Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting

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This session will provide a thorough understanding of IP Multicast architecture and packet flow on Cisco Catalyst 6500 operating in Standalone and VSS mode, as well as Catalyst 4500/4900.

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Catalyst 6500 and 4500 IP Multicast Architecture and Troubleshooting

  1. 1. Catalyst 6500 & 4500/4900 IP Multicast Architecture Session ID: BRKARC-3322
  2. 2. Cisco Live & Networkers Virtual Special Offer – Save $100 Cisco Live has a well deserved reputation as one the industry’s best educational values. With hundreds of sessions spanning four educational programs — Networkers, Developer Networker, Service Provider, IT Management, you can build a custom curriculum that can make you a more valuable asset to your workplace and advance your career goals. Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual immerses you in all facets of Cisco Live, from participating in live keynotes and Super Sessions events to accessing session content to networking with your peers. Visit www.ciscolivevirtual.com and register for Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual. To get $100 USD off the Premier pass, which provides access to hundreds of technical sessions, enter “slideshareFY11”. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. Session Goals To provide you with a thorough understanding of the Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast architecture and packet flow To provide you with a thorough understanding of the Catalyst 4500 & 4900 IP Multicast architecture and packet flow Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. Session Assumptions Working understanding of General (platform-independent) IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast Working understanding of Catalyst 6500 & 4500/4900 (platform-dependent) architecture and operation General IP Multicast architecture covered in: General Catalyst 6500 architecture covered in: IPM-1261: Introduction to IP Multicast RST-3465: Cisco Catalyst 6500 Switch Architecture Advanced IP Multicast architecture covered in: General Catalyst 4500/4900 architecture covered in: IPM-2008: Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment RST-3445: Cisco Catalyst 4500 Switch Architecture Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  5. 5. IP Multicast - Agenda 1/3 Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes (~5m) • IGMP/MLD & Snooping (~2m) • Multicast VPN & Extranet (~2m) • Multicast High-Availability (~2m) • Multicast Management (~2m) • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 (~2m) • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 (~2m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6. Catalyst 6500 - Agenda 2/3 Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture (~15m) • Multicast Hardware Forwarding (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Replication (~5m) • Multicast Packet Flows (~15m) • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping (~5m) • Multicast Forwarding on VSS (~10m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7. Catalyst 4500/4900 - Agenda 3/3 Catalyst 4500/4900 (30-40m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Forwarding (~10m) • Multicast Hardware Replication (~5m) • Multicast Packet Flows (~15m) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview PIM Distribution Modes Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) Source Tree Source Tree 1st Gen. “Flood” & “Prune” (S,G based) Rooted at Rooted at Source2 multicast distribution protocol Source1 1 2 Source1 Source2 Designed with the assumption that receivers are “Densely” populated in the network... Uses only Source-based Trees • Distribution “trees” are unidirectional (RPF-based) Does NOT use Rendezvous Points (RP’s), which makes it simpler to implement & deploy Data-driven Multicast state • Requires Periodic “Flooding” & “Pruning” on all PIM routers, and DR Election / Asserts on each subnet Group membership tracked via IGMP v1 or v2 Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 PIM-DM (S,G) forwarding • IGMPv1 & v2 and Snooping Receivers Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 2nd Gen. All-Purpose (S,G and / or *,G) Source Tree Source Shared Tree RPT: Rooted multicast distribution protocol SPT: