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Internet of Things


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Internet of Things

  1. 1. The Internet of ThingsThe Next Evolution Of The Internet<br />Dave Evans<br />Cisco Chief Futurist<br />Chief Technologist, Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG)<br />
  2. 2. Internet of Things—Everything Is Getting Connected<br />Q. What do cows, shoes and trees have in common?<br /><ul><li>A. They are all part of the Internet of Things</li></li></ul><li>The WWW Has Gone Through Four Distinct Evolutions…<br />Social Web<br />Transactional Web<br />Brochure Web<br />Academia<br />
  3. 3. But What about the Internet?<br />IoT<br /><ul><li>Standardization on IP
  4. 4. Larger / pervasive
  5. 5. More secure
  6. 6. People-centric
  7. 7. But fundamentally the same? </li></li></ul><li>The Internet of Things<br /><ul><li>Represents the first true evolution of the Internet
  8. 8. Why?
  9. 9. More mobile than fixed
  10. 10. New architecture models
  11. 11. New protocol (IPv6)
  12. 12. Sensor-laden
  13. 13. More machines than people</li></li></ul><li>Bandwidth<br />Internet Growth<br /><ul><li>The Internet will double in size every 5.32 years.</li></ul>Internet map as of 16th January 2009<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, 2006-2011, Guo-Qing Zhang New Journal of Physics, Guardian UK..; Internet Mapping Project, Bell Labs/Lumeta Corporation, 2009<br />
  14. 14. The Internet Will Extend to Billions of New Devices<br />Users<br />Today'sInternet<br />500<br />Computers<br />Phones<br />1,500<br />Extended Internet<br />Mobile Assets<br />350<br />As IP becomes pervasive, devices that do not exist today will be connected to the Internet<br />Static Assets<br />375<br />Controllers<br />500<br />750<br />Smart Sensors<br />Microprocessors and Microcontrollers<br />35,000<br />Source: Harbor Research, Inc.; Forrester Research, Inc.; Cisco IBSG, 2006-2011<br />
  15. 15. The Internet of Things Is Already Here<br />World Population<br />7.6 Billion<br />6.3 Billion<br />6.8 Billion<br />7.2 Billion<br />ConnectedDevices<br />50 Billion<br />500 Million<br />12.5 Billion<br />25 Billion<br />More connected devices than people<br />Connected Devices per Person<br />6.58<br />0.08<br />1.84<br />3.47<br />2003<br />2010<br />2015<br />2020<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, 2011<br />
  16. 16. 50 Billion and Beyond…?<br />February2011<br />1x1x1mm computer.<br />Features an ultra-low-power microprocessor, pressure sensor, memory, thin-film battery, solar cell and wireless radio with an antenna.<br />March 2011<br />1 x 1 x 1 mm camera the size of a grain of salt<br />Actualsize of devices<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, 2011, University of Michigan, Fraunhofer<br />
  17. 17. Billions of New Internet InhabitantsWireless and Sensors Will Be Everywhere<br /><ul><li>90% of global population has wireless connectivity. ~5B Mobile subscriptions in 2010
  18. 18. 100,000 phone masts erected annually
  19. 19. 294 million consumer electronics devices with Wi-Fi shipped in 2007—1 billion by 2012
  20. 20. Billion of smart dust / sensors:
  21. 21. Cisco 2009: Planetary Skin—integrate sensors on land, in sea, in air, and in space to help make it possible to see the “whole picture” when it comes to the effects to and changes in the environment
  22. 22. HP 2010—“Central Nervous System for the Earth” CeNSE. 10-year mission to embed up to a trillion push-pin-sized nanoscale sensors and actuators around the globe</li></ul>WAN<br />(Wide Area Network)<br />MAN<br />(Metropolitan Area Network)<br />LAN<br />(Local Area Network)<br />PAN<br />(Personal Area Network)<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, UN: International Telecommunications Union, Real-Aliens.Com 2006-2011<br />
  23. 23. IPv6: Connectivity Without Meaningful Limits<br /><ul><li>Current Internet address limitation: 4 billion addresses</li></ul>As of February 2011, IPv4 addresses exhausted. (No IPv4 addresses remain unallocated.)<br /><ul><li>Internet address limitation under IPv6: (2^128)</li></ul>340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses<br />4.8 trillion addresses for every star in the known universe<br />100 addresses for every atom on the surface of the earth.*<br />52 thousand trillion trillion addresses per person<br />(The number of stars in the known universe is estimated to be 70 sextillion (7*^22)<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, 2006-2011, *Steve Leibson, Computer History Museum, CNN<br />
  24. 24. Information<br />The “Zettaflood” is just the Beginning of the IoT Traffic.<br /><ul><li>Total IP Traffic on the global Internet:
  25. 25. 2003 – 1.8 Petabytes
  26. 26. 2007 - 161 Exabytes
  27. 27. 2009 - 487 Exabytes
  28. 28. 2010 - ½ Zettabyte
  29. 29. 2011—1 ZettaByte(540,000Xincrease from 2003)
  30. 30. Expected to double over the next 18 months
  31. 31. 2012 - 91% expected to be video traffic</li></ul>½ Zetabyte: Equivalent to a stack of books stretching from Earth to Pluto 10 times (36 Billion miles)<br />A Zettabyte is a billion terabytes (250 billion DVDs)<br />“By 2011, 20 typical households will generate more traffic than the entire Internet did in 2008.”<br /> Jim Cicconi, VP, AT&T<br />Source: Cisco IBSG, 2006-2011, VentureBeat, IDC, C|Net, The Guardian, U.K.<br />
  32. 32. Information<br />Turning Data into Wisdom<br />
  33. 33. New Internet Inhabitants<br />What do cows, shoes and trees have in common?<br />This tree has 3,000 followers —do you?<br />
  34. 34. To view additional IBSG Innovations Solutions click here:<br />@DaveTheFuturist<br />

