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Cisco Connect Toronto 2017 - Optimizing your client's Wi-Fi Experience

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Optimizing your client's WiFi Experience

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Cisco Connect Toronto 2017 - Optimizing your client's Wi-Fi Experience

  1. 1. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 1 Cisco Connect Your Time Is Now Optimizing Your Client's Wi-Fi Experience Robert James Lloyd TSA EN Mobility October 12, 2017
  2. 2. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2 -Nikola Tesla “It seems that I have always been ahead of my time. I had to wait nineteen years before Niagara was harnessed by my system, fifteen years before the basic inventions for wireless which I gave to the world in 1893 were applied universally”
  3. 3. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3 Acknowledgement • A large portion of this presentation was gleaned from the remarkable Cisco Live Berlin 2017 Session: Wireless Deployment and Design for Media-Rich Mobile Applications https://www.ciscolive.com/online/connect/sessionDetail.ww?SESSION_ID=93867&backBtn=true. I highly recommend viewing it in it’s entirety and I thank my colleagues for allowing me to use their content. Said session was created and delivered by the following Principal Engineers: • Robert Barton, P. Eng @MrRobbarto CCIE #6660, CCDE #2013::6 • Jerome Henry, Technical leader - TME @wirelessccie CCIE Wireless #24750, CWNE #45 More related presentations and references will be noted in the supplemental information slide(s) following the core material of this delivery.
  4. 4. 4© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Part 1: Optimizing the RF Environment for Mobile Applications Part 2: Optimal AP and Antenna deployment for Real-Time Applications Part 3: Cisco Innovations for Mobility Client QoE Part 4: Developing your Wireless QoS Strategy Part 5: AireOS QoS Foundations. Part 6: Cisco and Apple Fastlane Agenda
  5. 5. 5© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Optimizing the RF Environment for Mobile Applications
  6. 6. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 6 Real Time Voice vs Real Time Video Applications 6
  7. 7. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7 Below 4.1, VoIP Quality Changes from “Good” to close to “Fair” (“slightly annoying”) ≈4.1 7
  8. 8. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 8 VoIP Golden Rules for Wi-Fi Packet Error Rate (PER) <=1% As low jitter as possible, less than 100ms Retries should be < 20% End to end delay 150 – 200 ms, 30 ms in cell When these values are exceeded, MOS reduces too much Your mission is to keep MOS high 8
  9. 9. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 9 RF Design - Signal Closer distance to the AP means higher signal level (RSSI), which translates in more complex modulation scheme and higher data rate 9
  10. 10. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 10 Higher Power Does not Always Mean Better Signal You are a bit quiet Blah blah blah Is it better now? RSSI dBm Noise Level Time Aim for: •Noise level ≤ -92 dBm •RSSI ≥ 67 dBm -> 25 dB or better SNR •Typically, AP power same as client power -> commonly 11 to 14 dBm 10
  11. 11. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 11 Imagine This Scenario . . . . (based on an actual customer situation) 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • Customer moved to first Wi-Fi only building (including voice and video) • DISASTER! Wi-Fi was Terrible!! • Investigation revealed all APs at max power (power level 1) • Covering ~7500 sq. ft. per AP (2500 sq. ft. per AP is recommended) • They needed 3x as many APs! ~ 120 ft
  12. 12. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 12 SSIDs and Low Rates Consume Air Time 5% After 60% Before  Reduce SSID number, disable low rates, solve OBSS issues  Keep CU below 50%  Before: 8 SSIDs, all rates allowed  After: 2 SSIDs, 802.11b rates disabled 12
  13. 13. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 13 What Should Your Minimum Rate Be?  Stop your cell where: 1. Signal to your clients is still strong 2. Clients and overhead traffic still “reasonably fast” 3. Retries are low  Beyond that point, clients should be able to get to another AP if they want to.  On the right:  STA1 and STA2 hear each other -> less collisions  STA 1 and STA2 send @ 54 Mb/s -> short delays  STA3 is far from AP -> lower data rate (longer transmission delay), higher PER and loss risks  STA3 does not hear STA1 and STA2 -> higher collision risk 24 Mbps 6 Mbps STA1 STA2 STA3 13
  14. 14. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 14 - 67 dBm… How Much is That in Data Rate?  And BER is important, because more retries means more chances that the frame will be dropped  Your job is to limit frame drops to 1% or less to maintain 4.1 MOS  At -67 dBm RSSI, SNR is typically around 25 dB or more*  You can run any rate of 24 Mbps and up, and still have good frame success rate * well, at least in ideal conditions… see next slides 14
  15. 15. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15 Hand and Phone Position Affect Signal Object in Signal Path Signal Attenuation Through Object Plasterboard wall 3 dB Glass wall with metal frame 6 dB Cinderblock wall 4 dB Office window 3 dB Metal door 6 dB Metal door in brick wall 12 dB Phone and body position 3 - 6 dB Phone near field absorption Up to 15 dB There can be a 20 dB difference between these photos 15
  16. 16. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 16 Big Hands are Okay if Your Design is Clever -67 dBm -67 – 20 = -87 dBm Signal is too weak… AP AP But you can roam to the other AP @ -67 dBm! 16
  17. 17. 17© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Positioning APs and Antennas for Optimal Real-Time Application QoE
  18. 18. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 18 Where do You Need Coverage?  Talk to end-users. Think what they will need and when, look for roaming paths 18
  19. 19. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 19 AP Placement Guidelines Mount APs so that antennas are vertical (we use vertical polarization) 1919
  20. 20. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 20 20 Radiation Pattern  Do not mount on a wall an AP built for ceiling mount…
  21. 21. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 21 21  Do not mount on a wall an AP built for ceiling mount… Radiation Pattern