Rooted at the Source at the Rendezvous Point Designed with the assumption that receivers RP are “Sparsely” populated in the network... Uses both Shared (RP) & Source based Trees • Distribution “trees” are unidirectional (RPF-based) Data-driven Multicast state • Requires Source “Registration”, RP group-mapping, DR Election & Asserts, and SPT switch-over Automatic “Source” discovery (via Registers) Group membership tracked via IGMP v1, v2, or v3 (IPv4) or MLD v1 or v2 (IPv6) Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 and IPv6 (*,G) forwarding Receivers • IPv4 and IPv6 (S,G) forwarding • IGMP v1/2/3 & MLDv1/2 and Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) Source Tree Source Tree 3rd Gen. “Shortest Path” (S,G based) Rooted at Source1 Rooted at Source2 multicast distribution protocol 2 1 Source1 Source2 Low-Latency variation of PIM-SM, which assumes the “one-to-many” model • Internet, Inter-Domain and Voice / Video distribution Data-driven Multicast state • Requires only SSM Range, and DR Election / Asserts Hosts are responsible for “source discovery” • Typically via some out-of-band mechanism (web page,etc.) • Eliminates need for RP (Shared trees) & MSDP Group membership tracked via IGMP v3 (IPv4) or MLD v2 (IPv6) Catalyst Switches provide support for: • IPv4 and IPv6 (S,G) forwarding • IGMPv3 & MLDv2 and Snooping • SSM mapping (for IGMPv2 & MLDv1) S1,G1 S1,G1 S1,G1 S2,G1 S2,G1 Receivers Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. Bidirectional PIM (PIM-BiDir) 3rd Gen. “Shared Path” (*,G based) Source Shared Tree Bidirectional tree multicast distribution protocol rooted at the Rendezvous Point Highly Scalable variation of PIM-SM, which assumes LOTS of Sources & Receivers RP • Intra-Domain multicast & Database distribution Data-Flow Independent • Pre-built (RP/DF-based) distribution trees = NO source registers, DR Asserts, or non-RPF issues Drastically reduces network mroute state • Eliminates ALL (S,G) mroute state in the PIM network • Permits virtually UNLIMITED Sources • Multicast traffic can flow Up & Down (Bidirectional) on the Shared (RP-based) tree Group membership tracked via IGMP v1 or v2 Catalyst Switches provide support for: Sources/Receivers • IPv4 PIM-Bidir (*,G) forwarding • IGMP v1/2 & Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. The Evolution of PIM... SSM Sparse Mode BiDir (S,G) One to Many (S,G) & (*,G) (*,G) Many to Many Lookup Lookup arrives arrives Accept arrives arrives Accept Lookup Lookup arrives arrives Direct Direct (S,G)? (S,G)? (*,G)? (*,G)? Connect? Connect? (S,G)? (S,G)? Discard Discard RPF or RPF or DF DF Discard Discard OIF OIF PIM PIM RPF? RPF? List? List? Process Process DF DF OIF OIF PIM PIM RPF? RPF? Forwarding // Forwarding List? List? Process Process Replication Replication r o v e S w S P T itc h OIF OIF Discard Discard !NULL? !NULL? Forward/ Forward/ sent Forward // sent rewrite rewrite sent Forward rewrite sent sent rewrite rewrite sent Replicate Replicate Replicate rewrite Replicate Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview IGMP/MLD & Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15. IGMP / MLD & Snooping Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Source Source • Host “membership” reporting for IPv4 Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) • Host “membership” reporting for IPv6 IGMP / MLD operates on L3 PIM Interfaces • IGMP v1/v2/v3 • MLD v1/v2 • SSM mapping IGMP / MLD “Snooping” constrains multicast flooding on L2 switchports • Based on received Join / Leave reports Host Snooping process uses both L2 & L3 “Join” Reports Hardware & Software information Receivers • Snooping support for IGMPv1/2/3 and MLDv1/v2 • PFC/DFC performs hardware “protocol redirection” of IGMP & MLD packets to SP CPU for processing Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast VPN & Extranet Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. Multicast Over MPLS VPN MVPN CE Receiver Data MDT CE Used for high-bandwidth data stream Join PE Enterprise MPLS Core Receiver Default MDT Join Default MDT Receiver Traffic Used for low-bandwidth & control-traffic only High-Rate Source MVPN Source Tree Shared / Source Tree Rooted at Source PE: Rooted at CE RP or Source: controls multicast distribution controls multicast distribution within MPLS VPN core within individual VPN/VRF Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18. MVPN Extranet Join Receiver MPLS Core Join Traffic Receiver Source Allows IP Multicast content which originated in one MVPN, to be distributed to other MVPNs Two configuration requirements: On Source PE or Receiver PE (or both) configure all relevant MVRFs Configure “fallback” static mroute (for Source VRF IP subnets: Source and / or RP address) to allow RPF check between MVRF’s. