The Legacy of the Public Sector: Past, Present, and Future


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Discover the legacy of the public sector. Read how several public sector leaders have courageously come to terms with the past, boldly transformed their organizations in the present, and paved the way for innovation in the future - performing the highest form of service they can render as a public servant: establishing their legacies. Attached is the whitepaper for you to share with your teams for motivation and enjoyment.

"The best way to predict your future is to create it." -Abraham Lincoln

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The Legacy of the Public Sector: Past, Present, and Future

  1. 1. Wherewe’vebeen,WherewearegoingandHowwewillberememberedtheLegacyPlayAn obligationof trustThe best wayto predict yourfuture is tocreate it.Yesterday is gone.Tomorrow hasnot yet come.We have only today.Let us begin.
  2. 2. contents:03 INTRODUCTION: Crafting Your Legacy to Shape the Future04 Part1: Marshaling the Courage to Overcome the Past08 Part2: Leading to Master the Present14 Part3: Building for the Future28 Conclusion: Writing Your Legacy, One Page at a Time2040814
  3. 3. 3CraftingYourLegacy toShapetheFutureQuick—what’syourlegacy?The term “legacy” has manydifferent meanings — somegood, some bad. But after years of workinnovating under pressure, it’s a perfectword to encapsulate everything itmeans to be a public IT leader. Legacyis about the past: the so-called legacysystems that we inherited from decadesago (and on which some public agen-cies still disproportionately rely). But italso conjures images of the present andfuture, of where we are today and wherewe are going.IT leaders should think of their legacyearly and often throughout their careers.In fact, it’s probably the first and the lastquestion that crosses any top executive’smind upon taking a post. What will mywork mean to this organization after Iam long gone? What foundation am Ilaying to ensure a brighter future?It may seem selfish, or at least a bitself-serving, to consider one’s legacy. Butthe exact opposite is true. Thoughtfullycrafting a legacy is the highest form ofservice that an executive can render tothe team that he or she leads. Stayingfocused on your legacy will insulate youfrom the thousand vagaries and milliondistractions that will descend on yourdesk. Considering your legacy puts theforest first, and the trees second.In this paper, we’ll take a look at legacyfrom three perspectives: past, presentand future. First, we will courageouslycome to terms with the past. Then, inthe present, we will boldly transform ourorganizations. And we’ll close by consid-ering the bright future ahead. g2/ Legacy - modifier(modernization)Masteringthe present...“Describingsoftwareorhardwarethathasbeensupersededbutisdifficulttoreplacebecauseofitswideuse.”1/ Legacy - nounComingtotermswiththe past...“Athinghandeddownbyanancestororpredecessor:thelegacyofancientRome.”Thethreedimensionsofcraftingalegacy:3/ Legacy- noun(legalterm)Building forthe future...“Agiftofpersonalpropertyormoneytoabeneficiary(legatee)ofawill.”Source:DefinitionsadaptedfromtheOxfordEnglishDictionaryandtheFarlexFreeDictionary.Itmayseemselfish,oratleastabitself-serving,toconsiderone’slegacy.Buttheexactoppositeistrue.Thought-fullycraftingalegacyisthehighestformofservicethatanexecutivecanrendertotheteamthatheorsheleads.
  4. 4. Before we start, let’s be clearabout what we mean by “past”in this section. We aren’tproviding a history lesson, nor are wewaxing poetic about the bygone daysof punch cards and magnetic tape.We certainly are not implying that theCIOs, organizations and technologiesthat we profile in this section are stuckin the past. Far from it.This story is about leaders whotook hold of the past with both handsand purposefully charted a path totransformation in the present. It isalso about the assets and liabilitiesthat must be considered during sucha transformation. Because let’s faceit: Some legacy systems have been inplace for 20 to 30 years, or longer. Ourorganizations are also often saddledwith legacy people and legacy businessprocesses. All of these are legacies ofthe past, and will confront a CIO thefirst day on the job.TransformingThrough LeadershipTake Texas CIO Karen Robinson, forexample. When Robinson assumed herrole, she inherited some Texas-sizedproblems. She took on an agency thatwas replete with negative press, misseddeadlines and dissatisfied agency stake-holders. The agency only narrowlysurvived intact when the governorstepped in with a last-minute veto.1To call this “legacy past” a challengewould be a dramatic understatement.The difficulty seemed larger than anyone agency head could take on. As thesong goes, Robinson had “a long way togo, and a short time to get there.”2“One of the first challenges that Ihad was with the data center project,”said Robinson. “We put the governancestructure together, and I went to allthe executive directors of the agenciesinvolvedintheprojectandaskedthemtobe part of the solution.” She reached outin earnest, not just as a formality. “Therewas an opportunity to sit at the table andhelp me identify what we needed to do,”said Robinson. “The bottom line waswe needed a new solution for the datacenter project to become successful.”3The ensuing Texas transforma-tion that Robinson led was foundedon bedrock principles of leadership.Thomas Johnson, chief communica-tions officer for the agency, describedRobinson’s approach this way: “goingto each and every stakeholder with[her] hand outstretched, with an openattitude, and telling someone directly,‘This hasn’t worked … we need yourhelp. We need your advice to moveforward and make this a success.’” As itturned out, the key to the turnaroundwasn’t found in the heady realm ofprocurement law or the bits and bytesof some newfangled computer code. Itall depended on a good, old-fashionedcharacter virtue typical of magnani-mous leaders: humility.4Fast-forward nearly three years, andthe picture is brighter than ever. Texasis winning awards and positive pressfrom coast to coast. Recently, the TexasHouse of Representatives passed a billthat mirrors the recommendation ofthe Sunset Advisory Commission toextend the life of the agency through2021 — a remarkable achievement.5The bill is currently under consid-eration in the Senate. Forbes.comrecognized DIR as “one of the few, ifnot the only, live operational models ofcloud brokerage use within a govern-ment context.”6As a technology leader coming totermswithyourownlegacy,askyourself4Asatechnologyleadercomingtotermswithyourownlegacy,ask yourself the fun questions: What advantages do I have?Whatdidmypredecessordoright?Butdon’tforgetthehardones:Whatareourshortcomings?MarshalingtheCouragetoOvercomethePast
  5. 5. 5Tostatethefactsfranklyisnottodespairthefuturenorindictthepast.Theprudentheirtakescarefulinventoryofhislegaciesandgivesafaithfulaccountingtothosewhomheowesanobligationoftrust.”— John F.
  6. 6. the fun questions. What advantages doyou have? What did your predecessordo right? What is unique and positivewith your organization? But don’t forgetthe hard questions as well. What are myliabilities? What are our shortcomings?OvercomingLegacySkillsAsaCIO,youalsohavetotakestockofthe employees who keep your govern-ment agency running and interact eachday with the constituents you serve.These include systems administrators,business analysts, project managers,technology implementers and others:the whole range of individuals on yourteam. It’s not uncommon in govern-ment to find teams whose skills aresomewhat out of date. But it doesn’thave to stay that way.When Carolyn Lawson, joint CIO ofthe Oregon Health Authority and theOregonDepartmentofHumanServices,took the helm, she met a familiar sight:“I was dealing with legacy staff, not justa legacy environment. This staff hadlegacy skills — not poor skills, just tradi-tional IT skills.” Rather than give up,Lawson spied an opportunity to movethe organization forward.7“I sent out an email to everybody — Idid not care if you were a receptioniston the help desk or a senior engineer,”said Lawson. “I said, ‘We are going tohave enterprise architecture training. Ifyou have an opportunity to change thisorganization forever, who is in? If youare in, send me your résumé.’”The response was overwhelming.She ended up with 20 participants,many of whom were far from theusual suspects. Lawson describes onewoman who was so nervous she wasshaking. “She could articulate whyit was important to the business,”Lawson said. “She did not have all ofthe technical knowledge but she couldsee she had the ability to see beyondthe technology … she was in.”Given the right leadership, the staffwhose skills appear to be the most outof date might be your future socialmedia experts or cloud computingspecialists. Giving your team a chanceto excel and an opportunity to trans-form themselves can be the mostempowering activity you can under-take as a technology leader.TamingaPaperTsunamiSanjeev “Sonny” Bhagowalia con-fronted a rough past when he assumedthe CIO role in the Aloha State. Hawaiihadn’t meaningfully invested in tech-nology for decades. “Only about 5percent of the services are online,” saidBhagowalia. “Most of our systems areabout 30 to 40 years old; that is the envi-ronment we are trying to transform.”To make matters worse, one promi-nentstatedatacenteris“aboutonemileaway from the water and it’s techni-cally below sea level. That’s not a goodcombination for paper or technology.”8Only after completing a survey of thepast — including meeting personallywith numerous staff — did Bhagowaliacraft an ambitious transformation planfor the state, which was recently recog-nized as the only state awarded theprestigious Federal 100 Award.Hawaii’stransformationplan“isnoth-ing short of a full business and technol-ogy transformation,” said Bhagowalia.For example, paper is processed at anastounding rate in Hawaii. Bhagowaliaexplained that “in one division alonewe process 24 million pieces of paper[a month]. There are about 8 to 10 di-visions in that department, and thereare 18 departments. Linearly we cannotextrapolate, but that’s a lot of paper.”Take the Department of Taxation(DoTAX), which has been operating in apaper-intensive environment for decades.“In close partnership with DoTAX,we are in the process of launching theacquisition and subsequent deploymentof a tax modernization system that willchange that,” said Bhagowalia. The StateSenate has led by example in success-fully switching to electronic systems andpaperless processes, and now conductsbudgetmeetingsovertheWebonlaptopsand tablets.However, Bhagowalia said that thisis a small step forward on what will bea very long road. He is trying to initiatea policy to allow employees to acceptdigital signatures as long as there istwo-factor authentication already in thesystem (e.g. ID and password). He alsodescribed a planned enterprise resourceplanning (ERP) system, a Top 10 enter-prise transformation program. The ERPsystemwillrevolutionizesevenfunctionsin the state: budget and finance, payroll,time and attendance, human resources,asset management, acquisition manage-ment and grants management.“With adequate funding, this ERPsystem will take at least five years, plusthe acquisition timeframe of a minimumof six months,” Bhagowalia said. “Itwill take a while for us to get close topaperless.” But the intent — and moreimportantly, the plan — is in place tomake meaningful progress in escapingthe paper tsunami.ExtendingSystemsin NewDirectionsIt’s tempting to think of everythingfrom the past as old and inadequate,but this is far from the truth. Someline-of-business systems and modules6I wenttoalltheeinthe(datacenter)pthetableandhelpmlinewasweneededatobecomesuccessfu
