Space Race


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The Cold War of Space Exploration
By Chamour Labbe

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Space Race

  1. 1. History of Aviation ASC1010 The Space Race The Cold War of Space Exploration Presented By Chamour Labbe
  2. 2. Topics of discussion • The Cause • The Cold War • Rockets & Satellites • The Arms Race • The Space Race • The Outcome
  3. 3. Questions and Answers What was the Space Race? • Exploration and an adventure. • Political event of scientific and technological challenge • International competition of prestige and power • Race launched satellites, probes, and aircrafts.
  4. 4. Questions and Answers When? • 1957-1989 (Discussion to 1969) Where? • Outer Space
  5. 5. Questions and Answers Why did it start? • Cold war competitors raced to space to in effort to acquire international prestige. • win loyalty around the world. • Gain military control of outer space. • Demonstrate the superiority of the political- economic system.
  6. 6. Questions and Answers Who was involved? • The two Superpowers after WW2. • Pace Setters of the race. • Other nations such as France joined the race not to win, but to place.
  7. 7. How did the Space Race start?
  8. 8. The Cold War What is a Cold War? • By definition a cold war is a conflict short of combat. • Through the cold war each superpower tried to demonstrate the superiority of their political and economic systems by showing how their science and technologies was superior and advanced than the others. • The East and West fought with words of terror: atomic bombs, nuclear war, mutually assured destruction
  9. 9. Why did the Cold War start?
  10. 10. The Cold War Suspicions • WW2 end with German invasion in June 1941. Western allies entered Germany from the west and the Soviet Union from the east. This was a collaborated effort. • Stalin suspicion believed that the British and the Americans had conspired to allow the Soviets to bear the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement. • Soviet perceptions of the West created their hostility towards the Allied powers.
  11. 11. The Cold War Conflicting Ideologies • Joseph Stalin consolidated territorial gains (war winnings) and started to spread communism. Advocated communism world domination. • Organized the Communist Information Bureau (CONIFORM) to encourage communism • KGB was created and used for Intel.
  12. 12. The Cold War Conflicting Ideologies • Harry S. Truman wanted to preserve capitalism. • Truman Doctrine was formed for the free people. • Idea of containment was initiated • The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created.
  13. 13. The Cold War Cold War lead into a Space Race as a Arms Race. • As Soviets adjusted to peace in central Europe and spreading communism, United States was still fighting in the Pacific. • The dropping of the atomic bomb in Japan demonstrated the power of this new weapon and in part a warning to Stalin. • United States lead the Arms Race by having 34 nuclear explosions, followed by the Soviet Union which had 3, and the United Kingdom that had 1.
  14. 14. Rockets, Missiles, and Satellites • Rocket – a cylindrical projectile that can be propelled to a great height or distance by the combustion of its contents • Missile – 1) A object that is forcibly propelled at a target, by hand or mechanically. 2) A self – propelled or remote – controlled weapon that carries a conventional or nuclear explosive. A ballistic missile is like a bullet and it is a gravity defined trajectory. • Satellite – A natural or artificial object that orbit another object. (moon satellites the earth, the earth satellites the sun).
  15. 15. Rockets
  16. 16. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) o A Russian school teacher, developed the basic theory of rocket propulsion. o Developed a series of sophisticated wind tunnels, late 1890s o Analysis of rocket behavior under zero gravity o Studied the stratosphere o Solved the problem of landing on planets lacking atmospheres o Founded the theory of interplanetary navigation o Showed the possibility of reaching orbital velocities and interplanetary flight o Studied the problems with Earth’s artificial satellites o Studied medical and biological issues with long term space flight
  17. 17. Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) o Worcester Polytechnic Institute of Clark University,1908  Graduate Studies  Received his Doctorate  Taught physics  Conducted rocketry experiments o 1914, two U.S. patents for liquid fueled rocket engines o Experimented with various nozzle designs o Experiments showed that rockets could work in a vacuum o Designs were very primitive yet set the path for future liquid fueled rocket success o Launched the world’s first successful rocket on March 16, 1926 in Massachusetts