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast High-Availability Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. Multicast HA - MMLS NSF/SSO Multicast MLS Non-Stop Forwarding Multicast Data (NSF) & Stateful Switch-Over (SSO) Structures Active Offers single-node Multicast HA on Catalyst 6500 with Supervisor 720 Synchronizes critical Multicast forwarding entries from the Active supervisor to Standby • Multicast (MLS/CEF) Forwarding Entries Global Global Sync Periodic Syncs Sync • Multicast Expansion Table (MET) Standby • IGMP / MLD Snooping state Benefit: Minimizes multicast traffic disruption during supervisor switchover Works with PIM “Triggered Joins” Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  21. 21. Multicast HA -Triggered PIM Joins Designed for SSO/NSF-capable “Highly RP Available” IP Multicast deployment Benefit: Rebuilds the PIM multicast “state” GenID 1 GenID 2 very quickly after switchover On switchover, new Active supervisor Standby changes “Generation ID” field in PIM Hellos Active Failure PIM neighbors use the new GenID as an indication that the neighbor on that Interface has no / old multicast state GenID 1 GenID 2 Neighbor then sends “triggered” PIM Join messages for all (*,G) & (S,G) mroutes, which have that Interface as the RPF Interface Assumption is that PIM neighbors know Periodic PIM Hellos how to interpret GenID field in PIM hello Periodic PIM Joins Hello with new GenID Triggered PIM Joins Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast Management Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. Multicast Management - NDE with NetFlow v9 NetFlow Provides wire-rate statistics Collector collection for IP Multicast data flows Support for Ingress & Egress multicast statistics • Ingress NetFlow tracks multicast traffic received (input) on an Interface S1,G1 NetFlow v9 Export • Egress NetFlow tracks multicast S2,G1 traffic replicated (output) on an S1,G2 Egress Interface S3,G1 Netflow “Sampling” support, Voice to reduce export load Ingress vlan100 Important for PIM-BiDir Video vlan200 networks, where (S,G) g1/1 entries NOT in mroute table Data Catalyst 6500 vlan300 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. Multicast Management - SNMP MIBs & Traps Several Multicast-specific SNMP SNMP MIB’s Server PIM, MROUTE, MSDP, MVPN & IGMP/MLD Several Multicast-specific SNMP Traps • pimNeighborLoss • ciscoPimRPMappingChange SNMP Traps • ciscoPimInvalidReFaster S1,G1 • ciscoPimInvalidJoinPrune SNMP MIBs S2,G1 • ciscoPimInterfaceUp • ciscoPimInterfaceDown S1,G2 Egress • msdpEstablished1 S3,G1 • msdpBackwardTransition Voice vlan100 • ciscoMvpnMvrfChange Ingress Special Trap called Multicast Heartbeat can be used to track Video vlan200 availability of a Multicast group g1/1 ciscoIpMRouteMissingHeartBeats vlan300 Data Catalyst 6500 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  25. 25. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast on Catalyst 6500 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. Catalyst 6500 - Cisco’s Premiere Multicast Hardware-Switching Platform Leverages Cisco IOS’s 10+ years of IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast expertise & innovation Delivers Un-Matched Price & Performance • 200+Mpps IPv4 multicast forwarding demonstrated in EANTC tests • Up to 80G multicast “replication” per-slot with WS-6708-10GE module • 720Gbps throughput & 1.44Tbps throughput with VSS Already widely deployed in many of the World’s most business-critical networks • Global Financials - Exchanges, Brokerages and FSP’s • Video Providers - Domestic / Foreign IPTV and Triple-Play ISP’s • Retail Enterprise - Inventory & Data-Base Distribution • Government and Department of Defense Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 Centralized & Distributed IPv4 & IPv6 Multicast hardware-switching • Off-loads the majority of multicast forwarding load (data-plane) from the switch control-plane IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM & PIM-SSM (S,G) mroute forwarding in hardware IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM & PIM-Bidir (*,G) WS-SUP720-3B/XL WS-SUP720-3B/XL mroute forwarding in hardware IPv4 MVPN forwarding in hardware IPv4 IGMP v1/v2/v3 Snooping in hardware IPv6 MLD v1/v2 Snooping in hardware IPv4 PIM Snooping in hardware Switch Fabric provides greater throughput over traditional Bus-based designs VS-S720-10GE-3C/XL VS-S720-10GE-3C/XL Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. • Multicast Overview (15-20m) • PIM Distribution Modes • IGMP/MLD & Snooping • Multicast VPN & Extranet • Multicast High-Availability • Multicast Management • IP Multicast on Catalyst 6500 • IP Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Overview Multicast on Catalyst 4500/4900 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29. Classic and E-Series Platforms Classic E-Series Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Catalyst 4500/4900 IP Multicast Implements Centralized & Distributed IPv4 and IPv6 Multicast hardware-switching Off-loads the majority of (data-plane) forwarding tasks from the switch control-plane Supports IPv4 & IPv6 PIM-SM and PIM-SSM (S,G) mroute forwarding in hardware Supports IPv4 PIM-SM and PIM-Bidir (*,G) mroute forwarding in hardware Supports IPv4 MVPN forwarding in hardware Supports IGMPv1/v2/v3 snooping in hardware Supports MLDv1/v2 snooping in hardware Supports PIM snooping in hardware Supervisor720 supports Centralized & Distributed multicast packet-replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. Multicast Features (Hardware) Features Classic E-Series IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) v1, v2, v3 Yes Yes IGMP Snooping (v1, v2, v3) Yes Yes MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) v1, v2 No Yes MLD snooping (v1, v2) No Yes PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) SM (Sparse Mode) Yes Yes PIM DM (Dense Mode) Yes Yes PIM SSM (Source Specific Mode) Yes Yes PIM Bi-Dir (Bi-Directional) No Yes Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Architecture Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. Supervisor Engine “Multicast” Components Switch Fabric & PFC Daughter Card Multicast Replication Engine Route Processor (RP) Switch Processor (SP) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. Supervisor 720 Multicast Architecture PFC provides L2 - L3/L4 RP & SP CPU’s control Software Hardware data-plane, using control-plane and user-interface TCAM’s & ASICs Bidir RP table for DF Interface check SP CPU programs RP CPU FIB contains ADJ contains hardware & maintains mroutes (S,G) & (*,G) entries rewrite info & performs IGMP/MLD & state, and and RPF VLAN MET index & PIM snooping downloads tables Supervisor 720 Baseboard 1GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ RP (MSFC3) FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps CPU DRAM Port ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps SP (NMP) DRAM ACL L3/4 CPU TCAM NetFlow Engine CPU Daughter Card MET Protocol L2 Engine PFC3 Integrated Redirection Daughter Fabric 20 Gbps Logic L2 CAM 720 Gbps Card Interface & Switch Fabric … Replication Engine 18 x 20Gbps Fabric Channels Protocol Redirection 32 Gbps DBUS Central replication-engine captures IGMP Bus 16 Gbps L2 CAM contains RBUS / MLD & PIM MET contains OIL’s for Bus-based modules packets multicast MAC entries Bus for replication and uplink ports Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. Supervisor 720-10GE Multicast Architecture PFC3C serves same RP & SP CPU’s basic functions as perform all CLI and PFC3A/B control-plane functions Supervisor 720-10GE Baseboard 1GE & 10GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ RP (MSFC3C) FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps CPU DRAM Port Port ASIC ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps SP (NMP) DRAM ACL L3/4 CPU TCAM Engine NetFlow MET CPU Daughter Card Protocol L2 Engine PFC3C Integrated Redirection Daughter Fabric 20 Gbps Logic L2 CAM 720 Gbps Card Interface & Switch Fabric Replication Engine … 20 x 20Gbps Fabric Channels 32 Gbps DBUS Central Replication engine Bus RBUS for Bus-based cards and uplink ports Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36. Supervisor 32 Multicast Architecture PFC3B is the same as RP & SP CPU’s used on Supervisor perform all CLI and 720 control-plane functions