Editor's Notes

  • 2007 – 161bn GB2009 – 487bn GB
  • Cisco IBSG, defines the Internet of Things (IoT) as the point in time when more “things or objects” were connected to the Internet than people.1In 2003, there were approximately 6.3 billion people living on the planet and 500 million devices connected to the Internet.2 By dividing the number of connected devices by the world population, we find that there was less than one (0.08) device for every person. Based on Cisco IBSG’s definition, IoT didn’t yet exist in 2003 because the number of connected things was relatively small given that ubiquitous devices such as smartphones were just being introduced. For example, Steve Jobs, Apple’s CEO, didn’t unveil the iPhone until January 9, 2007 at the Macworld conference.3Explosive growth of smartphones and tablet PCs brought the number of devices connected to the Internet to 12.5 billion in 2010, while the world’s human population increased to 6.8 billion, making the number of connected devices per person more than 1 (1.84 to be exact) for the first time in history.4Refining these numbers further, Cisco IBSG estimates IoT was “born” sometime between 2008 and 2009. Today, IoT is well under way, as initiatives such as Cisco’s Planetary Skin, smart grid, and intelligent vehicles continue to progress.5Looking to the future, Cisco IBSG predicts there will be 25 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2015 and 50 billion by 2020. It is important to note that these estimates do not take into account rapid advances in Internet or device technology; the numbers presented are based on what is known to be true today.Additionally, the number of connected devices per person may seem low. This is because the calculation is based on the entire world population, much of which is not yet connected to the Internet. By reducing the population sample to people actually connected to the Internet, the number of connected devices per person rises dramatically. For example, we know that approximately 2 billion people use the Internet today.6 Using this figure, the number of connected devices per person jumps to 6.25 in 2010, instead of 1.84.Of course, we know nothing remains static, especially when it comes to the Internet. Initiatives and advances, such as Cisco’s Planetary Skin, HP’s central nervous system for the earth (CeNSE), and smart dust, have the potential to add millions—even billions—of sensors to the Internet.7MethodologyIn January 2009, a team of researchers in China studied Internet routing data in six-month intervals, from December 2001 to December 2006. Similar to the properties of Moore’s Law, their findings showed that the Internet doubles in size every 5.32 years. Using this figure in combination with the number of devices connected to the Internet in 2003 (500 million, as determined by Forrester Research), and the world population according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Cisco IBSG estimated the number of connected devices per person.8NoteCalculations are based on number of connected IP devices.SourcesCisco IBSG, 2011. U.S. Census Bureau, 2010; Forrester Research, 2003.Wikipedia, 2010. Cisco IBSG, 2010; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. “Planetary Skin: A Global Platform for a New Era of Collaboration,” Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio and Simon Willis, Cisco IBSG, March 2009, Internet Stats: Usage and Population Statistics, June 30, 2010.Cisco, 2010; HP, 2010.While no one can predict the exact number of devices connected to the Internet at any given time, the methodology of applying a constant (Internet doubling in size every 5.32 years) to a generally agreed-upon number of connected devices at a point in time (500 million in 2003) provides an estimate that is appropriate for the purposes of this paper. Sources: “Internet Growth Follows Moore&apos;s Law Too,” Lisa Zyga,, January 14, 2009,; George Colony, Forrester Research founder and chief executive officer, March 10, 2003,
  • Fitted with sensors, a computer, a web-cam and a wi-fi centre (just to name a few of the gadgets), the tree, based in Brussels, outputs all manner of content that can be found on YouTube, Soundcloud and Flickr with a feed on Twitter that makes sense of the data from all of the on-tree gizmos for it’s 3000+ followers.