacant The first tier consisted of vacant land and building parcels located in areas proposed for future industrial use based on historical patterns of use, available infrastructure and parcel sizes (e.g. in several instances, areas proposed for future industrial use are located within industrial districts but not currently zoned industrial). Land that is either completely or partially (greater than 50%) vacant was included, while vacant land under development or reserved for future development was excluded. The total area of level one land supply was 1,518 acres. Level II: Transitioning Next, parcels in transition and proposed for rezoning to residential use were identified. Land or buildings for sale within the fifteen districts were considered. Although this area totals only 196 acres, level two properties included large, well-located parcels such as the IRS property in the Northeast, the former Tastykake facilities in Hunting Park West, and the former Philadelphia Regional Produce market in South Delaware. Level III: Underutilized The third tier of land considered in the inventory of the City’s potential land supply for industrial growth was deemed “underutilized.” This category required careful definition, as many of these parcels were in current use and therefore require rationalization to justify any proposed reuse for industrial purposes. We focused on properties that were larger than 5 acres, with less than 10% building coverage, and that were currently being utilized for one of the following purposes: surface parking, scrap or salvage yards, waste transfer or recycling. In addition, smaller sites that otherwise fit the above description and that could be assembled with contiguous properties into a larger site size were also considered, as were large parcels such as the Sunoco North Yard property on the Lower Schuylkill. Underutilized properties added an additional 731 acres to the land supply inventory. Level IV: Game-changing A final level of properties considered in the industrial land supply inventory may be termed “game-changing.” This tier includes non-industrial properties such as the Island Green Country Club in the Northeast, the Essington Auto Mall in the Southwest, and some “industrial” parcels such as the SEPTA Midvale Yard and the Queen Lane Filter Station that have portions of their sites that are significantly underutilized. While likely more difficult to acquire, assemble, and/ or remediate, these properties were considered sufficiently large and well-located to have the potential to actually induce additional industrial land market demand in Philadelphia. While not included in the land assembly analysis, these properties should be carefully considered for a change of use, particularly if market conditions facilitate such a transaction. Potential Industrial Figure 23: Land Supply, 2009
  37. 37. 28 industriallandinphiladelphiaDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Industrial Land Assembly Potential Figure 24: by Acreage, 2009 Taken together, the first three levels of land supply (not including so-called “game-changing” properties) comprise a total 2,445 acres of land located in areas deemed most appropriate for future industrial retention or growth. However, these parcels comprise more than the sum of their parts: if contiguous parcels were acquired and assembled, the resulting larger sites might not just accommodate larger facilities, but also different classes of facility – large-scale distribution versus flex development, for example. Combined with clearly identified districts and zoning, sufficient infrastructure, and appropriate incentives, these larger parcels are much more likely to be able to attract private investment for industrial development than in their current state. At far right, contiguous parcels have been consolidated in order to illustrate the magnitude of this potential for industrial land assembly in Philadelphia. It is worth noting that much of this land is already under public control: PIDC and PAID property accounts for 12% of the identified land supply, while an additional 11% is under other public control - including City departments and agencies, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and federal government property.
  38. 38. 29 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas IIANALYSIS district by district district by district
  39. 39. 30 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC american street1 district
  40. 40. 31 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas American Street Industrial District Key MapFigure 25: introduction: American Street Industrial District The American Street industrial district consists of the corridor from Girard Avenue in the south to Allegheny in the north, including a wider node above Girard stretching from roughly 8th to Front Streets. Historically, various industries clustered along the section of rail and sidings running down the center of American Street in this area – the Reading Railroad’s former Bethlehem Branch - that was of major importance for ore trains running from Port Richmond to Bethlehem. The district is close to Center City Philadelphia, and shares certain characteristics with other “inner urban” industrial districts such as Callowhill and Northern Liberties. Theindustrialbuildingstockhereisoftenoldandfunctionallyobsolete,consistinglargelyofmulti- story lofts interspersed with single-story brick or concrete-block warehouse and workshop configurations; small parcels are common and truck circulation can be quite difficult away from the American Street corridor due to the dense grid of narrow local streets (a plan is now underway for a new “3rd Street Connector” to facilitate truck movement between American Street and Girard Avenue). Due to the area’s proximity to Center City and relatively low commercial and industrial rents, small-scale production and workshop activities are more prevalent here than elsewhere. Food distribution, wholesaling, and auto uses are also prominent in the corridor. Industry is still largely clustered along American Street, which is wide enough to allow tractor-trailers to turn around. The northern portion of the corridor, while less- intensive with regards to industrial activity, encompasses a strong commercial node along Lehigh. The corridor bridges from revitalizing areas in the south and east, centered around Northern Liberties and Fishtown, to the neighborhood of Fairhill that continues to suffer from high vacancy and crime – including the area around 3rd and Indiana once known as the “Badlands” of Philadelphia. This district once housed the original Stetson hat factory, the world’s largest at the time employing 4,000 people, and the Quaker Candy factory – makers of Good n’ Plenty. Today, the corridor houses food distributors like Chaes Foods, which moved into a new state-of-the-art distribution facility on North American Street in 2008. • District Size: Ranks 11th among surveyed districts at 253 acres in 3,242 properties. • Land Use: Dominant land uses are Industrial (37%), Vacant (25%), and Residential (19%). • Vacancy: Building vacancy is 8%. Land vacancy is 24% (31% of this is not zoned industrial). • Parcel Size: Ranks 15th at .08 acres average. • Buildings: Average building size is 17,437 square feet; average year built was 1938.