  7. 7. 7executivedirectorsoftheagenciesinvolvedproject.Therewasanopportunitytositatmeidentifywhatweneededtodo.Thebottomanewsolutionforthedatacenterprojectul.” — Karen RobinsonTexasDepartmentofInformationResourceshave been working properly for 40 ormore years. Many systems that managethe core operations of our agencies runsmoothly, are supportable, and can bemaintained efficiently moving forward.They don’t need to be replaced — justextended in new directions.Florida State College at Jackson-ville (FSCJ) is a great example ofhow past investments can still yield areturn today. No one needs to adaptto new mobility and digital strategieslike colleges. FSCJ has thousands ofstudents, making it the fifth largestinstitution of its kind in the nation.And FSCJ serves Jacksonville, the“youngest major city in Florida,” witha median population age of 35.9“Thekeytoasuccessfulstudentexpe-rience is our ability to leverage theirexisting behaviors and platforms to ourmutual advantage,” said FSCJ CIO Dr.Rob Rennie. “Everything must be of thehighest quality and must be mobile.”But the college faced a challengein this respect. Most of the data andfunctionality that the students wantedto access from mobile devices wasmanaged by the college’s establishedlegacy systems. The legacy systemswere workhorses, and the collegehad made a substantial investment intheir installation and support. Wouldthe college scrap a highly functionalsystem in order to meet the mobilityneeds of its students?Fortunately,itdidn’thaveto.Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) enableda Web service connection betweenthe legacy systems and the mobileplatform via SOAP/XML. The legacyinvestments would be optimized whilebeing wrapped in an all-new, engagingmobile user interface layer.The system has been launched, andthe community couldn’t be happier.Course enrollment and a range of othereducational functions are now availableat the students’ fingertips. “Exceedingthe students’ expectations is critical,”said Dr. Rennie. “The benchmark is nolonger their other educational experi-ence, it is their best experience overall— whether that be Google, Apple or thestore down the street.”California’s Contractors StateLicense Board (CSLB) faced a similarchallenge. CSLB also wanted to makethe jump to the Web, offering newservicessuchascheckingoncontractorlicenses and taking contractor exams.But the board had a “mainframe-based,green-screen” system and didn’t seethe path to connect it to the Web.10The board connected the systemto its Web infrastructure via a specialdata gateway module, which allowedinformation to flow easily from themainframe to the Web. Debbie Phelps,senior programmer and analyst super-visoratCSLB,saidtheprojectexceededthe agency’s goals.“People used to have to call us to getinformation, but now they just use theWeb. It’s particularly helpful becauseoften, due to [the] large volume ofcalls, it was difficult for customers toget through on our phone system,”said Phelps. “The Web component hasbeen a resounding success.” gToolsoftheTrade:It takes more than a steel resolve tocome to terms with the past. Here aresome tools and techniques to help:1. Organizational leadership2. Crises management3. Mapping threats and vulnerabilities4. Reviewing policies and procedures5. Understanding the use of paper anddocument retention strategies6. Business process improvement7. Digital records management,preservation and e-discovery8. Business system analysis
  8. 8. 8Yesterdayisgone.Tomorrowhasnotyetcome.Wehaveonlytoday.Letusbegin.”— Mother
  9. 9. There is no “Hippocratic Oath”in IT like the first pledge thatdoctors take to “do no harm.”But perhaps there should be. How doyou assess existing/ongoing responsibil-ities?Howdoyoumakesurethatchangedoesn’t mean disruption? How do youkeep that rag-tag fleet of old systemsand processes running smoothly longenough to modernize them?There isn’t an abrupt transition fromthe past to the present, of course. Weget a hold of our legacy systems, peopleand processes, and begin to apply newtools. As the new tools are devel-oped and implemented, colors slowlyappear in the picture that weren’tthere before.FindingNewITValueAlthough Sherri Hammons has onlybeen the chief technology officer forthe state of Colorado for a year and ahalf, she has already made great stridesin bringing Colorado’s legacy systemsinto the modern world. Hammonsreports to Kristin Russell, the secretaryof technology, and directly manages awide range of enterprise transforma-tion initiatives. Hammons’ dedicationis already paying off in smoother-running IT systems and plannedprojects to improve the lives of Colo-rado’s citizenry.11Hammons started her technologicalrenovations by tackling the Colo-rado Business Management System(CBMS). CBMS had been rife withproblems for several years; ColoradoGov. John Hickenlooper even singledit out in his State of the State addressas a system in need of improvement.Hammons tackled the problem byfirst addressing one of the toughestquestions any chief technology officerfaces: Scrap the current system orwork with what I have? She looked atthe problem holistically by calculatingthe cost of completely replacing thesystem versus the cost of modernizing.Hammons ultimately decided toupdate the current system, describingCBMS as “being on a modern plat-form but not built to succeed.” Overthe past year, her office has been“moving around the code so that youcan actually start working with it ina more intelligent manner and a lotmore nimble fashion.” Thanks to thesemodernizing efforts, CBMS has beenstreamlined, ensuring that “citizenswho need Medicaid are getting theirbenefits in a more timely fashion.”MasteringDataManagementIn Georgia, Statewide LongitudinalData System Director Kriste Elia iscurrently working with the Governor’sOffice of Student Achievement (GOSA)to change the way that technologysupports teaching. She has recentlylaunched a revolutionary master datamanagement (MDM) initiative, whichgathers and consolidates informationfrom across educational agencies. Elia’swork with GOSA has also given herinsight into how legacy systems canbe improved and modernized, withoutremoving them completely.12When she was first brought intoGOSA, Elia found that there was limitedtechnologyfordataanalysis.“Thesewereprimarily laptop users; Excel was theirtool of choice,” she said. Elia solved thisproblem by working with the UniversitySystem of Georgia to leverage its existingenvironments and base knowledgeset. She was also able to draw uponsome funding to build a developmentenvironment, a test environment anda production environment, and to hirea team of top-level data warehousingexperts. Through these collaborationsand internal developments, Elia was ableto build what she refers to as the “jewelin our crown”: the MDM system.9One of the toughest questions any chief technologyofficer faces: ScrapthecurrentsystemorworkwithwhatI have?You have to look at the problem holisticallyby calculating the cost of completely replacing the systemversus the cost of modernizing.LeadingtoMasterthePresent
  10. 10. 10AsEliaexplained,MDMis“asophis-ticated toolset with algorithms foridentifying and linking students andteachers through time.” It collects 18pieces of personally identifiable infor-mation on every individual associatedwith the schools, and then consoli-dates this information into cohesivetrajectories. For example, the systemcan track individuals who attended ateacher-preparedness program andhave now become teachers, providinginformation such as how well theydid in their university classes, wherethey are teaching and how successfultheir students are. This creates “anenvironment where we can providefeedback to those teacher-prepared-ness programs to help them buildbetter teachers,” she said.AsystemlikeMDMwouldbevaluablein a variety of government contexts; forexample, it would allow departmentsto have a more comprehensive viewof services that are deployed acrossprograms. But many departments, suchas health and human services, cannotreplace their existing legacy systems.Elia said that many legacy systemsare too embedded into their organiza-tions to be removed wholesale, withstaff members specifically trained towork with the outdated applications.However, “there are still so manyopportunities in place today that wouldallow organizations to leverage theirlegacy systems if they’re willing to stepout into some new space.”Elia cited the example of the South-westEducationDataExchange(SEDE),a project that allows participating statesto track, monitor and share informationfor K-12 exchange students who crossstate lines. The system uses “indexing”technology that allows states to main-tain their own legacy environments.The tool uses approved indices toidentify if a specific student is from anadjoining state.“These things are possible and avail-able,” Elia said, “but again, you’ve got tohave the ability to get the right peopleengaged and know where to look topull in these great new ideas.”UnpluggingOutdated ApplicationsOne of the most active areas in this“mastering the present” section is thecollective of data center modernization,virtualization and the cloud. While thismay sound familiar, today’s approach toconsolidation is different. Data centerconsolidation is really becoming anumbrella term that incorporates a set ofconstituent parts.In the past, the focus of data cen-ter consolidation has been on its brickand mortar aspects. Enterprises lookedaskance at multiple facilities and set outto implement a “forklift” approach tocombine them into one integrated facil-ity. That is a great achievement, andit certainly cuts down on floor space,power,cooling,operationsandstaffcosts.But it is the proverbial tip of the iceberg.The real savings for governmentcomes from the ability to consolidateapplications, archive the data andthen retire the applications that areno longer needed. Too many systemsin government are maintained at greatcost but only used on an infrequentbasis. Oftentimes, these applicationsare maintained not for their featuresand functions, but for the data lockedinside the systems. It isn’t wise for astate to maintain an entire archaic HRsystem just because someone will log inevery few months to run a report. Theapplication needs to be retired.To modernize the contents and notjust the physical plant of their datacenters, organizations need to lookat their application inventory andtheir functional requirements. Do wereally need 20 HR systems, or can thefeatures and functionality of a singlesystem meet our processing needs?But once application consolidationis on the table, people begin to ask,“What will become of the data?” Itis tempting to keep retired systemsrunning purely for reporting. Whilethis “poor man’s data warehouse” mayseem to be low risk, it is anything but.And it comes at a very high cost. Theagency now has close to the full cost ofsupporting the system, with very littlebenefit to show for it.To solve this problem, leading orga-nizations are realizing that the answeris to give users access to their data ina different way, so they can actuallyTherearestillsomanyopportunitiesin placetoalloworganizationstoleveragetheirlegacysystwillingtostepout intosomenewspace.You’vegottogettherightpeopleengagedandknowwheretoThesegreat ideas.” — Kriste Elia