  22. 22. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 22 AP Placement Guidelines Avoid metallic objects that can affect the signal to your clients 22
  23. 23. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 23 AP Placement – Bad Examples  AP too high: Low rate to the ground Client signal too weak at the AP level > 20ft Nice… but you won’t cover the jetway as soon as the door closes 23
  24. 24. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 24 RF Design – Cell Overlap Cell overlap coverage is not always the only concern Roaming can fail if the client device does not have enough time to properly scan for neighboring access points Imagine turning the corner around a metal or high attenuation barrier – the RF environment changes very rapidly Challenging RF obstacles need to be considered during AP placement A “Transition” AP that is placed at the intersection of hallways can alleviate some scenarios 24
  25. 25. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 25 RF Design – Next AP Position • At point A the phone is connected to AP 1 • At point B the phone has AP 2 in the neighbor list, AP 3 has not yet been scanned due to the RF shadow caused by the elevator bank • At point C the phone needs to roam, but AP 2 is the only AP in the neighbor list • The phone then needs to rescan and connect to AP 3 1 3 2A B C 25
  26. 26. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 26 RF Design – Next AP Position At point A the phone is connected to AP 1 At point B the phone has AP 2 in the neighbor list as it was able to scan it while moving down the hall At point C the phone needs to roam and successfully selects AP 2 The phone has sufficient time to scan for AP 3 ahead of time A B C 1 2 3 26
  27. 27. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 27 Radiation Pattern and Roaming Buffer When users are expected to roam while communicating, make sure their BYOD can detect neighboring APs BEFORE roaming Directional vs omnidirectional antenna Floor AP signal drops fast AP signal drops slowly User does not have much space/time to find the next AP 27
  28. 28. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 28 Controller Redundancy and Roaming Paths Design expected roaming paths and make sure all APs connect to the same controller, and overlap allows for next AP discovery 28
  29. 29. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 29 Going Further • BRKEWN-2019 - 7 Ways to Fail as a Wireless Expert (2017 Berlin) https://www.ciscolive.com/online/connect/sessionDetail.ww?SESSION_ID=93858&backBtn=true • BRKEWN-3010 - Improve enterprise WLAN spectrum quality with Cisco's advanced RF capacities (RRM, CleanAir, ClientLink, etc) (2017 Berlin) https://www.ciscolive.com/online/connect/sessionDetail.ww?SESSION_ID=94062&tclass=popup 29
  30. 30. 30© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Innovations for Mobility Client QoE
  31. 31. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3131BRKEWN-2670 BESTPRACTICES(AireOS) Make it Easy Make it work INFRASTRUCTURE Enable High Availability (AP and Client SSO) Enable AP Failover Priority Enable AP Multicast Mode Enable Multicast VLAN Enable Pre-image download Enable AVC Enable NetFlow Enable Local Profiling (DHCP and HTTP) Enable NTP Modify the AP Re-transmit Parameters Enable FastSSID change Enable Per-user BW contracts Enable Multicast Mobility Enable Client Load balancing Disable Aironet IE FlexConnect Groups and Smart AP Upgrade Enable 802.1x and WPA/WPA2 on WLAN Enable 802.1x authentication for AP Change advance EAP timers Enable SSH and disable telnet Disable Management Over Wireless Disable WiFi Direct Peer-to-peer blocking Secure Web Access (HTTPS) Enable User Policies Enable Client exclusion policies Enable rogue policies and Rogue Detection RSSI Strong password Policies Enable IDS BYOD Timers Set Bridge Group Name Set Preferred Parent Multiple Root APs in each BGN Set Backhaul rate to "Auto" Set Backhaul Channel Width to 40/80 MHz Backhaul Link SNR > 25 dBm Avoid DFS channels for Backhaul External RADIUS server for Mesh MAC Authentication Enable IDS Enable EAP Mesh Security Mode MESH WIRELESS/RF SECURITY Disable 802.11b data rates Restrict number of WLAN below 4 Enable channel bonding – 40 or 80 MHz Enable BandSelect Use RF Profiles and AP Groups Enable RRM (DCA & TPC) to be auto Enable Auto-RF group leader selection Enable Cisco CleanAir and EDRRM Enable Noise &Rogue Monitoring on all channels Enable DFS channels Avoid Cisco AP Load http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/technology/wlc/82463-wlc-config-best-practice.html Best Practices Summary For Your Reference
  32. 32. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 32 Optimized Roaming RX-SOP Pervasive Wi-Fi HDX Turbo Performance Event Driven RRM XOR Radio FRA Cisco CleanAir® RF Profiles RRM, DCA, TPC, CHDM Load Balancing Band Select Client Link 4.0 Off-Channel Scanning Flex DFS DBS 5GHz Serving 2.4GHz Serving 5/2.4GHz Monitor • Enabled by Dual 5GHz • Adjust Radio Bands to Better Serve the Environment RF Optimized Connectivity
  33. 33. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 33 XOR Radio and FRA 2.4GHz Serving 2.4-5GHz Monitoring 5GHz. Serving 5GHz. Serving 2.4GHz Serving 5GHz. Serving 5GHz Serving5Hz Serving 2.4GHz Serving  FRA-auto (default value) or Manual  Auto 2.4 -> 5GHz or Monitor Mode  Transition to 2.4 GHz if coverage drops
  34. 34. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 34 FRA Sensitivity and Preference  FRA Sensitivity configurable • Low–100% COF • Medium–95% COF • High–90% COF  Client Network Preference • Connectivity Preference • Throughput Preference
  35. 35. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 35 Micro  Macro Cell Transitions -51 dBm -65 dBm -51 dBm-51 dBm≥ 55 dBm? Probe Response Client Steering • 802.11v BSS Transition – Default Enable • 802.11k – Default Enable • Probe Suppression – Default Disable Client Types • 11v capable – 802.11v BSS Transition • Non-11v capable – 802.11k neighbor list + disassociation • No 11k or 11v support – Probe Suppression Micro – 5GHz on XOR Macro -- Dedicated 5 GHz
  36. 36. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 36 Optimize Wi-Fi with CleanAir Quickly Identify and Mitigate Wi-Fi Impacting Interference Channel 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48  Interference on 20/40/80/160 MHz  Air Quality and Interference by AP/radio on WLC  AQ Threshold trap and Interference Device trap (per radio)  CleanAir-enabled RRM Network Air Quality and Interference Location with PI 3.1.x and MSE 8.0.