  41. 41. 32 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC
  42. 42. 33 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas history American Steeet, 1875 Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network American & Indiana, 1894 Palethorpe & Cecil B. Moore, 1949Images Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records
  43. 43. 34 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC American Street Industrial District ContextFigure 26: Source: 2008 field survey within industrial districts, BRT land use codes in surrounding areas context
  44. 44. 35 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas American Street Industrial District Transportation InfrastructureFigure 27: Source: City of Philadelphia transportation infrastructure
  45. 45. 36 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC American Street Industrial District Access to Public TransitFigure 28: Source: SEPTA access to transit
  46. 46. 37 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas American Street Industrial District Land UseFigure 29: Source: 2008 field survey land use
  47. 47. 38 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Source: City of Philadelphia American Street Industrial District Zoning, 2009Figure 31: American Street Industrial District Figure 30: Land Use & Zoning Comparison zoning
  48. 48. 39 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas American Street Industrial District by SectorFigure 32: Source: 2008 field survey industrial use American Street Industrial District Industrial Use by SectorFigure 33:
  49. 49. 40 americanstreetDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC American Street Industrial District VacancyFigure 34: Source: 2008 field survey Note: Partially vacant land or buildings are at least 50% vacant. Certain properties with significant - but less than 50% - vacancy are represented as “underutilized” in the citywide section of this atlas. vacancy
  50. 50. 41 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas
  51. 51. 42 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC aramingo2 district
  52. 52. 43 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Aramingo Industrial District Key MapFigure 35: introduction: Aramingo Industrial District The highly fragmented Aramingo industrial area is centered roughly around the intersection of Frankford Creek, the Amtrak Corridor, I-95, and Aramingo Avenue. Historically industrial, this area evolved when certain industries, such as leather tanning, were banned from operating in Center City Philadelphia in the 19th century and relocated north to the banks of Frankford Creek. In addition to leather, the area was known for Calico and other textile production. More recently, the area centered on Aramingo Avenue, southwest of the Creek, has experienced extensive redevelopment of industrial land to commercial and “big-box” retail uses. Due to the criss-crossing of major infrastructure that segments the land in this district, and the difficult access to individual properties this creates, it is possible that the core of this area could remain industrial for some time, while the peripheral industrial uses continue to experience neighborhood and commercial pressure for redevelopment. The Aramingo Industrial District has a large amount of land utilized for scrap and salvage yards, auto repair, construction uses, and goods movement operations such as trucking companies, that operate in close proximity to surrounding communities. This district is the location of the former Globe Dye Works complex. The historic buildings are being redeveloped as an innovative, green, artisanal and light industrial space by a collective of Philadelphia developers and designers, and may represent a viable model for continued industrial utilization of existing, vacant and/or historical industrial structures. • District Size: Ranks 9th among surveyed districts at 545 acres in 2,757 properties. • Land Use: Dominant land use is Industrial (49%), followed by Residential (13%), Vacant (12%), and Auto (10%). • Vacancy: Building vacancy is 6%. Land vacancy is 12% (15% of this is not zoned industrial). • Parcel Size: Ranks 13th at .20 acres average. • Buildings: Average building size is 29,287 square feet; average year built was 1939.