Supervisor Engine 32 Baseboard 10GE Uplinks Counter QoS FIB ADJ FPGA TCAM TCAM 1 Gbps SP CPU DRAM Port Port ASIC ASIC Bidir RP 1 Gbps ACL L3/4 RP CPU DRAM TCAM Engine NetFlow FPGA MSFC2a Daughter Card MUX Protocol L2 Engine PFC3B Redirection Daughter Bus Interface & Logic L2 CAM Card Replication Engine MET WS-SUP32-10GE-3B 32 Gbps DBUS Central “replication engine” Bus RBUS performs replication for ENTIRE system Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. Classic Module Architecture DBUS Example: WS-X6416-GBIC RBUS Classic Module Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Example: WS-X6148A-RJ-45 Port ASIC for Physical DBUS Connectivity, Buffering, RBUS and Queuing Classic Module Port ASIC 48x10/100 No multicast-specific components on these modules... Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  38. 38. CEF256 Module Architecture Example: WS-X6516-GBIC DBUS 8 Gbps Fabric RBUS Channel CEF256 Module Fabric / Bus Interface Fabric Interface LC-DBUS Connects to LC-RBUS Fabric and Bus Replication MET Engine Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC MET 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Contains Multicast Replication OILs for Port ASIC for Physical Engine—Replicates Replication Connectivity, Buffering, Packets to OILs and Queuing Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  39. 39. CEF256 Module Architecture + DFC Example: WS-X6516-GBIC with WS-F6K-DFC Layer 2 Engine for MAC learning, Security / QoS ACL Lookups, and Protocol Redirection 8 Gbps Fabric Layer 3 Channel Engine for CEF256 FIB/ADJ and Layer 2 L3/L4 Module NetFlow Fabric / Bus with DFC Lookups Engine Engine Interface DFC LC-DBUS LC-RBUS Replication MET Engine Port Port Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE 4xGE Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  40. 40. CEF720 Module Architecture Example: WS-X6748-SFP DBUS 20 Gbps Fabric RBUS 20 Gbps Fabric Channel Channel Complex A Complex B CEF720 Module Fabric Bus Bus Fabric Interface & Interface Interface Interface & MET Replication Replication MET Engine Engine Port Port CFC Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE Port ASIC for MET Fabric Interface & Physical Contains Replication Engine - Connectivity, OILs for Connects to Fabric & Bus Buffering, and Replication (CFC), and Replicates Queuing Packets to OILs Bus Interface for Control Data Only!! Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  41. 41. CEF720 Module Architecture + DFC3 Example: WS-X6748-SFP with WS-F6700-DFC3B Layer 2 Engine for L2 Lookups and Protocol Layer3/4 Engine for FIB/ADJ, Redirection ACL, QoS, and NetFlow Lookups 20 Gbps Fabric 20 Gbps Fabric Channel Channel Complex A Complex B CEF720 Module Fabric Layer 2 Layer 2 Fabric w/DFC3 Interface & Engine Engine Interface & MET Replication Replication MET Engine L3/4 Engine Engine Port Port DFC3 Port Port ASIC ASIC ASIC ASIC 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE 12xGE Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  42. 42. • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Forwarding Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  43. 43. Multicast Control Plane RP CPU (L3) IP Multicast SP CPU (L2) IP Multicast control- control-plane functions: plane functions: • Multicast protocols: PIM, IGMP / MLD, • Managing PFC / DFC hardware tables AutoRP / BSR, MSDP, MVPN, etc. • IGMP / MLD Snooping packet processing • Calculating RPF interfaces • PIM Snooping / RGMP packet processing • Managing software IP mroute table • IGMP / MLD Querier functions • Downloading IP mroute table entries • Statistics Collection & Reporting to SP (for installation in the PFC / DFC hardware) IP Mroute Table RP (MSFC3) Group 1 Gbps CPU Membership Inband MSDP Channels 1 Gbps SP (NMP) IGMP / MLD Snooping CPU PIM Snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  44. 44. Hardware Multicast Switching RP CPU derives 3 important data RP (MSFC) PIM, IGMP, structures from the IP Multicast MLD & routing table... MMLS-RP MDSS IP Mrouting • Multicast FIB: Contains (S,G) & (*,G) entries, RPF VLAN, and BiDir RP index SCP / ICC • Adjacency Table: Contains L2 rewrite MAC information and MET index SP (Supervisor) MET Manager, • Multicast Expansion Table (MET): Contains Output Interface Lists (OILs) IGMP & PIM MMLS-SP Snooping RP CPU downloads tables to SP... SP CPU installs the tables into the SCP appropriate hardware... • MET installed in replication engines LC (Linecard) LC (Linecard) • Multicast FIB and Adjacency tables MET FIB/ADJ MET installed in PFC/DFC hardware MMLS-LC SP CPU also maintains L2 tables MMLS-LC for IGMP/MLD & PIM snooping Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  45. 