  37. 37. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 37 Interference Devices and Air Quality Report CleanAir Enabled RRM Mitigated RF interference for improved reliability and performance Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi aware Dynamic mitigation ED-RRM Granular spectrum visibility and control Air Quality Performance Improved Client Performance Complete Automatic Interference Mitigation Solution for Rogues and Non-Wi-Fi Interference
  38. 38. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 38 Cisco Enhanced Interference Mitigation After Mitigated RF interference for improved reliability and performance Before Rogue Wi-Fi interference decreases reliability and performance until next dynamic channel assignment (DCA) cycle Improved Client Performance Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi aware Dynamic mitigation ED-RRM Granular spectrum visibility and control Rogues seen as security threat only Non-Wi-Fi interference prioritized Complete Automatic Interference Mitigation Solution for Rogues and Non-Wi-Fi Interference Air Quality PerformanceAir Quality Performance
  39. 39. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 39 Maximize Channels When Radar Is Present Flexible Dynamic Frequency Selection 5170 MHz 5330 MHz 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 20MHz. 40MHz. 80MHz. 160MHz. 5490 MHz 5710 MHz 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 Channel Used by Air Traffic Radar See it on 160MHZ Band Dynamic Frequency Selection Flexible Dynamic Frequency Selection
  40. 40. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 40 FlexDFS with Dynamic Bandwidth Selection Identifies radar frequency to 1 MHz FlexDFS isolates radar event to 20MHz DBS allows best channel and width Interference is impacting only channel 60 FlexDFS + DBS Automatic and intelligent use of spectrum 52 56 60 64 DBS combined with FlexDFS: Increased confidence in using wider channel bandwidth; reduced radio flapping Primary 20 Secondary 20 Secondary 40 52 56 60 64 Optimizes HD Experience
  41. 41. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 41 Better Support for Users on the Move Optimized Roaming Optimized Roaming: Wireless Devices Connect to the Most Effective APClient Stickiness
  42. 42. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 42 Improve Connectivity to All Devices Cisco ClientLink 4.0 Improves device performance 802.11ac Wave 2 Access Point: TX beamforming • 802.11a • 802.11g • 802.11n • 802.11ac Wave 1 • 802.11ac Wave 2 • 802.11ac Wave 2 802.11ac Wave 2 Access Point: ClientLink
  43. 43. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 43 Better Client Connectivity RXSOP, Load Balancing, Band Select
  44. 44. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 44 Fine-tuning HDX with RF Profiles Wi-Fi Triggered ED-RRM Optimized Roaming RXSOP Dynamic Bandwidth Selection TPC, DCA CHDM FlexDFS CORE: • CleanAir • ClientLink 4.0 • Turbo Performance  Pre-canned RF Profiles  Client Distribution  Data Rates  DCA, TPC, CHDM  Profile Threshold for Traps  High Density Features
  45. 45. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 45 Cisco Air Time Fairness (ATF) After Air time is allocated per SSID, per realm, per client. There is now better control over how air time is shared. Before Rate limiting can only specify a bit rate (throughput) limit. There is no way to limit the duration that the bit rate will use. Gain the Ability to Meet SLAs Time- based Automatic calculation on availability Ongoing recalculation Bandwidth rate unpredictable Client- dependent fluctuation Not time- based Improved Predictability and Performance SSID 2 30% SSID 1 70% SSID 2 48% SSID 1 52%
  46. 46. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 46 Zero Impact Application Visibility and Control Maintain performance with zero-impact AVC Gain visibility into the network Control application performance App App App App App App App App App App App App App App App App Red Hat Cisco WebEx Rhapsody Gmail TIBCO Microsoft Exchange YouTube Skype SAP Citrix BitTorrent iTunes SharePoint Windows Server Google Talk Salesforce Monitor critical applications
  47. 47. 47© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Developing your Wireless QoS Strategy
  48. 48. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 48 Why Wireless QoS For Real Time Applications • QoS is like a chain It’s only as strong as its weakest link • the WLAN is one of the weakest links* in enterprise QoS designs for three primary reasons: 1) Typical downshift in speed (and throughput) 2) Shift from full-duplex to half-duplex media 3) Shift from a dedicated media to a shared media • WLAN QoS policies need to control both jitter and packet loss 1 Gbps170 Mbps Full DuplexHalf Duplex *weakest link is WAN, second weakest is WLAN 48
  49. 49. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 49 WLAN QoS Improvements Quantified Application Original Metric Improved Metric Percentage Improvement Voice 15 ms max jitter 5 ms max jitter 300% 3.92 MOS (Cellular Quality) 4.2 MOS (Toll Quality) Video 9 fps 14 fps 55% Visual MOS: Good Visual MOS: Excellent Transactional Data 14 ms latency 2 ms latency 700% http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/cisco_avc_application_improvement.pdf 49