  53. 53. 44 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC
  54. 54. 45 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas history Castor & Sepviva, 1900 Images Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records Frankford & Sedgley, 1955 Hunting Park & Kensington, 1916Aramingo, 1944. Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network
  55. 55. 46 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Aramingo Industrial District ContextFigure 36: Source: 2008 field survey within industrial districts, BRT land use codes in surrounding areas context
  56. 56. 47 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Aramingo Industrial District Transportation InfrastructureFigure 37: Source: City of Philadelphia transportation infrastructure
  57. 57. 48 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Aramingo Industrial District Access to Public TransitFigure 38: Source: SEPTA access to transit
  58. 58. 49 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Aramingo Industrial District Land UseFigure 39: Source: 2008 field survey land use
  59. 59. 50 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Aramingo Industrial District Figure 40: Land Use & Zoning Comparison zoning Source: City of Philadelphia Aramingo Industrial District Zoning, 2009Figure 41:
  60. 60. 51 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Aramingo Industrial District by SectorFigure 42: Source: 2008 field survey industrial use Aramingo Industrial District Industrial Use by SectorFigure 43:
  61. 61. 52 aramingoDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Aramingo Industrial District VacancyFigure 44: Source: 2008 field survey vacancy Note: Partially vacant land or buildings are at least 50% vacant. Certain properties with significant - but less than 50% - vacancy are represented as “underutilized” in the citywide section of this atlas.
  62. 62. 53 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas
  63. 63. 54 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC callowhill3 district
  64. 64. 55 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Callowhill Industrial District Key MapFigure 45: introduction: Callowhill Industrial District The Callowhill industrial district consists of a small mixed-use neighborhood, alternately known as the “loft district,” “NOVI” (for “north of Vine”) or Chinatown North, sandwiched between Broad Street and I-95, from Spring Garden to Vine Street. This historically mixed residential, commercial, and industrial neighborhood had been in decline by the 1960’s when the Philadelphia City Planning Commission flagged the area for industrial revitalization and included it within the Franklin-Callowhill East Urban Renewal Area. The Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) then proceeded to acquire, assemble, and finance the sale of property in the eastern end of the district to industrial and institutional developers. Presently, the area plays host to a unique assortment of Center City-serving food wholesaling, restaurant equipment repair and fabrication, building material suppliers, mid-sized manufacturing, utilities, union offices, medical services, and homes. The district is an eclectic one both for its unique mix of land use, as well as its physical forms and textures - including several remaining cobblestone streets and the Reading Railroad elevated viaduct that dominates the center of the district. There has been much interest in addressing the disconnection from Center City brought about by the 1991 completion of the below-grade Vine Street Expressway. This interest corresponds to a recent spate of multifamily housing development by the Philadelphia Chinatown Development Corporation as well as condominium and apartment conversions of several loft buildings throughout the district. The western end of the district, bordering on Broad Street, is comprised of office and light industrial space as well as surface parking lots. The Callowhill district is probably best known to most Philadelphians for its musical venues, including the Electric Factory, Transit, Plush, the Starlight Ballroom, Silk City, and the Palmer Social Club. However, nearly one-quarter of the land use here remains industrial, housing large operations such as the Destination Maternity Corporation’s distribution headquarters, and a National Chemical Labs cleaning product manufacturing facility. • District Size: Ranks 14th among surveyed districts at 115 acres in 344 properties. • Land Use: Evenly mixed land uses include Industrial (23%), Institutional (18%), Commercial (17%), Parking (11%), and Vacant (10%). • Vacancy: Building vacancy is 18%, due to a handful of large, vacant multi-story loft buildings. Land vacancy is 9% (14% of this is not zoned industrial). • Parcel Size: Ranks 11th at .33 acres average. • Buildings: Average building size is 21,788 square feet; average year built was 1926. • Recent Developments: FedEx recently shuttered its distribution center oat 9th and Spring Garden Streets.