45. Multicast FIB TCAM Lookup Compare 3 Generate Lookup 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 Key 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 1 Lookup Key 2 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 2 FFFFFFFF FFFFFFFF 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 3 (S,G) 1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 4 Result Multicast 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 5 4 RPF VLAN Packet HIT! 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 6 Adj Index 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 7 S,G compares 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 8 all bits in FIB TCAM Masks Patterns Source IP and Group IP Replication Engine(s) MAC, MET Index OIL #1 OIL #2 MAC, MET Index 6 5 OIL #3 MAC, MET Index OIL #4 MAC, MET Index MET Adjacency Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  46. 46. BiDir FIB TCAM Lookup Compare 3 Bidir RP Table Generate 5 Lookup 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 XXXXXX, RP #1 DF Set Key xxxxxxxx, 239.1.1.99 1 Lookup Key 2 RP #2 DF Set xxxxxxxx, 239.1.16.1 2 RP #3 DF Set 00000000 FFFFFFFF xxxxxxxx, 239.2.1.1 3 S,G RP #4 DF Set 1 10.1.1.10, 239.1.1.1 xxxxxxxx, 239.14.14.1 4 Multicast xxxxxxxx, 239.44.12.1 5 4 Packet HIT! xxxxxxxx, 239.1.1.1 6 Bidir RP Index Adj Index xxxxxxxx, 239.1.11.1 7 Result xxxxxxxx, 239.50.1.1 8 *,G compares all bits in Masks FIB TCAM Patterns Group IP Replication Engine(s) MAC, MET Index OIL #1 OIL #2 MAC, MET Index 7 6 OIL #3 MAC, MET Index OIL #4 MAC, MET Index MET Adjacency Table Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  47. 47. BiDir RP-to-DF Mapping Table RP Index DF Interface Set 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 4093 4094 4K VLAN IDs RP RP IP DF Index Address Interfaces RP #1 DF Set 0 10.1.1.1 VLAN 1 2 3 RP #2 DF Set 1 10.2.2.2 VLAN 3 4 5 6 RP #3 DF Set 2 10.3.3.3 VLAN 3 4093 RP #4 DF Set 3 10.4.4.4 VLAN 200 201 Bidir RP Table (PFC/DFC) Mapping Table (Software Data Structure) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  48. 48. Multicast Expansion Table (MET) Index OIF VLAN Port List Index A from ADJ A 100 Gi4/12,Gi4/19 101 Gi9/1 MET Block 102 Gi9/25,Gi9/29 Index B from ADJ B 100 Gi4/12,Gi4/22,Gi4/30 1019 Te1/1 Index C from ADJ C 700 Gi4/1,Gi4/2,Gi4/3 4030 Te8/1 Replication 4031 Te8/3 MET Engine 4032 Te2/1,Te2/2,Te2/9 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  49. 49. • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Hardware Replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  50. 50. Multicast Replication Process of creating “copies” of multicast packets on each Layer 3 OIF • Example: A PIM-SM (S,G) with 3 OIFs - multicast replication creates three copies of every packet received from source (S) & destined to group (G) • Catalyst 6500 supports 3 types of “replication” Layer 3 multicast replication • For Layer 3 Forwarding between (1 or many) interfaces • “Replication Engine” does the replication Layer 2 multicast replication • For Layer 2 Forwarding between ports in same LC • “Port ASIC” does the replication Fabric multicast replication • For Egress Forwarding between ports on different Modules • “Fabric ASIC” does the replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  51. 51. Multicast Replication Modes Replication Mode refers to exactly where in the system that multicast replication occurs Replication occurs in one or more “replication engine” ASIC’s In a Classic (bus) system, replication occurs centrally on the Supervisor replication engine In a Fabric-enabled system, there are two possible replication modes: •Ingress replication •Egress replication Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