  50. 50. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 50 Mobile Applications – on Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is the primary network access method Mission-critical applications cannot fail Wi-Fi space has become congested Proper RF and QoS management is the only way to ensure real- time applications QoE and prioritization 50
  51. 51. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 51 Wireless QoS-Specific Limitations • No priority servicing • No bandwidth guarantees • Non-deterministic media access • Only 4 levels of service LAN QoS WLAN QoS 51
  52. 52. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 52 Real Time Applications and Wireless Video/Voice & Other Applications over WLAN are the same as over other media, except... they’re carried over wireless! Signaling: SCCP/SIP… or others! Transport Protocols: RTP or other… but still real time Wireless adds some important differences Shared Media, Unlicensed Spectrum 802.11 Protocol Design Physical Coverage Design Users are Mobile Battery Life Application Design... 52
  53. 53. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 53 What Do You Consider First? 53
  54. 54. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 54 Start by Defining Your QoS Strategy Articulate Your Business Intent, Relevant Applications and End-to-End Strategy http://tinyurl.com/gu42acb 54
  55. 55. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 55 Translate your Strategy to a Framework 55 Transactional Data Realtime 4-Class Model Best Effort Control Signaling Transactional Data Multimedia Conferencing Voice 8-Class Model Scavenger Best Effort Multimedia Streaming Network Control OAM Realtime Interactive Transactional Data Multimedia Conferencing Voice 12-Class Model Bulk Data Scavenger Best Effort Multimedia Streaming Network Control Broadcast Video Signaling 1. Organize your applications into groups or “classes” 2. Assign a DSCP value to each class 3. Ensure that each application correctly marks this DSCP 4. Decide how each class will be treated by the devices in your network
  56. 56. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 56 A Consolidated Strategy: Comparing Wired and Wireless QoS • By definition of IEEE 802.11e standard there are only 4 levels of service (called “Access Categories”) • LAN switches service queues based on Priority Queue (PQ) and Class-Based Weighted Fair Queue (CBWFQ) • 802.11e uses the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) method • WLANs have no priority queue Class 6 Class 4 Class 2 Class 1 Class 7 Class … n Class 3 Background Best Effort Video Voice Enterprise QoS WLAN QoS Class 5 56 PQ + CBWFQ EDCA Algorithm
  57. 57. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 57 • Reconciles RFC 4594 with IEEE 802.11 • Summarizes our internal consensus on DSCP- to-UP mapping • Advocates DSCP-trust in the upstream direction (vs. UP-to-DSCP mapping) IETF Draft on DSCPUP Mapping https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11-00 57
  58. 58. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 58 Downstream DSCP-to-UP Mapping Model Ratified Cisco Consensus Model (June 2015) IEEE 802.11 Model Voice Access Category Best Effort Access Category Video Access Category Background Access Category UP 7 UP 5 UP 3 UP 2 UP 6 UP 4 UP 0 UP 1 OAM Signaling Realtime Interactive Transactional Data Multimedia Conferencing Bulk Data AF2 CS3 CS4 AF4 CS2 AF1 Scavenger CS1 Best Effort DF Multimedia Streaming AF3 Broadcast Video Voice + DSCP-Admit RFC 4594-Based Model CS5 EF + 44 Internetwork Control CS6 DSCP Network Control (CS7)• Plugs potential security vulnerabilities • Provides distinction between elastic and inelastic video classes • Aligns RFC 4594 recommendations into the IEEE 802.11 model • Requires several custom DSCP-to-UP mappings Remark / Drop if not in use 58
  59. 59. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 59 AireOS Default DSCP  UP Mapping Table Traffic Type DSCP 802.11e UP WMM Access Category Voice 46 (EF) 6 Voice Interactive Video 34 (AF41) 5 Video Call Signaling 24 (CS3) 3 Best Effort Transactional / Interactive Data 18 (AF21) 3 Best Effort Bulk Data 10 (AF11) 2 Background Best Effort 0 (BE) 0 Best Effort 59 • Other UP values are derived from the 3 msb of the packet’s DSCP value and then mapped to the correct AC accordingly • E.g. DSCP 40 = 101000  UP = 101 = 5
  60. 60. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 60 Downstream QoS Model (Simplified) Note: DSCP trust model (dot1p CoS tagging on WLC not in use here) Wired Network802.1Q Trunk CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 60 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.1p DSCP Payload 1 The Ethernet frame is received over an 802.1q trunk by the WLC. The WLC uses the DSCP value of the IP packet and maps it to the outer DSCP of the CAPWAP tunnel. 1
  61. 61. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 61 Downstream QoS Model (Simplified) Note: DSCP trust model (dot1p CoS tagging on WLC not in use here) Wired Network UP DSCP Payload 802.1Q Trunk 1 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 2 61 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.1p DSCP Payload 2 Once the Ethernet frame is received by the AP, it maps the DSCP value of the IP packet to the 802.11e UP value on the wireless frame. The frame is then sent to the client. 1 The Ethernet frame is received over an 802.1q trunk by the WLC. The WLC uses the DSCP value of the IP packet and maps it to the outer DSCP of the CAPWAP tunnel.