  11. 11. 11retire the outdated applications onceand for all. When the application itselfis decommissioned, we can finally shutoff the hardware, physically unplug themachine and save electricity. We candispose of outdated equipment that islikely costing enormous fees in supportagreements.Wecangetridofthemiddle-ware connecting to the systems, and theassociatedoperatingsystems.Allofthosesavings represent cash that governmentsdesperately need right now.Those cost savings can be reinvestedto accomplish a project that we actuallyneed, which is the archiving, consoli-dation, reporting and analytics of ourhistorical data in a streamlined, secureand safe repository. With a robust datawarehouse and analytics infrastruc-ture, our agencies can maintain ourcritical data assets while still movingforward. That’s right: Unpluggingoutdated applications is your ticket tobig data innovation.RichardSanchez,CIOforLosAngelesCounty, is one leader who is makinggreat progress towards data centermodernization. Sanchez has been withthe county for over 38 years, so he hasalready crafted an impressive legacy.But he’s far from done with innovation.13Sanchez is exploring cloud tech-nology as a way to centralize thecounty’s services, but he isn’t interestedin utilizing a completely off-the-shelfcloud service from the commercialmarket. Instead, he wants to establisha private cloud. Right now he is tryingto rally the county’s agencies aroundthe idea, but he has hopes for an evengreater application: “At some point intime in the future, we may even providethatcloudtothe88citiesthatarewithinLos Angeles County as opportunitiesfor disaster recovery.”Sanchez has already made greatstrides in the area of virtualization.Recently, he spearheaded a virtualiza-tion campaign that led to a successfulbackupstoragedeal,whichheestimateswill save the county over $6 millionwithin the lifespan of that agreement.The deal provides for “centralizedstorage as well as computer facilitieswith our X86 environment,” Sanchezsaid. This centralized unit will be ableto back up data with never-before-seenefficiency, and will have the capabilityto keep all systems running in the eventof a complete power outage.When looking to the future, Sanchezfocuses strongly on centralization.“There is an opportunity where wemight be able to just centralize all ourresources into a single source that anycounty department can then leverage.”Sanchez’s main task is to encourageagencies with their own data centersto move into the county’s centralizedservice. “It’s run 24/7 and has all ofthe requirements for disaster recoveryin place that many of these agenciescan’t afford.”AchievingAgility ThroughStandardizationSometimes history really does repeatitself. The Department of Defense(DoD), through the Defense AdvancedResearch Projects Agency (DARPA),essentially invented the Internet withits ARPANET project. As its inventionhas grown and developed, it is onlynatural to expect that DoD would be onthe forefront of Web innovation.Henry Sienkiewicz, technical programdirector for the Defense InformationSystems Agency (DISA) ComputingServices Directorate, has launched anew rapid access computing environ-ment (RACE) that is moving the agencyquickly and seamlessly into the cloud.Agency users can simply log on, choosesome options and select the infrastruc-ture that is right for them. All of thishappens online, and users can even payvia inter-agency transfer or a govern-ment purchasing card. It’s that simplefor a DISA program to move into thecloud, thanks to Sienkiewicz’s effort.14“It was a great success story,” saidSienkiewicz. “I’m able to provision rightodaythat wouldtemsifthey’rettohavetheabilityolooktopullinThereisanopportunitywherewemightbeabletojustcentralizeallourresourcesintoasinglesource thatanycountydepartmentcanthenleverage.”— Rick Sanchez
  12. 12. nowin24hours—[and]23-plusofthosehours is actually moving the money.”The key to such agility has beenstandardization. The agency offersstandard packages on both the LAMPand Windows stacks. This approachallows a range of options but also le-verages standardization to drive downcost. The flexibility also allows for in-cremental improvements to agencysystems, according to Sienkiewicz. “Bykeeping it standardized underneaththe covers, we’re able to gradually andgracefully release and bring the cus-tomer base along with us, as opposed toforcing them to do massive migrationsall at once.”Withthisrobustfoundation,DISAandthe wider DoD have even set their sightsfurther towards the horizon, envision-ing a government “apps store” of sharedapplication development resources.15ObtainingInfrastructureResources,FasterThe state of Alaska was facing chal-lenges that might be familiar to manyjurisdictions, namely that it was takingtoo long to deploy new applications.New systems sometimes took months— or even years — to get into produc-tion. The hardware and infrastructureresources purchased would be plannedin a piecemeal fashion. Not only didthis lack overall strategic coordination,it was inefficient.16“We would start new projects andbuy hardware, and then buy more hard-ware for the next project,” said CoreyKos, Alaska’s enterprise architect.“The biggest challenge was the timeto deliver services. We had hardwarewhich needed to be configured andstood up, but we could not get every-thing ready to deliver services [by thetime] end users needed it.”Kos conducted thorough planning,aided by experts from industry. Afterhis analysis, Kos determined thatan advanced, fabric-based computingsolution would provide the flexibility,scalability and efficiency that Alaskaneeded. He selected a modular, pod-based architecture that made it easyto attach additional capacity into thestate’s unified wide-area network.The network itself was streamlined —providing a single, advanced platformto share data and applications securelyacross both the data center and therest of Alaska’s enterprise.Alaska’s choice of a modular, pod-based architecture meant that addi-tional “chunks” of data center capacitycame in “pre-integrated and pre-test-ed” units that combined computingresources, virtualization and storageconnected through a “unified fabric” toprovide secure interconnection. Thisapproach is a variant on the “data cen-ter in a box” approach that was origi-nally called “container computing.” It’sthe same basic concept, just in morediscrete, manageable units.The results were impressive. Kosnoted that his performance goals offaster and more flexible infrastructureresources were achieved. Perhaps evenbetter: “We are seeing significant costsavings in the hardware and data centerspace, due to a reduction in the numberof server chassis and required cabling.”17The city of Avondale, Ariz., also hadan aging storage system, but all of thecity’s core systems rested on IT andcouldn’t be disrupted. CIO Rob Lloydidentified that the data center wasdangerously close to its power capac-ity: “According to the electricians, ourelectrical system was being tapped at 96to 98 percent of available power, and weneeded to respond to new needs.” It wastime to look for a new approach.18“In government, a lot of times whatyou do is replace things as they comedue, instead of taking a look at what wecan do as a whole and come up with adifferent design,” said Lloyd.19Avondale turned to a modular, pod-based data center solution to providea better foundation for the future. Thepod approach brought together storage,12Ourelectricalsystemwasbeingtappedat96to98percentofavailablepower,andweneededtorespondtonewneeds.” — Rob Lloydflickr/cisco
  13. 13. network and computing resources intoa unified whole that was easy to manageandeveneasiertoinstall.Thecityexpectsto save $30,000 per year, has solved itsperformance challenges and has thestorage it needs. In fact, the system has apowerful data de-duplication capabilitythat freed an additional 40 percent of itsstorage space. The city dropped from 96percent of available power being used toa much cooler 45 percent.20Avondale’s partnering strategy waskeytoitssuccess.Cityleadersrecruitedprivate sector partners to help themidentify an architecture that wouldwork for them. “What we discoveredwas that vendors are starting to worktogether [to] co-support a solution …that perfectly fit into what we hopedfor,” said Lloyd. Not only were theirimplementation partners technologi-cally savvy, but hard working as well.