  65. 65. 56 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC
  66. 66. 57 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas history 12th & Callowhill, 1894Images Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records 2nd & Spring Garden, 1964 13th & Callowhill Callowhill district, 1875. Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network
  67. 67. 58 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Callowhill Industrial District ContextFigure 46: Source: 2008 field survey within industrial districts, BRT land use codes in surrounding areas context
  68. 68. 59 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Callowhill Industrial District Transportation InfrastructureFigure 47: Source: City of Philadelphia transportation infrastructure
  69. 69. 60 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Callowhill Industrial District Access to Public TransitFigure 48: Source: SEPTA access to transit
  70. 70. 61 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Callowhill Industrial District Land UseFigure 49: Source: 2008 field survey land use
  71. 71. 62 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Callowhill Industrial District Figure 50: Land Use & Zoning Comparison zoning Source: City of Philadelphia Callowhill Industrial District Zoning, 2009Figure 51:
  72. 72. 63 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Callowhill Industrial District by SectorFigure 52: Source: 2008 field survey industrial use Callowhill Industrial District Industrial Use by SectorFigure 53:
  73. 73. 64 callowhillDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Callowhill Industrial District VacancyFigure 54: Source: 2008 field survey vacancy Note: Partially vacant land or buildings are at least 50% vacant. Certain properties with significant - but less than 50% - vacancy are represented as “underutilized” in the citywide section of this atlas.
  74. 74. 65 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas
  75. 75. 66 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC grays ferry4 district
  76. 76. 67 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Grays Ferry Industrial District Key MapFigure 55: introduction: Grays Ferry Industrial District The Grays Ferry industrial district covers a vast swath of historically industrial land stretching from the former DuPont Marshall Labs and Forgotten Bottom neighborhood south to the Navy Yard, and is bounded by the lower Schuylkill River on the west and the residential neighborhoods of Grays Ferry, Point Breeze, and Girard Estates to the east. The district is dominated by Sunoco’s sprawling Philadelphia Refinery and storage tank complex, the largely underutilized Sunoco North Yard, the Philadelphia Gas Works, and the Navy Yard complex located to the south on what was once League Island. The Philadelphia Refinery is the country’s oldest continuously operating petroleum facility – dating to the 1860s. It was purchased from the Atlantic Refining Company by Sunoco in 1988, and consolidated with an adjacent refinery purchased from Chevron in 1994. According to the company’s website, in addition to processing “330,000 barrels a day of crude oil into fuels – including gasoline, aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, residual fuel, propane and butane,” the facility also “produces petrochemical feedstocks which are shipped to the Sunoco Chemicals’ Frankford plant to make phenol, used in the manufacture of plastics and synthetics”. Presently, the Navy Yard to the south is one of PIDC’s most significant industrial development sites with major relocations to the former naval base including Aker Shipyard, Penn Ship Repair, Tastykake, Apptec, and Urban Outfitters. At the northern end of the district, planning is underway to extend the Schuylkill Banks river trail south from its current terminus near Locust street, along the DuPont crescent (located along the river adjacent to DuPont’s now-defunct Marshall Labs) before crossing to the west bank of the Schuylkill at Bartram’s Garden. A seven-acre brownfield at Girard Point, near the southwest corner of the Navy Yard adjacent to I-95, has been announced by Mayor Nutter as the site of a future large-scale solar facility to be developed in partnership with Exelon. • District Size: Ranks 3rd among surveyed districts at 1,946 acres in 1,482 properties. • Land Use: Dominant land use is Industrial (81%), followed by Vacant (11%). • Vacancy: Building vacancy is 9%, due largely to the large vacant warehouses of the former US Army Quartermaster Depot. Land vacancy is 9% (30% of this is not zoned industrial). • Parcel Size: Ranks 7th at 1.36 acres average. • Buildings: Average building size is 71,756 square feet; average year built was 1945. • Recent Developments: A new Tastykake bakery and distribution facility was recently completed north of Girard Point at the Navy Yard, and DuPont has announced the closure of the Marshall Labs facility on Grays Ferry and 34th Street.
  77. 77. 68 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC
  78. 78. 69 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas history Images Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records Navy Yard Pier 36, 1915 Oakford & 25th, 1924 Wharton & 25th, 1916 Vare Avenue, 1949Atlantic Refining and environs, 1944. Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network
  79. 79. 70 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Grays Ferry Industrial District ContextFigure 56: Source: 2008 field survey within industrial districts, BRT land use codes in surrounding areas context
  80. 80. 71 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Grays Ferry Industrial District Transportation InfrastructureFigure 57: Source: City of Philadelphia transportation infrastructure
  81. 81. 72 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Grays Ferry Industrial District Access to Public TransitFigure 58: Source: SEPTA access to transit
  82. 82. 73 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Grays Ferry Industrial District Land UseFigure 59: Source: 2008 field survey land use
  83. 83. 74 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Grays Ferry Industrial District Figure 60: Land Use & Zoning Comparison zoning Source: City of Philadelphia Grays Ferry Industrial District Zoning, 2009Figure 61:
  84. 84. 75 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas Grays Ferry Industrial District by SectorFigure 62: Source: 2008 field survey industrial use Grays Ferry Industrial District Industrial Use by SectorFigure 63:
  85. 85. 76 graysferryDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Grays Ferry Industrial District VacancyFigure 64: Source: 2008 field survey vacancy Note: Partially vacant land or buildings are at least 50% vacant. Certain properties with significant - but less than 50% - vacancy are represented as “underutilized” in the citywide section of this atlas.