  62. 62. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 62 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Upstream QoS Model (Simplified) Note: DSCP trust model (dot1p CoS tagging on WLC not in use here) Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP 62 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 31 The client 802.11e frame is received by the AP. The AP maps the 802.11e UP value *or* original packet DSCP to the outer CAPWAP IP DSCP header (configurable) 1 Default Optional
  63. 63. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 63 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Upstream QoS Model (Simplified) Note: DSCP trust model (dot1p CoS tagging on WLC not in use here) Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP 63 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload At the WLC end of the CAPWAP tunnel, the 802.11e frame is bridged to the Ethernet switch. CAPWAP DSCP is mapped to 802.1p CoS value on trunk. 2 2 1 2 31 The client 802.11e frame is received by the AP. The AP maps the 802.11e UP value *or* original packet DSCP to the outer CAPWAP IP DSCP header (configurable) 2
  64. 64. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 64 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Two Options to Influence QoS Markings Upstream Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP 64 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload Map UP to DSCP or Just Copy the original DSCP value
  65. 65. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 65  Windows Vista, 7, 8, 10 Jabber or Lync Client: Call Manager can be used to set DSCP, however . . . Global Policy Objects (GPOs) will override the DSCP  Mac OSX, iOS, and Android Jabber Client: Call Manager sets DSCP value  UP value is typically determined by the client’s OS and hardware drivers Where Are DSCP and UP Values Set? 65
  66. 66. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 66 In Windows, DSCP is set globally by Group Policy Note – WMM UP Value Cannot be Configured – Only DSCP 66
  67. 67. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 67 Example: Lync QoS Setting  Note: MS Windows applies DSCP value based on the UDP port range  Solution: use different port ranges for voice and video, resulting in the correct DSCP value • In MS Windows, the WMM UP is derived from the 3 msb of the DSCP value • DSCP ef (46) = [101 110]  101 = UP 5 67
  68. 68. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 68 Microsoft Packet Capture In Upstream Direction 68
  69. 69. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 69 Summary of Typical WMM/11e UP Mappings Endpoint/Client Voice (EF) Video (AF41) Control (CS3) Cisco Recommendation 6 5 4 Jabber/Spark iOS 10+ 6 5 5 Jabber/Spark for Android 6 5 3 Jabber/Spark for OSX 5 5 0 Jabber/Spark for Windows (desktop) 5 4 3 MS Lync / Skype for Business (Win 10) 5 4 3 Unified IP Phones (DX650, 9971) 6 5 4 Apple FaceTime (iPad) 6 5 5 Note:AppleValuesbasedoniOS10.x 69
  70. 70. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 70 A Closer Look: Deploying Jabber or SfB on Microsoft *Note: DSCP is set globally by Group Policy Application Recommended DSCP Value Resulting UP Value Recommended Values Voice 46 (EF) 5 6 (AC_VO) Video 34 (AF41) 4 5 (AC_VI) Call Signaling 24 (CS3) 3 4 (AC_BE) File Transfer (bulk data) 10 (AF11) 1 2 (AC_BK) App Sharing Default (0) 0 0 (AC_BE) 70
  71. 71. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 71 SIP Signaling Lync File Transfer Interactive Video Voice Application Type Scavenger Lync App Sharing & BE Streaming Video Network Control Voice (VO) WMM Model + 802.11e User Priority Best Effort (BE) Video (VI) Background (BK) UP 7 UP 5 UP 3 UP 2 UP 6 UP 4 UP 0 UP 1 CS3 AF11 AF41 EF DSCP CS1 DF AF31 CS6 Example: Voice AC Is Is Unused in this Structure 71
  72. 72. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 72 Mismarking Impacts Wireless QoS 1. In this scenario voice packets get sent from the video AC 2. Voice frames have longer wait times and a greater chance of retries EDCA / WMM AC AIFS Number CWmin CWmax Voice 2 3 7 Video 2 7 15 Best Effort 3 15 1023 Background 7 15 1023 72
  73. 73. 73© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AireOs QoS Foundations
  74. 74. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 74 AireOS QoS History in a Nutshell 2007 2011 2012 20132005 802.11e / WMM released. Support on the Wi-Fi side Differential treatment for unmarked traffic AVC (per application marking) Wireless to Wired mapping support (per profile) Per user BW Per user, profile, WLAN QoS policies (BW + AVC) 20142001 There is no QoS in Wi-Fi, everything is DCF / BE BE BE DCF BE BE EDCA EF CoS5 UP 6 “Voice SSID” EF CoS5 UP 6 “Voice SSID” BE CoS4 UP 5 “Untagged=video” 1 M 100k 100k Common SSID 1 M 200k 200k Skype CoS5 UP 6 Common SSID Youtube CoS4 UP 5 2015 2016 Qos maps Trust UP? Trust DSCP? Major simplifications FastLane & QoS Map Improvements 74
  75. 75. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 75 1. QoS Mappings Fixing the issue with UP to DSCP inconsistency
  76. 76. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 76 Default UP to DSCP Mapping Problems Voice Client Marked 46 (EF) UP = 5 Demoted to 34 (AF41) Video Client Marked 34 (AF41) UP = 4 Demoted to 26 (AF31) Signaling Client Marked 24 (CS3) UP = 3 Demoted to 18 (AF21) 76 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 34 5 46 34 446 46
  77. 77. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 77 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload A Good QoS Design Requires DSCP Consistency Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkAccess mode 77 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload • This approach greatly simplifies QoS design and removes unexpected mapping behaviors • Introduced in AireOS 8.1MR, but greatly improved in 8.4
  78. 78. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 78 QoS Map Configuration Copy inner DSCP to CAPWAP DSCP (changes default behavior) This is the recommended deployment model 78 Note: this screen has been significantly updated in AireOS 8.4
  79. 79. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 79 Trust DSCP Solves the Windows Problem (mostly) Video-Quality QoS (handled by the Video AC) Voice-Quality QoS Recommended and Available as of AireOS 8.1MR 79 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 46 5 46 46 46 46
  80. 80. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 80 QoS Map Menu, Cont’d Customize the UP to DSCP mapping (likely won’t use this very often) 80
  81. 81. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 81 Some Mystery Platforms Mark UP but not DSCP 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 46 5 0 46 0 0 AVC on the WLC to correct inner DSCP UP to DSCP Mapping modifies CAPWAP DSCP
  82. 82. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 82 2. QoS Profiles Limit Max. DSCP on CAPWAP and in turn the 802.11 UP Value