“During implementation, [our partner]was answerable,” said Lloyd. “I wasemailing [them] at 10 o’clock, 11 o’clockand [they] would respond.”21Avondale was able to purchasecombined hardware and services in asingle purchase order via a contractavailable through the U.S. Communi-ties cooperative.22This simplified theprocurement process, but the benefitswere greater than time-to-implemen-tation alone. “In this day and age, youare seeing more value rendered bythose companies that can partner welltogether rather than those who justfocus on their [own] solution and their[own] products,” said Lloyd.23KeepingDataIntact ThroughtheCloudAs the IT director of the East BayRegional Park District, Jim Tallericooversees the deployment and manage-ment of IT-related services for the dis-trict. One particular challenge Tallericohas faced is how to provide storage forthe district’s data. The East Bay area isprone to earthquakes and most of thedistrict’s remote facilities are not suit-able as disaster recovery sites. Tallericosaid that although the data stored in-ternally is not considered critical, “Wedo want to preserve it in the event ourcentral data center was to experience amajor catastrophe.”24Tallerico’s solution has been to investin cloud technology, which offers a cost-effectivewaytoarchivedatawithouttheneed for infrastructure. The project iscurrently under development, with thedistrict backing up data from multipleorigin sites to both in-house and cloudstorage sites. Tallerico said that thebiggest challenge so far has been band-width: “Pushing a large amount of datato the cloud consumes a great deal ofresources over our Internet connec-tion.” Fortunately, the agency has beenable to minimize performance issues bytightly scheduling online usage.In fact, many cloud innovators don’trealize — as Tallerico has — that cloudsand network modernization must gohand in hand. Without a robust net-work, the cloud just doesn’t work atproduction scale.Tallerico noted that many govern-ment agencies are still wary of cloudtechnology because of concerns overthe privacy and security of the data, buthe said that will soon change: “As theapplications mature and become morecost effective, I expect you’ll see moregovernment agencies looking at cloudsolutions in the future.”He also foresees the greater use ofhosting sites. Tallerico’s agency beganadopting the hosting model for coreapplications about six years ago. “Thistakes the burden off of the IT depart-ment of dealing with disaster recoveryin terms of building out secondary datacenters — which are very expensive tomaintain,” Tallerico said.In addition to investing in cost-effec-tive technological solutions, Tallericohas also established annual fundingfor hardware and software replenish-ments. When considering whether toupdate or replace legacy systems, Tall-erico said there are several importantquestions: “Are the apps/processesfunctional in the current environment?Are they running on current technologyplatforms? What is the cost to main-tain them?” This practical approachhas eliminated any surprise costs andallows the agency’s budget to remainflat year to year. g13Avondale wasabletopurchasecombinedhardware andservicesin asinglepurchaseorderviaacontractavailablethroughtheU.S.Communitiescooperative.ToolsoftheTrade:New tools and capabilities can comeinto play in the present as we re-pointour organizations to their future goals:1. Data warehouses and data analytics2. Shared services3. Virtualization4. Data center consolidation5. Unified communications6. Identity and access management7. Business continuity anddisaster protection
  14. 14. As in the transition from thepast to the present, the presentand future are on a continuum.We slowly build the future, and pointour organizations in a wise and prudentdirection. Once the course is set, we canconsider our legacy.Unlike Roman emperors, not eventhe greatest IT leaders are commemo-rated by statues or with their likenessstamped on coins. But if you think pastIT leaders aren’t lauded or derided,think again. We need to ask ourselves— are we innovating just for the sake ofnovelty, or will our work really stand thetest of time? Will we be seen as forward-thinking innovators who brought ourorganizations into the modern age?What will remain from our efforts whenour successors take the reins?Much of this discussion depends onthe technologies and platforms of thefuture. We have focused here on inno-vation that has real value in terms ofimproved service, lower cost or bettercitizen engagement. At the same time,the leaders we profiled have explicitlyavoided the flash-in-the-pan school ofIT innovation.Preparingforthe ThreatofCyberWarCyber security is a great topic fora writer — there is always somethingnew to say about it as the pace of inno-vation continues to accelerate. KarenRobinson, the Texas State CIO weintroduced earlier, puts cyber securityat the top of her agenda.“We’re seeing upwards of 110 millionattacks on the network a month. It onlytakes one to get in. So, needless to say,I’ve really stood up a good team to helprun the Security Operation Center.”Following the 2011 creation of acouncil on cyber security,25Robinsongathered experts from higher educa-tion, state agencies, the military andelsewhere to assess the state’s cybersecurity infrastructure and recommendbestpracticestoleadership.Shehasalsopartnered with a third-party companyto conduct voluntary security assess-ments for other state agencies. Lastyear, roughly 14 such assessments werecompleted, which are comprehensive:“What do you have in place? Let’s lookfor gaps, trends and let’s figure out whatwe need to do going forward.”BuildingfortheFutureWe need to ask ourselves — are we innovating just forthe sake of novelty, or will our work stand the test of time?
  15. 15. Thebestwaytopredictyourfutureistocreateit.” — Abraham Lincoln15
  16. 16. Moving forward, Robinson plans tocontinue the security assessments withstate agencies (saving them “a lot ofmoney”intheprocess),whileupgradingand prioritizing state security policies,studying identity management andestablishing standards. She’ll also belooking to add more security staff to theDepartment of Information Resources(DIR), a task made more feasible bythe fact that, under Robinson, the DIRhas reduced its operating budget by47 percent and its number of full-timeemployees by 17 percent.26We may never be able to fully protectour users from every potential securitythreat, but we can strive to be the verybest. That’s the spirit of the Center forDigital Government’s CybersecurityLeadership and Innovation Awards.The program sets out to recognize theleaders who are creating a legacy ofcyber security and breach prevention.27Last year, Texas took top honors forits work in the state category. Texas haslaunched a suite of Security Event andThreat Analysis (SETA) services thatare also deployed in a cloud model.The platform enables state agenciesto conduct 24/7 security monitoring,as well as respond to security incidentalerts. Past incidents are archived, andagency-tailored response plans are partof the picture.New York City led the list in theawards’ city category, having built an“information security cloud” that hasrealized a cost savings of $18 million.Dan Srebnick, CISO for the city, saidthat the cloud was fully operationalfor the 43 agencies within scope. Thesecurity cloud provides direct visibilityinto 73,000 endpoints, dramaticallyimproving the city’s security posture.Srebnick noted that “The world isengaged in a global cyber war … and …all of government, including state andlocal, are targets.”Seattle won a special award forcollaboration in the field of securityfor a project called Public RegionalInformation Security Event Manage-ment (PRISEM). The system wascreated through a public-private part-nership that brought state and localgovernment together with universi-ties and industry players. The systemprovides an early-warning capabilityby aggregating and analyzing incidentinformation in real time. While manyjurisdictions jealously guard theirown security incident data, Seattle ledthe effort to show that there is indeedsafety in numbers.Mike Hamilton, CISO for Seattle,said that much more work remains.Hamilton issued this stark warningto his colleagues: “Local governmentin general needs to get some religionaround the whole cyber security issuebecause most local governments have ITstaffofjustafewpeople…andsonobodyhas allocated resources to do anythingaround information security.” With theshortage of staff noted by Hamilton,public-private collaboration will be allthe more important as time goes on.ExpandingHealthCareAccessIn her time so far as joint-CIO of boththe Oregon Health Authority and theDepartmentofHumanServices,CarolynLawson has successfully negotiated theneeds of both departments and emergedas a strong force for technological inno-vation and business transformation. Shehas spearheaded successful moderniza-tion efforts and built a health insuranceexchange (HIE).Lawson said that her dual roleallows her the opportunity to offercitizens more unified services. Sheasks herself and her team, “How dowe provide a unified approach toall health and human services tech-nology delivery?” The reality is thatmany people served by one agency arealso served by the other, so there is anopportunity for collaboration.16HOWEVERROBUSTTHELONG-TERMVISIONFORGET THEIR FUNDAMENTALS.“HOWCANPUTINANEW$10-MILLIONERPSYSTEM FORTHE CIOBUTYOUCAN’T FIXMYPC.HOWTHEWENEEDTOBUILDTHEIRTRUST.” — Mujib LodhiLocalgovernmentingeneralneedstogetsomereligionaroundthewholecybersecurityissue because mostlocalgovernmentshaveITstaffofjustafewpeople…Andsonobodyhasallocatedresourcestodoanything aroundinformation security.” —Mike Hamilton
  17. 17. Lawson described a situation inwhich a person might come to thehuman services department for a foodstampformbutmightalsoneedmedicalcare,whichtraditionallywouldbetakencare of by the Oregon Health Authority.Lawson explained, “It makes no senseto say, ‘Okay, this is all that I can do foryou. The Health Authority is 10 blocksdown the street.’” Instead of this old,disjointed approach, Lawson empha-sized the need for a unified approachfor health and human services.Lawson began this enormous under-taking with two concurrent projects in2011. The first was the transformationof the Department of Human Services,which included the development ofa Web center, increased focus on casemanagement and the modernization ofthe human service systems.While evaluating this process, theOregon Health Authority asked if theplatform could be used to developan insurance exchange. The evalua-tion found two vendors on the humanservices side that could be used to buildan insurance exchange. But Lawson wasnow faced with a new set of difficulties.Oregon was an early innovator, but shedidn’thavetheluxuryoftime—thestateneeded to deliver the exchange in 2 ½years. Lawson was tasked with buildingtwo major applications on a very shortdeadline. The results have been great,and Oregon is well positioned to be anational leader in this critical space.Another intersection of technologyand health care is the arena of tele-medicine. Many of the early successesin telemedicine are coming from prisonsystems, where access is limited andthe movement of health practitioners,health technology and medical treat-ments is cumbersome and restricted.California’s problems in this area wereso severe that a federal lawsuit wasfiled arguing that the lack of accessto medical care violated the inmates’constitutional rights. Important publicsafety issues were also in play, since10,000 prisoners per month wouldbe released from incarceration intoCalifornia communities in order toreceive medical care. Bringing theinmates to doctors — alongside the law-abiding citizens of California — was anunpleasant proposition.28California found a new solution:telemedicine. By leveraging telemedi-cine, inmates could be given access toa wide range of specialists via a tele-presence solution that mimicked anin-person visit. This provided bettercare for inmates, ensured safety forlaw-abiding communities and loweredcosts for the state.