  18. 18. Hermann Oberth (1884-1989) o Pursued studies in Astronautics o Conducted experiments to simulate weightlessness o Worked out a design for a long-range liquid fueled rocket o Published:  The Rocket into Interplanetary Space, 1923  mathematically explained how a rocket could escape Earth’s gravitational pull using stages  Ways to Space Flight, 1929  described the development of electric and ion propulsion o Liquid-propellant rocket, patent in 1931 from the Romanian Patent Office o His assistant was Werner von Braun
  19. 19. Wernher von Braun World War 2 • German rocket scientist, designed V-2 rockets. • V-2 rockets carried warheads (missiles) against enemy targets. • Worked on 140 different missiles including cruise missiles and radio controlled missiles. • Several V-2 rockets and documents were lost to the United States, the production plant at Peenemunde went to the Soviets, and the remaining legacy of the V-2 went to France and Great Britain.
  20. 20. The Rocket Program • Soviets were familiar with rockets and used rocket-artillery units on the Eastern Front. • Reopened Peenemnde as a rocket test center and assigned East German scientists, engineers, and factory workers to work on rockets and missiles. • Their rocket program was lead by Sergei Korolov and they improved on the already advanced German V-2 rocket missiles. • 5 years after WW2, they had nuclear bombs, ballistic and long range missiles, while developing powerful rockets - a high threat to the United States.  In August 1957 they launched the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile. A news agency reported that “no part of the earth is too far away: strategic air forces are obsolete.” • Rocket and missile programs were military sponsored. • Missile ranges for testing were built in New Mexico, California and Florida. • The Air force established a program called Project Paperclip whereby German scientist and engineers could come to the U.S to live and work on improvements for the V-2 rocket. This team had 82 members including Werner Von Braun.  Ultimately, the military relied upon bombers to deliver their conventional and nuclear weapons and thus had a under developed rocket program in comparison to the Soviets.
  21. 21. Satellites The official start of the Space Race
  22. 22. Soviet Union Leads the RaceThem Bitches The Sputnik 1 Satellite – October 4, 1957 • Soviet Union launches the first man- made satellite into space. • Begins the Space Race • 184 pounds • Orbits Earth every 96 minutes and transmitted radio signals for 21 days. • Important propaganda victory for the Soviet Union and their leader, Nikita Krushchev. • Many Americans viewed the Sputnik as a symbol for delivering nuclear weapons.
  23. 23. Sputnik 2: First Crew in Space • Launched November 3, 1957 • several compartments for radio transmitters, a programming unit, a temperature control system for the cabin, and several scientific instruments • 1 person crew - Dog named Laika. (FYI, he’s still out there)
  24. 24. American Pride The achievements of the Soviets were blows to American national pride and raised questions about its presumed supremacy in science. The American space program developed rapidly after the Sputnik launch and transformed the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics into the civil National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Aviation was now aerospace and the race was to see who’s achievements went out furthest.
  25. 25. John F. Kennedy • John F. Kennedy was the President of the United States at the time of the Space Race and was very involved with it. • "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth….We have a long way to go in the space race. We started late. But this is the new ocean, and I believe the United States must sail on it and be in a position second to none.” oQOu0IAdgaA
  26. 26. To the Moon The Year 1961 9 year goal
  27. 27. Achievements January 2, 1959 - Soviet Union launched Luna 1. Failed to impact moon but first aircraft to orbit sun.
  28. 28. Achievements September 14 , 1959 The Soviet probe Luna 2 became the first spacecraft to reach the moon.
  29. 29. Achievements April 12, 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space and the first person to orbit the Earth.
  30. 30. Achievements May 5, 1961 Astronaut Alan Shepard in a Mercury capsule called Freedom 7 reached suborbital space and became the first American in space.
  31. 31. Achievements June 16, 1963 Selected because of her parachute skills, Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshova in Vostok 6 became the first women in space.
  32. 32. Achievements June 3, 1965 Edward H. White became the first American to walk in space, to complete an extravehicular activity (EVA) when he exited Gemini 4.
  33. 33. Achievements February 3, 1966 The Soviet probe Luna 9 made the first soft landing on the moon.
  34. 34. Achievements July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on another celestial body. Apollo 11 fulfilled President Kennedy’s Challenge of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely back to earth.