  83. 83. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 83 Configure the QoS Profile  The main purpose of the QoS profile is to limit the maximum DSCP allowed on a CAPWAP tunnel, and thus limit the 802.11 UP value  QoS profiles may be used and applied to each WLAN (SSID) Recommendation: For enterprise class, mixed-use WLANs, use the Platinum profile, for hotspots, use Silver or Bronze 83 DSCP 10 DSCP 34 DSCP 46 DSCP 0 Max DSCP values per profile
  84. 84. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 84 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Example: Effect of “Gold” Profile Note: DSCP trust model (dot1p CoS tagging on WLC not in use here) Wired Network UP DSCP Payload 802.1Q Trunk 46 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 46 3446 46 46 6 5 34 34 46 84 802.11 DSCP Payload 46 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 34 46
  85. 85. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 85 Configure the QoS Profile Page Create default bandwidth contracts for each user or each SSID  Note bandwidth contracts are bidirectional (set them only for data / hotspot networks) Set the maximum priority for WMM and non-WMM clients (more on this later) Profile Name Max Downstream DSCP Value Max Upstream DSCP Value Platinum / Voice 46 (EF) 46 (EF) Gold / Video 34 (AF41) 34 (AF41) Silver / Best Effort 0 (CS0) 18 (AF21) Bronze / Background 10 (AF11) 10 (AF11) 85
  86. 86. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 8686 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 46 X 0 46 50 0 Dealing With Non-WMM Clients The Client is Not WMM capable, but AP automatically maps the CAPWAP DSCP to EF (46) If LAN switch is set to trust CoS, BitTorrent becomes DSCP EF
  87. 87. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 87 Alloy QoS: Apply QoS Control For Non-WMM Clients  Maximum Priority allows you to customize the upper limit QoS marking for a QoS policy Sets the default QoS markings for all non-WMM clients Sets maximum DSCP & UP values for WMM clients Recommendation: • Use Alloy QoS to treat non-WMM clients as best effort (DSCP and UP values default to zero). • If the client doesn’t support QoS, don’t try to give them QoS! 87
  88. 88. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 88 Wired QoS Protocol Field (legacy - do not use)  Upstream, this caps the CoS value of the 802.1p trunk.  Downstream, this value sets the CAPWAP DSCP upper limit (mapped from the incoming CoS value)  If set to “none”, the CoS field is marked to zero for the trunk.  Upstream, towards the wired network, the trunk CoS value is mapped from the CAPWAP DSCP value.  CoS limits the QoS design to eight classes  Recommendation: set this to none, unless you cannot trust DSCP for some extraordinary reason 88
  89. 89. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 89 Apply the QoS Profile to the WLAN  Choose the QoS profile you want to apply for this WLAN  In this example, the “Platinum” profile is selected  This sets the ceiling on all traffic to DSCP 46 (up and downstream) and UP to 6 (downstream only)  You can also set the bi-directional per-user and per-SSID bandwidth contracts from this screen (usually not needed) 89
  90. 90. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 91 3. AireOS AVC Application Visibility and Control Discover which applications are running on your corporate and guest WLANs Prioritize critical wireless apps and de-prioritize non-business apps Monitor voice and video performance on the WLAN
  91. 91. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 92 Application Visibility & Control (AVC) Deep Packet Inspection in the wireless controller – allows application identification, remarking, rate limiting, and dropping of unwanted traffic Leverages the IOS NBAR2 Engine – same list of traffic signatures as IOS & XE Protocol packs are used to update signatures (more than 1,400 today) 92 • Discover which applications are running on your corporate and guest WLANs • Prioritize critical wireless apps and de-prioritize non-business apps • Monitor voice and video performance on the WLAN AVC In The Wireless LAN Controller
  92. 92. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 93 Key Points To Know About AVC CAPWAP Tunnel In AireOS 8.0, AVC can be applied in a specific direction (upstream or downstream) • AVC Policy operates here in centralized mode • An AVC Policy supports a maximum of 32 entries (rules) • AVC Modifies the inner DSCP value, thus influencing the CAPWAP DSCP and wireless UP values • AVC Policy functions here in FlexConnect (AireOS 8.1) 93 Wired Network802.1Q Trunk802.1Q TrunkAccess mode
  93. 93. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 94 AVC Example: Build A Multimedia AVC Policy More Key Points To Know: • Applications are grouped by class (such as “voice-and-video” shown here) • From AireOS 7.6 Protocol Packs are used for signature updates • Approx. 1400+ AVC Signatures available today • Note: only 32 applications can be added to a single profile 94
  94. 94. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 95 A Simple AVC Remarking Example:  AVC has three basic control capabilities: 1. Modify the inner packet’s DSCP to a custom value 2. Drop the packet 3. Rate Limit  E.g. Mark MS Lync Media to Gold (DSCP 34) 95
  95. 95. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 96 Expanded AVC Example: MS Lync Policy Cisco Jabber and IP Phone Policy Unwanted applications Policy – drop or police AVC can be applied in upstream, downstream, or both directions AVC can drop unwanted traffic AVC has ability to police applications bi-directionally Note: AireOS 8.x is shown here 96
  96. 96. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 97 AVC Example Cont’d: Apply The AVC Policy 1. Navigate to the QoS policy for the WLAN where you want to apply the AVC policy 2. Enable AVC 3. Apply the AVC policy you created to this QoS policy 97
  97. 97. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 98 AVC Provides Application Visibility 98
  98. 98. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 99 4. AireOS Bandwith Controls You can limit BW downstream (from WLC and down) and/or Upstream (at the AP):
  99. 99. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 100 AireOS Bandwidth Control Points You can limit BW downstream (from WLC and down) and/or Upstream (at AP): Upstream is an “indirect method”: Limits can be applied at profile level, WLAN level, user level, based on device profile or user profile, using local profiling or AAA override Can target “real time” (i.e. UDP) or “Data” (i.e. TCP) traffic Can be “Average” or “Burst” (last second budget excess) You CAN do it, but should you? Marking down is the preferred method Don’t send! I decide, alone, when to send (thank you CSMA/CA)
  100. 100. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 101 Bandwidth Control – Per User Many places to configure bandwidth controls . . .