“We’re getting access to care to thepatients that need it, and decreasingsafety issues; it’s a win-win situationfor patients and physicians,” said Dr.Michael Arca, chief physician at theCalifornia Correctional Health CareServices agency.RememberingtheFundamentalsMany CIOs aspire to be businessfocused, but Mujib Lodhi, CIO forthe Washington Suburban SanitaryCommission(WSSC),takesittoawholeother level: “As a CIO today, I have tounderstand the business very well. As aconsultant to the organization, I have tounderstand the business and what busi-ness we are in. Not just providing thema technology solution, but providingthem a business solution.”29Indeed, CIOs increasingly need tounderstand not only how to fix an orga-nization’s computers, but also to graspthe finances, operations and goals ofthe organization. These hard facts growincreasingly important as more data-driven decisions enter the workplace.CIOs are no longer solely “techies.”WSSC serves as an extraordinaryexample of how IT can contribute to anorganization’s top-level goals. As one ofthe nation’s top water and wastewaterutilities, serving 1.8 million customers,WSSC must remain financially solventand maintain an ever-expanding crit-ical infrastructure. When Lodhi thinksaboutwaystoimprovetheorganization,he always traces his thought processback to these fundamental goals.VISIONIS,IT’SEQUALLYIMPORTANTTHATCIOsNEVERCAN IWALKINTOYOUROFFICE ANDSAYI WANTTOFORYOU,IFYOULOOKATMEANDSAY,‘YOU’RETHEHECKCANYOUFIXA$10-MILLIONSYSTEM?’17
  18. 18. 18WhileItakeinspirationfromthepast,likemostAmericans,Iliveforthefuture.”— Ronald
  19. 19. 19Once he has identified his funda-mental goals, Lodhi hones in on thespecifics. For example, capital improve-ment for infrastructure is a staggeringlycomplicated business problem forWSSC — so it launched a mobile appto allow customers to instantly submitgeo-tagged photos of problem areas —the first of its kind in the nation.Lodhi’s ultimate vision is to helpWSSC transform into a “real-timeutility” that utilizes data analysis atevery step in its business processesand decision-making. In this future,when a customer calls WSSC, a workorder will immediately be created andthe work order system will determinethe optimum routing and techni-cian to dispatch in order to cut downdriving time, gas and other costs. Theenterprise will have real-time commu-nication with the customer, and providea faster response to the customer’sneeds. When the customer’s issues areresolved, WSSC’s field representativeswill contact headquarters directly toclose out the case. The mobility ofwater and wastewater technicians willenable these field workers to remainin the field and be dispatched withmaximum efficiency.However robust the long-termvision is, Lodhi knows that it is equallyimportant that CIOs never forget theirfundamentals. “As a CIO, I cannotignore that,” Lodhi said, “because howcan I walk into your office and say Iwant to put in a new $10-million ERPsystem for you, if you look at me and say,‘You’re the CIO but you can’t fix my PC.How the heck can you fix a $10-millionsystem?’ We need to build their trust.”30Learning to ShareEvery CIO today — public sector ornot — knows that good programmersare hard to find. There is simply a skillsshortage. If you live in a technology hublikeAustin,Texas,orSiliconValley,thenyou face stiff competition from startupsand private enterprise for developmenttalent. If you live in a remote area, theremay not even be much of an IT work-force for you to tap. While commercialoff-the-shelf software can serve avariety of needs, government agenciesstill need custom code and custom apps.Much of what we do is particular to us,or particular to our agency, or particularto our specific environment. Commer-cial software vendors usually like to sellmore than 50 copies of a product whenthey build it, so developing packagedapps for state governments can havelimited competition.How do government agencies —cities, counties, school districts, stateagencies and even federal partners —get their work done despite the dearthof programming talent? The answermight be what we all do when thereisn’t enough of something to go around:We learn to share.Matthew Burton is the deputy CIOat the federal Consumer FinancialProtection Bureau (CFPB). As someone“born in the digital era,” he is keen onrethinking the established businesspractices of his colleagues. Burton is anadvocate of sharing the programmingload among agencies, and it might bejust what government needs to meet thechallenge of the IT brain drain previ-ously noted. He has two approaches.Oneisfamiliar,whichistoleverageopensource technologies where possible.According to Burton, “Open sourcesoftware works because it enablespeople from around the world to sharetheir contributions with each other.The CFPB has benefited tremendouslyfrom other people’s efforts.”31But that isn’t enough for Burton.He charges ahead to not only makehis agency a consumer of open sourcesoftware, but a producer of it as well.“When we build our own software orcontract with a third party to buildit for us, we will share the code withthe public at no charge,” said Burton.Of course, “exceptions will be madewhen source code exposes sensitivedetails that would put the bureau atrisk for security breaches.” Burtonmemorialized the concept in a formalpolicy, posted it on his agency websiteand has successfully used it as anoperational philosophy ever since.If your department has similar codeor needs, you may want to check outBurton’s GitHub account to start thesharing process.32Another great example of cross-boundary collaboration comes fromColorado. Sherri Hammons is work-ing on moving government systemsto Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) —utilizing the cloud and a centralhosting site. Wyoming, Colorado,Arizona and North Dakota have comeWhenyoudon’thavethemeanstodosomethingyourself,learntoshare.Asin,leverageopensourcetechnology.“Opensourcesoftwareworksbecauseitenablespeople aroundtheworldtosharetheircontributionswitheachother.”— Matthew Burton
  20. 20. together to devise an unemploymentinsurance SaaS model that can be usedby all 50 states. This is a significantimprovement on the original model,in which the federal government sub-sidizes a traditional system for eachindividual state with an expensive up-front cost. Since technology changesso rapidly, these large software pur-chases quickly become obsolete.Hammons describes how this hasaffected unemployment insurance:“We have a 20-year-old unemploymentinsurance module that is on a main-frame and nobody can really supportit.” But SaaS offers a solution to thisoutdated technology: “The upgradesare built in and it becomes an oper-ating expense as opposed to a capitalexpense.” The four-state consortiumcurrently has a request for proposal(RFP) for vendors to create the unem-ployment insurance SaaS model.MeetingNetworkingNeedsThere is a great deal of work to bedone to position governments to meetthe networking and connection needsof an increasingly digital citizenry. InTexas, the TEX-AN NG program isa multi-vendor telecommunicationspartnership with the state. In a recentcontract update and modernization,Texas was able to achieve even highervalue for its citizens.State CIO Karen Robinson noted:“With the new multi-vendor model,we are seeing upwards of 40 percentsavings each month — approximately$1.5 million annually.” Along with thesavings, Texas obtained a whole hostof new services and a more modernnetwork infrastructure.As the CIO of the city of Las Vegas,Joe Marcella also has powerful ideasabout how IT developers should meetthe needs of their increasingly digi-tal communities. Las Vegas recentlyattracted online retail powerhouseZappos to its downtown area, bringing3,000 new high-tech “digital natives” totown. Marcella believes that technolog-ical development should have a strongbusiness focus and take into account thespecificneedsofcitizens.Thisapproachhas paid off for him: By collaboratingwith citizens and continuously seekingsolutions to unaddressed problems, hehas been able to offer targeted, innova-tive solutions in his department and thecommunity at large.33One such networked project thatMarcella cited is the successful launchof the multi-jurisdictional businesslicense in Southern Nevada. Lastyear, the jurisdictions of Las Vegas,Henderson, North Las Vegas and ClarkCounty worked with state legislaturesto pass a bill that called for the develop-ment of a unified contractors’ businesslicense across all four jurisdictions.Now, instead of having to obtain a busi-ness license with each organization,contractors “can go to any one of thefour [jurisdictions] and the businesslicence is automatically populated,”said Marcella.This dedication to community in-forms Marcella’s approach to IT devel-opment. He values a mobile workforcethat provides a direct connection withthe residents: “I’ve got citizens outthere [with whom] I can easily have aconversation about crowd sourcing orproblem resolution or getting data.”Marcella hires “super-users” who areboth technologically savvy and busi-ness savvy, so that his team can activelydiscover problems in the communitythat need to be addressed.Marcella asks, “Why are we alwayssitting back, always waiting for some-one else to have a problem before wego out there and solve it for them?” Hebelieves that this sort of one-way rela-tionship between the community andIT developers is ultimately detrimentalto both.Marcella has deployed this practicaland innovative approach while updatingthe technological systems in city hall.Hehasdevelopedanintegratedcommu-nication system that allows those in cityhall to make phone calls while simulta-neously videoconferencing. He believesthat such multi-technological conver-gence will revolutionize customerrelationship management (CRM) inall government departments. He givesthe example of the police department,where integrated technologies wouldallow police officers to get “the kindof information that’s necessary whenin pursuit.”The South Carolina Department ofProbation, Parole, and Pardon Services(SCDPPPS) is also a networked inno-vator. The department had a problemthat is not unique in the judicial field:Field workers like parole officers arehighly mobile, and need to be produc-tive from any one of 46 courtroomsstatewide. They spend upwards of 50percent of their time out of the office,and can’t be slowed down by confusingor nonexistent wireless networks.34The agency needed a way to makeit easy for their field workers to getsecure access to their network, whilealso providing convenient guest access.It needed a network that could rapidly20CIOScannolongerjustprovide atechnologysolution.Theyneedtobe abletoprovideabusinesssolution.