  52. 52. Centralized Replication - Classic Systems The Supervisor replication-engine MUST perform multicast packet Supervisor replication for all modules Linecard Linecard All input packets must pass on the FIB/ADJ MET shared Data switching Bus (DBUS) All replicated copies must also pass DBUS -- Data Bus: on the switching bus DBUS Data Bus: Path over which actual Path over which actual frame Data (and // or Header) frame Data (and or Header) PFC performs forwarding lookups, is transferred between is transferred between Modules and the Supervisor Modules and the Supervisor and then replicates all packets Linecard Linecard RBUS -- Result RBUS Result Bus: Path over which Bus: Path over which Only one MET within the system Results of L2-L3/L4 Results of L2-L3/L4 forwarding-engine lookups forwarding-engine lookups (i.e. the MET on the Supervisor by the Supervisor (PFC) are by the Supervisor (PFC) are passed back to Modules passed back to Modules replication-engine) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  53. 53. Ingress Replication-Mode Supported on Supervisor 720’s & Supervisor 2 + SFM Three Packets Cross Switch Fabric Requires Switch Fabric, and multiple Fabric & Replication-capable modules B Replication load is Distributed: RE Supervisor and / or Switching modules can perform replication A C Replication engine on the ingress Switch module performs replication for all RE Fabric RE OIF’s D Input and replicated packets get lookup on PFC or ingress DFC RE All replicated copies pass over Fabric to egress modules Multiple MET tables, but MET on all RE = Replication Engine replication-engines synchronized Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  54. 54. Egress Replication-Mode Supported on Supervisor 720’s with certain modules One Packet Crosses Switch Fabric • e.g. CEF720, 6516A, 6548A-GETX, SIP’s Requires ALL “egress-capable” modules Input packets get one lookup on ingress B PFC/DFC, replicated packets get lookup A RE on egress PFC/DFC C Switch For OIFs on ingress module, the local RE RE Fabric RE performs the replication D For OIFs on other (egress) modules, RE the ingress RE only sends a single copy of packet over Switch Fabric The replication-engine on the egress = Replication Engine module then replicate for local OIF’s MET on different egress-capable RE = Replication Engine modules can be different / asymmetric Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  55. 55. Egress Replication - Same Module MET Contents With Egress Replication OIF entries are symmetrical Entry OIF Dest Index among replication-engines on the same module... Index 1 2/1 2/1 Hence replication bandwidth usage is not optimized 2 2/2 2/2 Module B RE 2/1 Receiver Green 2/2 Module A DROP Switch Fabric RE 2/3 RE 2/4 Source Entry OIF Dest Index MET entry for Non-Local port 1 2/1 2/1 RE = Replication Engine = Replication Engine 2 2/3 2/3 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public MET Contents 55
  56. 56. Egress Local Replication MET Contents Egress “local replication” optimizes the replication Entry OIF Dest Index bandwidth within the same module, by including Index only the local ports of each replication engine 1 2/1 2/1 Cat6500(config)# mls ip multicast egress local 2 2/2 2/2 Module B RE 2/1 Receiver Green 2/2 Module A Switch Fabric 2/3 RE RE 2/4 Source Entry OIF Dest Index 1 2/3 2/3 RE = Replication Engine = Replication Engine MET Contents Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  57. 57. • Catalyst 6500 (60-70m) • Multicast Hardware Architecture • Multicast Hardware Forwarding • Multicast Hardware Replication • Multicast Packet Flows • IGMP / MLD & PIM Snooping • Multicast Forwarding on VSS Catalyst 6500 IP Multicast Packet Flows Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  58. 58. Centralized Replication (1) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Supervisor Engine 32 L3/4 Engine Orange Green Red Purple MET R R R R L2 Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC 2 3 Replication A B Engine Classic PFC3 Module B DBUS RBUS Source S Classic Receiver R Port ASIC Port ASIC Module A A B4 Blue VLAN 1 Orange VLAN Blue S Blue R Green VLAN Red VLAN Purple VLAN Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
  59. 59. Centralized Replication (2) NOTE: Packet-Flow Steps are kept in the Slide Notes Supervisor Engine 32 L3/4 Engine Orange Green Red Purple MET R R R R 8 8 8 8 L2 Engine Port ASIC Port ASIC 6 Replication A B 7 Engine Classic PFC3 5 Module B DBUS RBUS Source S Classic Receiver R Port ASIC Port ASIC Module A A B Blue VLAN Orange VLAN Blue S Blue R Green VLAN Red VLAN Purple VLAN Entire Packet Packet Header Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59

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