  101. 101. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 102 Bandwidth Control – Per Device Type • You can also identify connecting devices, from the WLC or though Cisco ISE, and create a policy based on what they are: How to identify that device What policy to apply ~ 100 device types supported
  102. 102. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 103 Configuring Policies • You can then apply the policies to the WLANs, in the order you want them to be applied, up to 16 policies per WLAN: • Each policy can group several devices Set the index Pick the policy, then click Add 10
  103. 103. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 104 Bandwidth Control – AAA Override • With AAA Override, Upstream/Downstream BW values can be returned from ISE along with user profile: 10
  104. 104. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 105 5. AireOS CAC Call Admission Control Part of 802.11e, purpose is to reserve bandwidth for devices running real time applications
  105. 105. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 106 CAC Quick Recap CAC was part of 802.11e, purpose is to reserve bandwidth for devices running real time applications Relies on Add Traffic Stream (ADDTS) exchange, containing Traffic Classification (TCLAS) section and Traffic Specification (TSPEC) element Keep in mind that applications and OSes are not all network-aware RF Load Level ADDTS (TSpec) Accept or Reject ACM Enabled RTP Traffic (no ADDTS) 10
  106. 106. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 107 CAC Configuration - Voice Up to 90% (static) or 85% (load-based) BW Use load-based for TSpec … but Static for SIP non-WMM! 10
  107. 107. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 108 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network UP DSCP Payload 802.1Q Trunk 46 CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.1Q TrunkCAPWAP CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 46 4646 46 46 6 0 46 34 46 108 802.11 DSCP Payload 46 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 34 46 Caution: CAC Enabled and a non-TSpec Client Enabling CAC limits downstream of non-TSpec clients to BE, even with Platinum Profile Best Effort (BE) Voice (VO) Non- TSpec Clients Platinum
  108. 108. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 109 CAC Configuration - Video Important CAC Recommendation: • Very, very few video clients use TSPEC (ADDTS) • Only enable Video CAC if you know that your client supports it, otherwise you will get BE downstream 10
  109. 109. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 110 6. EDCA Enhanced Distributed Channel Access and TXOP (Transmit Opportunity)
  110. 110. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 111 Tweaking the EDCA Parameters (Cont.) • Wireless > 802.11a | 802.11bg > EDCA Parameters AC AIFSN CwMi n CwMax TXOP VO 2 2 3 47 VI 2 3 4 94 BE 3 4 10 0 BK 7 4 10 0 AC AIFSN CwMi n CwMax TXOP VO 2 2 4 0 VI 5 3 5 0 BE 5 6 10 0 BK 12 8 10 0 AC AIFSN CwMi n CwMax TXOP VO 2 2 4 0 VI 5 3 5 0 BE 12 6 10 0 BK 12 8 10 0 111
  111. 111. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 112 Implications of WMM EDCA Configuration If you are voice, you can keep sending for up to 1.5 ms (47 x 32 µs) If you are video, you can send chunks of up to 3 ms (94 x 32 µs) If you are best effort of background, you can only send one frame at a time (0 grouping) • 802.11n (2009) and 802.11ac (2013) allow “blocks” (one ‘train’ of many frame- wagons) • Now, your voice and video queues are limited in time consumption… while your BE/BK queues can send ‘one’ frame of (somewhat) ‘unlimited’ duration
  112. 112. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 113 802.11-2016 EDCA • Example on 802.11a/n/ac network • (TXOP values depend on what 802.11 protocol is enabled) 11
  113. 113. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 114 Tweaking the EDCA Parameters Recommendation: • Use the EDCA profile to Fastlane (as of AireOS 8.3)
  114. 114. 115© 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco and Apple Fastlane
  115. 115. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 116 Apple / Cisco Partnership – Three Key Enhancements 3. Centralized iOS App Policy Control Better Roaming through Adaptive 11r Proper QoS Handling 1. Enhanced QoS for iOS 10+ 2. Improved Roaming IT Administrator control of applications and QoS
  116. 116. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 117 Improved QoS UP and DSCP Markings (iOS 10+) Endpoint/Client Voice (EF) Video (AF41) Control (CS3) Cisco Recommendation 6 5 4 Jabber for iOS 10+ (iPad, iPhone) 6 5 5 Jabber for Android 6 5 3 Jabber for OSX 5 5 0 Jabber for Windows (desktop) 5 4 3 MS Lync / Skype for Business (Win 10) 5 4 3 Unified IP Phones (DX650, 9971) 6 5 4 Apple FaceTime (iPad) 6 5 5 11
  117. 117. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 118 Improved Roaming Performance • In 802.11, delay in roaming causes poor experience, especially for rich-media real-time applications. Interoperability increases complexity and prevents adoption. Standards to the rescue? • 802.11k – Know about neighboring APs as you join the cell! No time wasted scanning when roaming is needed • 802.11v – Allows configuration of device while connected to a WLAN • 802.11r – Fast Roaming / Transition (FT) without need to reauthenticate
  118. 118. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 119 802.11k, 802.11v, 802.11r help efficient roaming 802.11r enables fast roaming without complete reauth 802.11k sends you list of neighbors 802.11v BSS Transition sends you the new best AP Cisco- AP-2 to connect to Association Fast Transition (802.11r) Cisco-AP-1 Cisco-AP-2
  119. 119. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 120 Association Apple / Cisco Innovation: Adaptive 802.11r Legacy client cannot join the same SSID where 11r is enabled I recognize that you are an Apple device 11r is enabled for you 802.11k, 802.11v are on by default Legacy client that does not support 11r/k/v can join the same SSID Cisco-APNon-Cisco-AP
  120. 120. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 121 Roaming Performance : 10x Better end-user Browsing and App Experience QoS, 802.11r/k/vNo QoS, No 802.11r/k/v Time (s)* *Time Interval between last packet on previous AP, and first packet on next AP
  121. 121. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 122 FastLane Best Practices Configuration in AireOS 1. Configure Platinum Profile for Voice ->UP 6, Multicast and non- WMM unicast -> BE 2. Remove bandwidth limitation for UDP on Platinum Profile 3. Apply Platinum Profile to your WLAN 4. Apply EDCA 802.11revmc TXOP values to both bands 5. Enable Voice CAC, with 50% BW / 6% roaming limits 6. Trust DSCP upstream 7. Create an optimized UP-DSCP map, applied downstream 8. Create an optimized AVC profile for well-known applications (AUTOQOS-AVC-PROFILE) If you expect iOS devices in your cell, one click does it all: TECEWN-3010 122