  21. 21. scale up and could be added to andmodified when needed. The agencyalso needed centralized managementcapabilities that would allow it to keeptrack of the whole system.35You might think that the last wordhas been written on in-building Wi-Fi,but anyone who has been frustrated bycoverage gaps, difficulty connecting orcomplex Wi-Fi management knowsthat is far from the case. Many of ourWi-Fi networks are a mix of old andnew technology — some of whichdoesn’tplaywellwithothers.Inhistoricbuildings and government offices, wecan’t afford to drill new holes and pullwires to solve the problem. So we needa better way to manage wireless.36South Carolina found a solutionthat removed the need for the wirelesscontroller — usually a bottleneck in theprocess. Typically, Wi-Fi network func-tions are shared between a controllerand an access point. This originallywas intended to solve maintenanceand manageability challenges, butnow the controller itself has become abottleneck: As organizations upgradeto the 802.11n standard, the controllersjust can’t keep up. As a result, the costof wireless networks is rising, even astheir reliability is plummeting.37SouthCarolinamovedtoadistributed,controller-less architecture that solvedthe problem. David O’Berry, director ofIT, Systems and Services at SCDPPPS,said, “I appreciated the vision of howthe access points functioned, evenwhen they were disconnected. Mostother [access points] got pretty dumbwhen they lost connectivity with thecontroller.”38The solution gave SouthCarolina all of the benefits of Wi-Fi,including security and access-controlprotection, in a more economically cost-effective solution.39The Iowa Judicial Branch took asimilarpath,alsodeployingacontroller-less network for its 99 courthousefacilities. The network was easy to setup and manage, even though the agencyhad a small IT team. The approachalso helped navigate the special chal-lenges that old buildings can pose foran access-point layout.40Managementof the devices is handled via the cloud,which provides other benefits as well.41“There has been a few places wherethe local person thought we would needfouraccesspointsinordertoadequatelycover everything, and we’ve been ableto get it done with two or three,” saidSally Thompson, infrastructure admin-istrator for the Iowa Court InformationSystems. Coverage is excellent, andthe court system is well positioned tosupport future network growth.42No current discussion of the futurecan ignore the topic of mobile devicesand the BYOD movement. A recentGovernment Technology survey notedthat 61 percent of state and local enti-ties either had a BYOD policy alreadyor were busily crafting one.43One ofthe biggest challenges in establishingsuch guidelines is that governmentagencies are held to a higher stan-dard in terms of security and privacy:We can’t just let any device plug intoany old network. As wireless becomesthe preferred mode of connectionto government networks (and manydevices lack an Ethernet port entirely),the challenges for managing how thesedevices connect to wireless networksare mounting.44IT managers need a platform tomanage how — and which — devicesare connecting to the network. Sometypes of devices won’t be allowed toconnect at all, but many will. Not alldevices will be able to access unlim-ited bandwidth, especially whenconnected on guest access. Networkadministrators are forced to planfor uncertain network demand fromuncertain devices — all during equallyuncertain economic times.4521Wehavea20-year-oldunemploymentinsurance modulethat is on amainframe andnobodycanreallysupportit.[ButwithSaaS],theupgradesarebuilt inanditbecomesanoperatingexpenseratherthanacapital expense.”— Sherri Hammons
  22. 22. Large private sector organizationslike airlines, energy companies andretailers are deploying a coordinatedapproach to managing this aspectof their wireless networks. Thishelps ensure that consistent policiesare enforced for bandwidth usage,security, access control and more.Government, we expect, will soon befollowing suit.46Gail Roper took over as CIO for thecity of Raleigh in 2006, and founda city that had some major legacyproblems. Technology was an internalaffair, and it didn’t play a role in thecommunity. Roper set out to changethat. Convention center traffic wasdown, and the Fayetteville Street mallwas a ghost town. To make mattersworse, lower-income constituentswere being left out of the digitaltsunami that was powering economicgrowth elsewhere.47Roper decided to upgrade all ofthe city’s technology platforms in away that looked outward and not justinward. Roper deployed an arsenal ofpowerful technology: wireless mesh,unified computing, VoIP, video andmore. The result was high-speedwireless at the convention center, freeWi-Fi throughout the downtown areaand a powerful asset for downtownRaleigh’s rebirth. Raleigh even toppedthe Forbes list of America’s most wiredcities in 2006.48Roper defines her success — and thecontribution to her legacy — this way:“Wenowcallourselvesaservice-alignedorganization, because the infrastructureis aligned with the needs, mission andvision of the organization as a whole.”49PoweringPeopleontheMoveTechnology executives like DavidHeck, deputy director of Finance andTechnology and CTO for the city ofTempe, Ariz., are confronted with anumber of legacies the moment theytake on their roles. In Tempe there is ademand for faster information and self-service opportunities. “[Citizens] wantto have access to the city services onlinefrom basically anywhere,” said Heck.“They don’t want to [have to] know thestructure of government in order to findinformation or get help.”50To meet this demand, Tempe hasmade certain services, such as programregistration and bill payment, acces-sible online. Tempe has also initiateda citizen-relations management deskand mobile app called Tempe311. Citi-zens can call into Tempe311, access it22kellyladukeWenowcallourselvesaservice-aligned organization,becausetheinfrastructureisalignedwiththe needs,mission andvisionoftheorganizationasawhole.”— Gail Roper
  23. 23. 23through the Web or use mobile devicestoreportareasforcommunityimprove-ment. “We’ve had great success so far,”Heck said of Tempe311. “Althoughit’s just recently been released, we’reseeing a high usage of the service.”Heck has also successfully devel-oped a relationship with ArizonaState University (ASU) to support theneeds of the community. For the past18 months, Heck has been workingwith ASU to establish a Gig.U partner-ship in Tempe. Gig.U is a broad-basedcollaboration of the largest researchuniversities and their communitiesfrom across the United States. Heckdescribed the initiative as a “bandingtogether, putting up funding forresearch, and gathering informationabout companies that would be inter-ested in coming in and establishingthe gigabit networks needed in aresearch community.”Gig.U seeks to help its membercommunities establish an incubator forinnovationandcollaborationbyensuringthat every home in the community hasaccess to a gigabit-speed (or higher)connection. The concept is part of alarger strategy for economic develop-ment for the city. Heck wants to improvethe future of his community by estab-lishing infrastructure that will attractsuccessful industry. As Heck explained,he wants to “make Tempe attractive todo business in.”Heck’s focus on the future alsoinforms the kinds of technologies hechooses to develop in his own depart-ment. Here he has sought to establish“a virtual environment, so that we’renot strapped to wires or specific hard-ware anymore.” This forward-thinkingapproach has led to several innovations,such as wireless communications in allcity buildings and employee desktopsthat are contained on a server, ratherthan a desk. This allows for greaterflexibility and availability. As Heckexplained, “When I’m not in my office,be it at home, in the field or out of town,I can get to my virtual work environ-ment, using a Web client or mobileapp.” Heck plans to continue to managethe demand of “anywhere access” byinvesting in innovative solutions, suchas device-agnostic services and mobile-enabled technology.A few states over, in California, at SanDiego County’s Office of EmergencyServices, Technology Manager AdrianGonzalez has helped revolutionize hiscounty’s emergency assistance tech-nologies. He played a large part increating San Diego’s emergency pre-paredness website, “ReadySanDiego,”which offers extensive information onhow to plan and prepare for disasters.He also described himself as “a coordi-nator and a visionary” for the county’sdisaster information mobile app. Thesetechnologies have transformed the waySan Diego County responds to emer-gencies, and established Gonzalez as apremier technological innovator.51Gonzalez first embarked on theReadySanDiegoprojectwhentheOfficeof Emergency Services realized that itneeded to revamp the website. Withthe increase of technology in the home,more people were gaining access to theInternet, and so the website needed toThatisthekindofinvestmentwewanttomake.Something thatislikelytohavealifebeyondTheinitialdevelopmenteffort.”— Adrian GonzalezToolsoftheTrade:The future is where it gets interesting.Here are some emerging tools, andsome that change so fast as to placethem in the future category:1. Big data analytics (descriptive,predictive, prescriptive)2. Data fusion3. Enterprise architecture4. Managed services5. Next-generation networks6. Telework and telemedicine7. Social software and social media8. Mobile computing9. Cross-boundary collaboration
