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Emerging Communications Tech: Lessons from Hurricane Sandy and Super Typhoon Haiyan

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This presentation takes a look at two recent Cisco TacOps deployments, Hurricane Sandy and Super Typhoon Haiyan, and examines the emerging communications technologies that are bringing innovation to disasters and humanitarian crises.

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Emerging Communications Tech: Lessons from Hurricane Sandy and Super Typhoon Haiyan

  1. 1. Lessons learned from Hurricane Sandy and Super Typhoon Haiyan Cisco Systems Tactical Operations www.cisco.com/go/tacops © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Cisco 1
  2. 2. • About Cisco Tactical Operations • The Fundamental Technology Problem • Hurricane Sandy • Lessons From Sandy • Super Typhoon Haiyan • Lessons From Haiyan • Key Takeaways © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. Introducing Cisco Tactical Operations © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. • 2003: Team formed to provide networking support for military operations • 2005: Hurricane Katrina decimates Gulf region, Cisco sends hundreds of volunteers and tons of equipment but response is not coordinated      Many willing engineers, but few trained for the environment Poor situational awareness Lack of coordination Conflicting messages confused customers No standardized Cisco mobile platform for disaster response • Post-Katrina, TacOps mission changed to focus on disaster response and recovery © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  5. 5.  Product Grants  Trained Personnel  Support for Corporate Give-Back Events  Accountability: Cisco annual Corporate Social Responsibility Reports http://csr.cisco.com Good for the Community, Good for Cisco! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6.  Dedicated crisis response team that establishes emergency networks after a disaster  TacOps personnel skills include: Technical Expertise Planning, Logistics and Operations Trained First Responders (Fire, EMS) Military Service © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7.  Disaster Incident Response Team  Cisco employees who volunteer with TacOps during deployments  Trained in TacOps solutions, incident command, disaster environments  US and global presence (China, UK / Ireland, Brazil) with additional international teams planned © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. • Network Emergency Response Vehicle (NERV) - NIMS Type II Mobile Comm Center - Large scale network services core - “Respond locally, communicate globally” • Emergency Comm. Unit Trailer (ECU) - NIMS Type III Mobile Comm Center - Same tech capabilities as NERV - “Drop and go” solution - C-17 Airlift Capable • Mobile Communicator Vehicle (MC2/MCV) - NIMS Type IV MCC (with satellite, VoIP) - Medium scale network services core • Emergency Communications Kit (ECK) - Rapidly deployable communications capability - Airline checkable or carry-on form factors • Platforms evolve as technology improves! • Many other “tools in the toolbox” © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. Cisco Tactical Operations Deployments Disaster Incident Responses • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2005 – Hurricane Katrina (LA) 2007 – Harris Fire (San Diego, CA) * 2008 – Evans Road Fire (NC) * 2008 – Cedar Rapids Floods (IA) * 2008 – Hurricane Gustav (LA) * 2008 – Hurricane Ike (TX) * 2009 – Morgan Hill Fiber Cut (CA) * 2010 – Earthquake (Haiti) 2010 – Plane Crash (Palo Alto, CA) * 2010 – Four Mile Canyon Fire (CO) 2010 – Operation Verdict (Oakland, CA) * 2010 – Earthquake (Christchurch, NZ) 2010 – Gas Pipeline Explosion (San Bruno, CA) * 2011 – Flooding (Queensland, AU) 2011 – Tornados (Raleigh, NC) * 2011 – Tornados (AL) * 2011 – Tornado (Joplin, MO) 2011 – Tornado (Goderich, Ontario) 2011 – Flooding (Brazil) 2011 – Earthquake and Tsunami (Japan) 2012 – Waldo Canyon Fire (CO) * 2012 – Hurricane Sandy (NY / NJ) * 2013 – Boston Marathon Explosion (MA) 2013 – Fertilizer Plant Explosion (West, TX) * © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Disaster Incident Responses (cont’d)     2013 – Tornado (Moore, OK) * 2013 – St. Mary’s College Fire (Leyland, UK) 2013 – Navy Yard Shooting (Washington, DC) 2013 – Typhoon Haiyan / Yolanda (Philippines) Planned Exercises                 2010 – Golden Guardian (CA) * 2010 – Operation Hotel California (CA) * 2010 – Bay Area Urban Shield (CA) * 2011 – Bayex (CA) * 2011 – Boston Urban Shield (MD) * 2011 – DMI Vehicle Rally (CA) * 2011 – Fairfax County Vehicle Rally (VA) * 2011 – Pacific Endeavor (Singapore) 2011 – Bay Area Urban Shield (CA) * 2012 – Quake on the Blue Ridge (NC) * 2012 – Fairfax County Vehicle Rally (VA) * 2012 – Pacific Endeavor (Singapore) 2013 – Quake on the Blue Ridge (NC) * 2013 – Golden Guardian (CA) * 2013 – Pacific Endeavor (Thailand) 2013 – Bay Area Urban Shield (CA) * = NERV or ECU Deployed Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. Emergency Response Tech: The Challenge © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. Public Safety NGOs/VOADs/ International Orgs In complex disasters with multiple response organizations … Transportation How to deliver the right information in the right format to the right person on the right device at the right time? Critical Infrastructure Healthcare Defense © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. National, State & Local Government 11 Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. Evolution in People, Process and Technologies to support Disaster and Humanitarian relief Goal: Mission workflow and productivity benefits that save lives and speed recovery. • Radio, Phone Radio + Integrated Mobile/Fixed Data • Single Device Any Device • Voice only Voice, Video, Data • Closed Teams Open Collaboration • Cmd&Control Centric In the field, social media, everybody • Fixed Locations Deployable anywhere © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. 20 million tweets between 27 Oct – 1 Nov 2012 about Hurricane Sandy. “Information is a basic need in humanitarian response” – Humanitarianism in the Network Age, UN OCHA (2013) “…I need someone up there to get on social media and let people know what we’re doing here…” – Boston Police Transcript, Boston Marathon Bombing April 2013 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. Hurricane Sandy © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15.  The deadliest storm of the 2012 hurricane season.  Landfall (US) on October 29, 2012 near Brigantine, NJ  Second costliest storm ever ($68B USD)  The largest Atlantic storm on record (1,100 mile diameter)  286 fatalities in seven countries  Significant disruption to critical infrastructure: transportation, utilities, aviation, Wall Street etc. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16.  Activated Cisco’s internal Customer Crisis Team supporting critical customers + deployed team  Launched response team to affected area  Provided on-scene support to public safety agencies, local governments, disaster relief centers, and NGOs in the NYC and NJ areas  Stayed on scene Nov 1 – Nov 16 2012  Restored communications to public safety agencies who had lost pre-storm capabilities  Deployed new temporary infrastructure for relief agencies  Implemented Hastily Formed Network (HFN) architectures for data, voice and video © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. Tech Lessons From Hurricane Sandy © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18.  Every emergency is local: technology empowers anyone to organize and respond  “Respond locally, organize globally”  Multiple pre-existing and ad-hoc groups joined forces to augment overwhelmed responders  Challenge: How do traditional responders and agencies interface with ad-hoc or non-traditional organizations? © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. • Legacy POTS customers had very long restoration times (months!) • Flexibility of VoIP allowed quicker recovery, even in alternate locations • Cloud-hosted and centralized, agency-run solutions deployed • Proper design is important (Backup Power, Capacity, QoS) • “Survivable” solutions resilient to centralized server failures • Specific backhaul medium less critical (VSAT, 4G, Cable Modem, T1) © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. • AnyConnect VPN software allowed “work-from-anywhere” flexibility (BYOD or agency-owned assets) • ASA and Router hardware for single, multi-user sites or vehicles • Multiple, geographically separated VPN head-ends were critical • Agencies with specific software requirements on laptops needed more time to deploy assets. Have these pre-staged! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  21. 21.  Significant engagement of mobile and online technologies by gov’t before, during and after landfall  Use of www.[agency].gov/sandy to simplify agency contact point for Sandy  Facilitated multi-way information sharing: Government to Public Private Sector to Public Public to Government (e.g. FDNY “911” twitter) Public to Public • Rumor control & misinformation management • The conversation happens with or without you. You don’t control whether it happens or not. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. • Sandy = TacOps’ first major experience of video providing actionable intelligence at a disaster • Emerging hazard situation: on-scene fire chief couldn’t get proper resources over phone or radio • Only when we put cameras on the hazard, and streamed it to city’s EOC, did proper resources get dispatched • Also provided situational awareness for personnel inside agency buildings re: crowd situations, rising water, weather conditions © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. • LTE is significantly deployed in the United States • We tested both WiMax and LTE data communications in NYC post Sandy • In several instances, this allowed us to move away from VSAT = faster speeds, less latency • Consider the use of terrestrial mobile data where appropriate; pre-deployed as backup circuit • Plan for contingencies, mobile network congestion, transition back to normal operations © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. • “Wired when you can, wireless when you must” • Physical connection = increased reliability • Limits password and user access management headaches • 2.4 / 5.8 GHz spectrum congestion • Buildings attenuate signals • Be prepared to deploy wired networks early in the response! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  25. 25. • Phases of tech deployment (predicted): 1) HQ, 2) Field, 3) Public • Observed deployment sequence: 1) HQ, 2) Public (BYOD), 3) Field • Applications enabled rapid data sharing to/from large audiences • Most applicable for developed populations (for now); Increasing trend in developing countries, too, where more people have cell phones than TVs • Be alert for underserved communities, those with less access to tech (special needs / populations) © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. • Increasing use of Ka-band VSAT • Attractive pricing model • Increased bandwidth (typically 10x over Ku-band) • Smaller terminals = more portable • Hardware can be less expensive • Rain-fade challenges • Limited service provider choices © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29.  Two TacOps teams mobilized.  Over 5,000 lbs of equipment and supplies airlifted by Philippine Air Force.  Teams staged in Manila  Deployed to Guiuan, Borongan  Tech deployed in Tacloban  Support to Philippine Armed Forces, Philippine gov, United Nations, NGOs © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Tech Lessons From Super Typhoon Haiyan © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. • Sustainability = ability to maintain and support solution throughout duration of the incident (response and recovery phases) • Advanced technology is great. Who will support it when the skilled technicians go home? • Consider less sophisticated, more sustainable tech; or manage staffing accordingly • All TacOps missions have success criteria, support plans and transition/exit strategies • Plan for demobilization before you deploy! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. • You need a place outside of the disaster to plan, coordinate logistics, manage intelligence. • It needs to be outside of the disaster zone (normal services and infrastructure) • Send your people and equipment to “staging,” then send them in when you have sustainability and clarity of tasks. • We were able to test our gear to make sure nothing broke on the way over. • Getting in is easy – sustaining yourself is harder! © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. Wrapping up… © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. • Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in disaster and humanitarian relief must be deployed early • Emergency ICT teams need proper equipment, training, processes to scale and sustain • Consumer technology is getting less expensive, more available, better apps, better adoption; Leverage these trends! • It’s all about the “5 Rights” of emergency comms: Right Information, Right Time, Right Format, Right Device, Right Person © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36.  On Cisco.com: www.cisco.com/go/tacops  Facebook: www.facebook.com/cisco.tacops  Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/ciscoTACOPS  Twitter: @CiscoTACOPS  Instagram: @CiscoTACOPS  Email: tacops-info@cisco.com  Emergency activation contact on our cisco.com page © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. Thank you. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37

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