  122. 122. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 123 FastLane Enabling FastLane enables best practice QoS config globally: Platinum profile sets Max Priority to voice (UP 6), non- WMM and multicast to BE, 802.1p disabled, bandwidth contracts disabled EDCA profile is set to FastLane 12
  123. 123. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 124 FastLane • Enabling FastLane enables best practice QoS config globally: • DSCP is trusted upstream (instead of UP) • DSCP to UP mapping is configured based on IETF recommendations (standards- based DSCP values mapped to IEEE values; non-standard DSCP values mapped to BE)
  124. 124. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 125 FastLane • When FastLane is enabled on a WLAN, an AVC AUTOQOS-AVC-PROFILE is also created • You can add this profile to your WLAN, or use another profile* • It is also possible to customize the Auto AVC profile if necessary * 8.3 mandated the use of the AUTOQOS-AVC-PROFILE on FastLane WLANs, 8.3MR removes this limitation
  125. 125. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 126 FastLane CAC • Enabling FastLane enables best practice QoS config globally: • ACM is enabled on both bands (load-based), with max RF bandwidth 50% and roaming bandwidth to 6% • Expedited bandwidth is enabled
  126. 126. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 127 • FastLane-enabled Apple IOS devices mark QoS correctly • DSCP 46 / UP 6 is real voice traffic • We trust this traffic, even without TSPEC • Behavior: • DSCP 46 / UP 6 traffic coming from Apple iOS FastLane devices gets DSCP 46 / UP 6 end-to-end (with or without TSPEC) • DSCP 46 / UP 6 traffic, without TSPEC, coming from other devices gets BE (0) downstream Important!!! Differences With FastLane Handling of CAC 127
  127. 127. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 128 iOS 10 Fastlane – Trusting Voice traffic Platinum Profile – Voice Stream – CAC Enabled, iOS 10 client, AireOS 8.3 128 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload UP DSCP Payload Wired Network UP DSCP Payload 802.1Q Trunk CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.1Q TrunkAccess mode CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.11 DSCP Payload 802.1p DSCP Payload CAPWAP Encapsulated DSCP802.1p 802.11 DSCP Payload 4646 465 546466 46 46 46 46 6 6 646 465 5 46
  128. 128. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 129 Apple Configurator 2 – Whitelist QoS
  129. 129. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 130 Cisco and Apple Together for a Better End-User Experience Improve device efficiency through joint tested standards-based functionality Analyze and prioritize Apple- based applications Minimize impact of Apple upgrades by accessing local instances on Cisco® ASRs Display content from Apple devices Wirelessly
  130. 130. © 2017 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Click - https://www.youtube.com/user/CiscoWLAN/
  131. 131. © 2017 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Reduce Cost & Complexity • Cisco CMX Solution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQRb8vfU0qM • CMX Hyperlocation vs RSSI Demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ls7EHbSK4A • Cisco Dual 5GHz Wi-Fi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbpjiETvDXc • Cisco Aironet AP-3800 RF Excellence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBpGsTKeyNM&t=64s • Digital Network Architecture with Wave2 with 802.11ac https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySjN13hPhXY&t=2s • Cisco Aironet Series – Flexible Radio Assignment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_-BykT_YIM • TechWiseTV: Apple and Cisco: Fast-Tracking the Mobile Enterprise https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bh8rEvrzm7Y&feature=youtu.be • Prioritized Business Apps https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0EOKNxL964&feature=youtu.be • Apple and Cisco: Three Solutions Coming Together https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MgsDkf55wQ&feature=youtu.be • WiFi Optimized Feature https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xgPfxAolJoQ&feature=youtu.be Faster Innovation VoD Links Lower Risk • Fastlane App Demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1QMUcv3aRQ • Cisco APIC-EM Wireless PnP Demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9P2-bU66PU • Cisco Aironet Plug and Play Cloud Redirection https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7fBZ6xfSxw • Wireless LAN Controller Dashboard Review https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=af09TBaafRI&feature=youtu.be • Cisco Wireless Mobile App https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyvZ4mbVAWs • WLC Advanced UI Client Troubleshooting https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZVxI6jOx_Q • ISE Simplified Wireless Setup https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3F2DrFu7Lo&feature=youtu.be • Cisco Wireless TrustSec Demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3F2DrFu7Lo&feature=youtu.be • Cisco Wireless Netflow Lancope Integration Demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuWYkrt94CQ • OpenDNS Integration with WLC https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMdX8sBBYG4
  132. 132. © 2017 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public • 5520 WLC • 8540 WLC • AP1570 • AP1810 OE • AP1810W Wall Plate • AP1850 • AP2700/3700 • AP2800/3800 • AP702W • APIC-EM Wireless AP PnP • Flex7500 WLC • Mesh APs • Mobility Express • Smart Licensing • Univ. AP Regulatory Domain • Virtual WLC Cisco Wireless LAN Documentation INSTALLATION GUIDES • 802.11r BSS Fast Transition • Adaptive wIPS • ATF Ph 1 & 2 • CleanAir • CMX FastLocate • High Density • Rogue Management • RRM RF Grouping Algorithm • RRM White Paper RADIO CONFIGURATION • BYOD for FlexConnect • BYOD with ISE • Security Integration ENCRYPTION • Bi-Directional Rate Limiting • Flex AP-EoGRE Tunnel Gtwy • IPv6 • Jabber • Jabber and UCM • Microsoft Lync • Passpoint Configuration • Real-Time Traffic Over WLAN • VideoStream • Vocera IP Phone in WLAN • VoWLAN Troubleshooting CLIENT ADDRESSING POLICY ENGINE • AVC • Bonjour • Chromecast • Device Classification • Domain Filtering • mDNS Gateway w/Chromecast • Wireless Device Profiling & Policy Classification BEST PRACTICES • Apple Devices • Enterprise Mobility Design Guide • High Availability (SSO) • HyperLocation • iPhone 6 Roaming • N+1 High Availability • WLAN Express • WLC Configuration Best Practices
  133. 133. Thank you.

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