  24. 24. be able to handle higher-volume traffic.This had become especially evidentduring the 2007 wildfires which sweptacross Southern California, claimingnine lives. Gonzalez explained that heand his team “realized that we couldn’tjust put a new wrapper on an old Webpage and expect it to satisfy our newneeds.” Instead, they invested in cloudtechnologies, which allowed the site tohandle higher-volume traffic and offernew capabilities for self service.Aftermodernizingthewebsite,Gonza-lez shifted his sights to the mobile space.Mobile technologies were starting totake off around this time, and Gonzalezunderstood his team needed to “respondto county government leadership and avery obvious need and expectation nowfrom the public.” Their solution was themobile app, which provides government-to-citizen information on upcoming andongoing disasters. Gonzalez said that theapp was “able to meet our expectations,the elected officials’ plus the operatingdepartments’, very satisfactorily. Wewere able to leverage our initial cloudinvestment and expand functionalityinto the mobile space, while keepingour business operations simple.” Sucha successful innovation is a great feat ingovernment, where legacy systems oftenstay in place for decades.Gonzalez has often encounteredthe longevity of legacy systems. Hedescribed a time when his coworkersinvited him to a retirement party:“I said, ‘Well, what’s it for?’ [Theyreplied,] ‘We’re retiring the system youdeveloped 25 years ago.’” However, hebumped into someone recently whowas still using the old system on adaily basis. “The county invests moneyin your systems,” Gonzalez said, and“they tend to hold onto them forever.”Gonzalez said this governmentalinertia informs how he picks his tech-nological solutions: “Who knows whatdevices will come along on the mobileside in the future for this particularsolution. We have to make sure thattechnologies that we are going to investin are likely to have a life beyond thenext couple of years.”Gonzalez applied this philosophywhen developing San Diego County’smobile app. He and his team selectedthe Mobile Enterprise ApplicationProtocol (MEAP) platform for buildingtheir app, because the platform hadestablished itself as a high-qualityproduct with staying power.“That’s the kind of investment wewant to make,” Gonzalez said, “some-thing that is likely to have a life beyondthe initial development effort.” Inthe past, most developers built theirown solutions instead of relying onplatforms, but Gonzalez describes thebenefits of using a platform: “[Withself-made solutions] you tend to getstagnated or locked into solutions thatmay or may not grow with you. By goingto platforms, somebody else is dealingwith the plumbing and the ability tointegrate to other, newer features andtechnologies.” This allows Gonzalezand his team to be more flexible inresponding to changes in technologyor business.MovingtoHigh-PerformanceComputingEveryone is talking about how bigdata is going to rule the future. And noone outside of defense and the federalgovernment has big data challengeslike research universities. Researchers,by their very nature, are in the data-gathering and data-analysis business.New devices, sensors and equipmentare generating exponentially moredata than ever before. The LargeHadron Collider at CERN, for example,generates 15 petabytes of data a year.That amounts to 15 million gigabytes.It doesn’t only need to be archived, butit needs to be analyzed as well.52The challenge of big data is a three-dimensional expansion in terms ofvolume, speed and complexity.53First,let’s take complexity. Years ago, dataelements might have been lonelynumerical readouts from a remotesensor device. But now they can beimages, video, structured information,objects with internal links and evendata with metadata. This increase indata model complexity is one factordriving the big data change.Then there is volume.Researchteams— like government program managers— rarely collect data that they don’twant to keep. So the gigabytes becometerabytes that become petabytes. Prettysoon, your institution or agency hasamassed information on an epic scale.Sometimes, older information can bedeletedtosavespace.Butintheresearchcontext, that is rarely advisable.The third “axis” of big data is speed.And when we say speed, we don’t justmean the speed of capture and storage.Data must be stored quickly, to be sure.But it also needs to be read and editedquickly to support the pace of analysisand innovation.The answer to this challenge for re-search institutions has been to move24Whyarewe alwayssiTTingback,alwayswaitingforsomeoneelsetohave aproblembeforewegooutandsolveitforthem?” — Joe Marcella
  25. 25. into the world of high-performancecomputing, specifically in the storagearena. New devices are needed that canhandlethecomplexity,volumeandspeedof today’s data capture and analysis.These high-performance architecturesaren’t just bigger — they are different.And the difference is what reducescosts and improves staff productivity.If you think your data needs are slightbecause you are a smaller research insti-tution or a regular government agency,think again. Industry experts expectthat the pace of your data needs willincrease dramatically in the near future.If you were storing 100 terabytes of datain 2010, you can expect to need 11 timesas much storage space in 2016, whichwould be 1.1 petabytes. By 2020, it wouldbe58timesgreater.Sosoonerorlater,wewill all be facing the high-performancestorage challenge.No discussion about research, bigdata and high-performance storagewould be complete without mentioningthe need for data security, privacy andstrict adherence to data retention poli-cies. Too often, researchers dump datatogether without regard to the person-ally identifiable aspects of it. This opensthe organization up to great risk.Ithaslongbeensaidthattheso-called“insider threat,” i.e., the risk of databreach by employees, contractors orthose who otherwise hold some form oflegitimate access, is the greatest dangerto data security. Merely encryptingdata in transit to thwart hackers isn’tenough. We need to be able to maskdata at rest in systems to protect it fromthe internal threat.“Data masking” means enforcingrobust data access protocols at the mostfundamental levels. It happens at thesource, rather than encrypting merelyat the time of network transmission.Data masking is intended to stop evena rogue database administrator fromwriting a SQL statement operatingdirectly against a database. Even if heor she accesses the source directly, thistype of data masking can prevent unau-thorized exposure.Overcoming ProcurementBarriersAll of these reforms are dead inthe water unless we address businessprocesses themselves. And, of course,one of the most frustrating for CIOsis the procurement process. Let’s faceit: Government procurement rulesweren’t originally written to purchasetechnology goods and services.In most states and localities, theprocurement regulations that governIT purchases were written beforesoftware, computer terminals andSoftware-as-a-Service (SaaS) applica-tions were contemplated. These ruleshave become out of step with the times,but procurement officers are boundto follow them to the letter — or else.No one, save the legislators who canchange the rules — seems to have muchchoice in the matter.As a result, sometimes people in-volved in the process become morefocused on procedural compliance thanon the bottom-line task of getting thebest technology at the best price. But allof that is starting to change, and CIOsare at the forefront of the transition.Many leaders have created a dialoguebetween themselves and the procure-ment officers in their organization tounderstand how rules can be reformedand modernized. In the last Depart-ment of Defense (DoD) appropriationsbill, for example, Congress directedthe DoD’s CIO to identify “alternativeacquisition strategies” for IT that wouldallow for:54a. early and continual involvementof the user;b. multiple, rapidly executedincrements or releases of capability;c. early, successive prototyping to25Ifyouthinkyourdataneedsaresmallbecauseyouarearegulargovernmentagency,thinkagain.Ifyouwerestoring100terabytesofdatain2010,youcanexpecttoneed11timesasmuchstoragespacein2016.20162010 =100Terabytes
  26. 26. 26support an evolutionary approach; andd. a modular, open-systems approach.This strategy of breaking mega-proj-ects up into more manageable chunkshas a number of historical precedents,and some good sense behind it. As itpicks up steam, we may see a higherrate of IT project success at all levelsof government.If you read “modular, open systems”above and thought of “open source,”you aren’t alone. DoD has overcomebarriers to the procurement of opensource technologies in an effort to drivedown costs while improving overallIT performance. Back in 2009, formerDoD CIO David Wennergren issued anew policy providing “Clarifying Guid-ance Regarding Open Source Software.”The memorandum noted that DoDneeded to deploy software faster thanever, and that “The use of Open SourceSoftware (OSS) can provide advantagesin this regard.” Wennergren saw it asa problem that outdated conceptionsabout procurement regulations hadhampered DoD in open source adop-tion. By setting out clear procurementpolicies clarifying and supporting opensource software, the DoD CIO openedthe door for innovation. The policy alsomade the case for open source soft-ware’s benefits, including substantialcost savings, “continuous and broadpeer-review,” “unrestricted ability tomodify software source code” and areduction in vendor lock-in.55Case in point: the National Recon-naissance Office (NRO) manages thenation’s spy satellites and is a big fan ofopen source software. NRO launcheda top secret cloud to store its recon-naissance data, according to agencyCIO Jill Singer. The open source cloud“was set up in 15 months, engulfing atiny $13 million and requiring just 11people.” The price of the project was somuch less than closed-source alterna-tives that its risk was also dramaticallyreduced. The approach paid off, andthe project was a major success.56DoD has also taken a lead role inpromoting the sharing of softwareamong federal agencies. Much of thisis through the federal “Shared First”initiative that provides a forum andincentive for agencies to collaborate.Federal CIO Steve VanRoekel saidof the program, “We’re looking foropportunities to … build on existinginvestments rather than re-inventingthe wheel.”57Open source is so popularin the national security community thatseveral agencies are even working tocreate their own open source softwarefoundation to spur further innovation.58Another exciting example of procure-ment reform is in the number of CIOswho are turning to purchasing coop-eratives that are run either by othergovernment agencies or by a consor-tium of government or non-governmentplayers. These cooperative purchasingorganizations give CIOs powerful toolsto obtain the best technology and stillmeet all of their relevant purchasingrules and regulations. In these arrange-ments, one organization acts as a buyeron behalf of many others. They runcompetitive bids, make evaluations andaward master contracts. When anothergovernment entity wishes to purchasesomething, it can simply write purchaseorders against the already competitivelybid master contracts.U.S. Communities Government Pur-chasing Alliance is one such program.U.S. Communities was founded bythe National Association of Counties(NACO), the National League of Cities(NLC) and a number of other alliedorganizations. In this model, all con-tracts are competitively procured byan individual public entity. Certain lan-guage is included in contracts to allowother entities to share the contract. U.S.Communities functions as a purchasingco-op, and drives down prices for goodsand services. Sometimes governmentscan even purchase integrated solutionsthatcombinehardwareandservicesintoa single, streamlined purchase order.59Texas runs a similar program underthe aegis of the state CIO. Texas has be-come a strong negotiator with vendors,often obtaining significant volume dis-counts. In the first quarter of this year,more than $415 million of purchasesof IT goods and services went throughTexas’ cooperative contracts, gener-ating an astounding cost avoidance/savings of $66 million. Even though theTexas program is headed by one stateagency, the savings are enjoyed by gov-ernment customers outside of Texasstate government, including “schooldistricts, counties, cities, libraries, firedepartments” and about 15 other stategovernments, which together compriseabout 75 percent of DIR’s customerbase. And it’s important to note that,for them, doing business with DIR isentirely voluntary. gCooperativepurchasingorganizationsgivecioSpowerfultoolstoobtainthebest technologyandstillmeetalloftheirrelevantpurchasingrulesandregulations.