  86. 86. 77 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land atlas
  87. 87. 78 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC hunting park east5 district
  88. 88. 79 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas Hunting Park East Industrial District Key MapFigure 65: introduction: Hunting Park East Industrial District The Hunting Park East industrial district lies along and to the north of the Amtrak rail corridor in the north- central section of the City. It is comprised of two distinctly different areas to the east and west of the large cemeteries and school that split the industrial areas down the middle to Erie Avenue. The western half is a low-intensity jumble of distribution, scrap and salvage, auto uses, and a SEPTA maintenance yard. The eastern half, however, comprises a dense node of manufacturing, distribution, and utility uses including the Philadelphia Coca-Cola Bottling Plant and distribution center, a Menasha packing plant, a Case Paper distribution facility, G.E.’s Appliance Servicing Center, and various utilities. While many of these are “legacy” firms that have operated in the area for a some time, there remain significant advantages to industry here - including some large parcels, active freight rail sidings, a critical mass of stable industrial land uses, and proximity to supply, distribution and labor networks. While property values are stable in the Juniata Park residential neighborhood adjacent to the district to the northeast, industries on the western side of the district sit cheek to jowl with residential neighborhoods suffering declining property values and higher than average crime rates. Hunting Park East is home to the Philadelphia Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, the fourth-largest distributor of Coca-Cola products nationwide, and the single largest bottling complex in North America. Philly Coke distributes over 30,000,000 cases of soft drinks each year and serves approximately 6 million consumers, providing the region approximately 1,200 jobs. • District Size: Ranks 7th among surveyed districts at 821 acres in 2,760 parcels. • Land Use: Dominant land use is Industrial (58%), followed by Vacant (10%), Institutional (9%), and Residential (8%). • Vacancy: Building vacancy is 8%. Land vacancy is 10% (2% of this is not zoned industrial). • Parcel Size: Ranks 12th at .30 acres average. • Buildings: Average building size is 44,086 square feet; average year built was 1949.
  89. 89. 80 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC
  90. 90. 81 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas history 2nd & Luzerne, 1952. Image Source: City of Philadelphia Department of Records American & Luzerne, 1962. Image Source: City of Philadelphia Department of RecordsLuzerne St, 1944. Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network Rising Sun Avenue, 1910; Source: Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network
  91. 91. 82 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Hunting Park East Industrial District ContextFigure 66: Source: 2008 field survey within industrial districts, BRT land use codes in surrounding areas context
  92. 92. 83 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas Hunting Park East Industrial District Figure 67: Transportation Infrastructure Source: City of Philadelphia transportation infrastructure
  93. 93. 84 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Hunting Park East Industrial District Access to Public TransitFigure 68: Source: SEPTA access to transit
  94. 94. 85 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas Hunting Park East Industrial District Land UseFigure 69: Source: 2008 field survey land use
  95. 95. 86 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Hunting Park East Industrial District Figure 70: Land Use & Zoning Comparison zoning Source: City of Philadelphia Hunting Park East Industrial District Zoning, 2009Figure 71:
  96. 96. 87 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas Hunting Park East Industrial District by SectorFigure 72: Source: 2008 field survey industrial use Hunting Park East Industrial District Industrial Use by SectorFigure 73:
  97. 97. 88 huntingparkeastDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC Hunting Park East Industrial District VacancyFigure 74: Source: 2008 field survey vacancy Note: Partially vacant land or buildings are at least 50% vacant. Certain properties with significant - but less than 50% - vacancy are represented as “underutilized” in the citywide section of this atlas.
  98. 98. 89 City of Philadelphia :: philadelphia industrial land use atlas
  99. 99. 90 huntingparkwestDRAFTATlas prepared by _Interface Studio LLC hunting park west6 district

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