  27. 27. Whateveryourlife’sworkis,doitwell.Amanshoulddohisjobsowellthattheliving,thedead,andtheunborncoulddoitnobetter.” — Martin Luther King
  28. 28. 28Therearepeoplewhomakethingshappen,therearepeoplewhowatchthingshappen,andtherearepeoplewhowonderwhathappened.Tobesuccessful,youneedtobeapersonwhomakesthingshappen.”— James “Jim” LovellWe’ve come to the end of ourjourney into the legacy of aCIO. In the process, we’vetaken a three-dimensional look atthe concept of legacy — past, presentand future. We’ve learned from thesuccesses — and challenges — of ourpeers. And we’ve provided a frame-work and a set of tools that you canuse to craft a great legacy for yourorganization.Many of the great works of the past— like the Panama Canal and Trans-continental Railroad — might haveseemed like more trouble than theywere worth at the time. They requiredclear vision, steadfast commitmentand a never-give-up attitude. But theywere finally accomplished, and overtime their value has been proven —even far beyond any of their creators’expectations. Sure, we’ve seen morethan our fair share of faddish predic-tions like flying cars, disposableclothing and the like find their wayto the dustbin of history. But thismoment in government technologyseems more laden with opportunitythan with risk. So the question fallsto you: What fate will meet the workthat you do? What will remain of yourefforts after you have moved on? Whatwill be your legacy? gWritingYour Legacy,
  29. 29. John Miri is the editor-in-chief for theCenter for Digital Government. Aftera successful career as a private sectorsoftware executive, Miri was appoint-ed by the Texas governor to the topregulatory board overseeing state-wide electronic government. He wenton to lead transformational projectsfor two successive Texas state chieftechnology officers andhas become an advisor and closeconfidant to leading state and local government CIOs aroundthe nation. As the former director of E-Government and WebServices for the state of Texas, Miri led the state to breakthroughresults of 829 online services, 83 million citizen financial transac-tions and $5 billion in online revenue. He helped found threeWeb-based technology companies that leveraged Web 2.0 andcloud computing to achieve dramatic results for clients inthe commercial markets. Miri has been a passionate advocateof next-generation Internet technologies for more than adecade and is a nationally recognized speaker and author ongovernment technology.With assistance from:Jeana Bruce, Director of Custom Media,Center for Digital GovernmentBecki Johnson, Editor of Custom Media,Center for Digital GovernmentCrystal Hopson, Senior Designer1. Reed, Jerry. “East Bound and Down,”Smokey and the Bandit, RCA Records, 1977.3. All quotes from Karen Robinson are from interview conducted by CDG on Feb. 20, 2013.4. Virtuous Leadership, Alexandre Havard, 2007.5. All quotes from Carolyn Lawson are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 11, 2013.8. All quotes from Sonny Bhagowalia are from interview conducted by CDG on Feb. 5, 2013.9. All quotes from Sherri Hammons are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 25, 2013.12. All quotes from Kriste Elia are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 25, 2013.13. All quotes from Richard Sanchez are from interview conducted by CDG on Feb. 15, 2013.14. Ibid.16. Ibid.18. All quotes from Jim Tallerico are from interview conducted by CDG on Feb. 11, 2013.25. Ibid.27. All quotes from Mujib Lodhi are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 18, 2013.30. Ibid.31. Ibid.33. All quotes from Joe Marcella are from interview conducted by CDG on Feb. 5, 2013.34. Ibid.36. Ibid.40. Ibid.46. Ibid.47. Cisco Case Study, 2011.48. Ibid.49. Ibid.50. All quotes from David Heck are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 24, 2013.51. All quotes from Adrian Gonzalez are from interview conducted by CDG on Jan. 8, 2013.52. Bob Burwell, “Make the Most of Big Data to Drive Innovation Through Research,”NetAppWhite Paper, November 201254.
  30. 30. Peoplewanttoworkanywhere;onanydevice,andITneedstoenablethem—withoutdrowningincomplexityorcompromisingonsecurity,performance,reliabilityorcost.Aerohive’smissionistoSimpli-Fitheseenterpriseaccessnetworkswithacloud-enabled,self-organizing,service-aware,identity-basedinfrastructurethatincludesinnovativeWi-Fi,VPN,branchroutingandswitchingsolutions.Inhere,innovationfreesyoufortheworkthatmattersmost.Acrossthecountry,dedicatedAT&Tprofessionalsareworkingwithstateandlocalgovernmentstotransformtheirnetworksandaccomplishmoreinlesstime.Withourcomprehensivesuiteofsolutions,agencyoperationsarenowmoreagile,,intelligenttechnologysolutions,enablingstateandlocalgovernmentstotransformcollaborationandprovideahigherlevelofservicetocitizens.Ciscoencapsulatesanewwayofthinkingabouthowcommunitiesaredesigned,built,andmanaged,tohelpgovernmentsprovideathriving,safe,andsustainablecommunityforcitizens.CoxBusinessprovidesvoice,dataandvideoservicesformorethan300,000smallandregionalbusinesses,includinghealthcareproviders,K-12andhighereducation,financialinstitutionsandfederal,stateandlocalgovernmentorganizations.Theorganizationalsoservesmostofthetoptierwirelessandwirelinetelecommuni-cationscarriersintheU.S.throughitswholesaledivision.AccordingtoVerticalSystemsGroup,CoxBusinessisoneofthelargestprovidersofbusinessEthernetservicesintheU.S.basedoncustomerportsandhasbeenconsistentlyrecognizedforitsleadershipamongsmall/midsizebusinessdataserviceproviders.CoxBusinessiscurrentlytheseventhlargestvoiceserviceproviderintheU.S.andsupportsonemillionphonelines.Formoreinformationabout CoxBusinesscall1-800-396-1609.RedHatistheworld’sleadingopensourceproviderbringingthechoice,collaboration,costsavingsandvalueofopensourcetogovernmentagencies.AsRedHat’sLargestGovernmentReseller,,transparency,andvalue—exactlywhatRedHatandopensourceoffer.RedHatisthestandardchoiceforLinuxingovernmentsworldwide.Ourcloud,virtualization,storage,platformandservice-orientedsolutionsbringrealfreedomandcollaborationtoyourprograms. AndRedHat’sworldwidesupport,,weenablepeopletotackleissueswiththeinnovativeuseofIT,andareparticipatinginthedebate.EMCisaleaderinenablingstateandlocalgovernmentstotransformtheiroperationsanddeliverITasaservice.Fundamentaltothistransformationiscloudcomputing.Throughinnovativeproductsandservices,EMCacceleratesthejourneytocloud,helpinggovernmentstore,manage,protectandanalyzetheirmostvaluableasset—information—inamoreagile,trustedandcost-efficientway.Followus@EMCpublicsector.Underwriters:30
  31. 31. Informaticaistheworld’snumberoneindependentproviderofdataintegrationsoftware.Thousandsoforganiza-tions,commercialandgovernment,relyonInformaticaformaximizingreturnondatatodrivetheirtopbusinessimperatives.Tomaximizereturnondata,Informaticaincreasesthevalueofdatabydeliveringrelevant,trustworthy,timely,authoritative,actionable,accessible,holisticandsecuredata.Atthesametime,Informaticalowersthecostofdatabybringingdownbusinesscosts,laborcosts,softwarecosts,hardwarecostsandstoragecosts.WiththeInformaticaPlatformorganizationscanfullyleveragetheirinformationassetsresidingon-premise,intheCloudandacrosssocialnetworks.Insightisaleadingtechnologyproviderofhardware,softwareandservicesolutions,withmorethan20yearsofexperienceservingagenciesinthepublicsector.InsightPublicSectorunderstandstheuniqueITchallengesthatagencies,educationalinstitutionsandlocalmunicipalitiesfaceeveryday. WehaveadistinguishedtrackrecordofhelpingorganizationsaddresstheirITneedsandimprovetheirtechnologieswhilestreamliningmanagementandreducingtheiroverallcostofownership.McAfee, a wholly owned subsidiary of Intel Corporation (NASDAQ:INTC), is the world’s largest dedicated securitytechnology company. Backed by global threat intelligence, our solutions empower home users and organiza-tions by enabling them to safely connect to and use the Internet, prove compliance, protect data, preventdisruptions, identify vulnerabilities, and monitor and improve their security. McAfee is relentlessly focused onconstantly finding new ways to keep our customers safe.NetAppstoragesolutionshelpstateandlocalagenciessimplifytheirdatamanagementwhilecuttingcosts.Storageisthe#1lineiteminmostITbudgets,andwithstoragefromNetAppyoucangetinformationtotherightpeopleattherighttime.Wehelpyouslashinfrastructure/,open,andintegratedsuiteofapplications,servers,andstoragesolutionsengineeredtoworktogethertooptimizeeveryaspectofgovernmentoperations.Oracle’sindustry-leadingsolutionsgivegovernmentorganizationsunmatchedbenefitsincludingunbreakablesecurity,highavailability,scalability,andlowtotalcostofownership.Formoreinformation, AG assists government agencies optimize and modernize their existing technology to accessinformation real time, making decisions, and achieving results faster. Our software and services strategicallytransform organizations — and closely align both business and IT teams around common and achievablebusiness goals. We are focused on supporting agencies and departments of every size unlock and increasetheir potential and agility making their IT investments more flexible and citizen-focused. Building on over40 years of customer-centric innovation, the company is among the top 10 fastest-growing technologycompanies in the world and is ranked as a “leader” in fifteen market categories, fueled by core product familiesAdabas and Natural, ARIS, Terracotta and webMethods. Software AG has more than 5,500 employees in70 countries and had global revenue of $1.38 billion in 2011. Learn more at:
  32. 32. The Center for Digital Government, a division of e.Republic, is a national research and advisory institute oninformation technology policies and best practices in state and local government. Through its diverse and dynamic programsand services, the Center provides public and private sector leaders with decision support, knowledge and opportunitiesto help them effectively incorporate new technologies in the 21st© 2013 e.Republic. All rights reserved.