Classification     copyright cmassengale   1
Species of Organisms•There are 13 billion knownspecies of organisms•This is only 5% of allorganisms that ever lived!!!!!•N...
What is Classification?Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClass...
Benefits of Classifying•Accurately & uniformly namesorganisms•Prevents misnomers such asstarfish & jellyfish that arentrea...
Confusion in Using Different   Languages for Names           copyright cmassengale   5
Latin Names are Understood by        all Taxonomists            copyright cmassengale   6
Early Taxonomists• 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist• Aristotle dividedorganisms intoplants & animals• He s...
Carolus Linnaeus              1707 – 1778•   18th century    taxonomist•   Classified    organisms by    their structure• ...
Carolus Linnaeus•Called the “Father ofTaxonomy”•Developed the modernsystem of naming knownas binomial nomenclature•Two-wor...
Standardized Naming•Binomialnomenclature used                                      Turdus migratorius•Genus species•Latin ...
Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related?             copyright cmassengale    11
Classification Groups• Taxon ( taxa-plural)related  category into which                       is a    organisms are placed...
Hierarchy-Taxonomic GroupsDomain      BROADEST TAXON Kingdom   Phylum (Division – used for plants)     Class         Order...
Did                        King                        Phillip                        Cross                        Over   ...
copyright cmassengale   15
Domains• Broadest, most inclusive taxon• Three domains• Archaea and Eubacteria(no  unicellular prokaryotes                ...
ARCHAEA•   Probably the 1st cells to evolve•   Live in HARSH environments•   Found in:    –Sewage Treatment Plants    –The...
ARCHAEAN           copyright cmassengale   18
EUBACTERIA•   Some may cause DISEASE•   Found in ALL HABITATS except    harsh ones•   Important decomposers for    environ...
Live in the intestines of animals            copyright cmassengale   20
Domain Eukarya is Divided     into Kingdoms  •Protista (protozoans,    algae…)  • Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …)  •Plantae (m...
Protista•Most areunicellular•Some aremulticellular•Some areautotrophic, whileothers areheterotrophic• Aquatic             ...
Reproduction Asexually Mitosis and cytokinesis - unicellularhttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=mitosis+in+protist&view=de...
Protists          Three Types      Animal-like Protists       Plant-like Protists      Fungus-like Protistshttp://www.yout...
Protozoans                   animal-like protistUnicellular – made up of one cellHeterotrophs – they eat other  organisms ...
Plant like protists - AlgaeFlagellates: the motorboatsUse a whip-like extension called a  flagella to moveSome cause disea...
Plant-like protist            What are Algae?Multicellular – made of more than one  cellPhotosynthetic – make their own fo...
Fungus-like protist          Characteristics in CommonObtain energy by decomposing organicmaterialNot in kingdom fungi bec...
Fungi•   Multicellular,    except yeast•   Absorptive    heterotrophs    (digest food    outside their    body & then    a...
The Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are NOT plants Nonphotosynthetic Eukaryotes Nonmotile Most are saprobes  (live on dead ...
The Characteristics of FungiImportant decomposers &  recyclers of nutrients in  the environmentLack true roots, stems or  ...
The Characteristics of Fungi Produce both sexual   and asexual   spores Classified by their   sexual   reproductive   stru...
The Characteristics of FungiGrow best in warm, moist environmentsFungi include puffballs, yeasts, mushrooms, toadstools, r...
CladogramWhich of mostfollowing is             the closely related to a mushroom (fungus)?  WHY?  Recent DNA- based stu...
Plantae•Multicellular•Autotrophic•Absorb glucose –to make         sunlightPhotosynthesis•Cell walls made ofcellulose      ...
PlantDivisions   copyright cmassengale   36
TaxonomyPlants are dividedinto two groupsBased on thepresence (vascular                   Vascuplants) or absence         ...
Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and   minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by   pho...
Nonvascular PlantsDo not have vasculartissue for support orconduction of materialsRequire a constantlymoist environmentPla...
Nonvascular PlantsLiverwor                             Hornwor             copyright cmassengale             40
Main Parts of Vascular PlantsLeaves- Photosynthetic part of plantthat contains chloroplast- have stomata on underneathside...
Vascular Plants  Subdivided into two  groups -- Seedless  vascular plants and  Seed-bearing  vascular plants              ...
Seedless Vascular Plants  Whisk ferns                           Horsetails                copyright cmassengale           ...
Seed-Producing Vascular PlantsIncludes two groups – Gymnosperms and AngiospermsGymnosperms have naked seeds in conesAngios...
Gymnosperms vsAngiosperms             copyright cmassengale   45
Animalia•   Multicellular•   Ingestive    heterotrophs    (consume food    & digest it    inside their    bodies)•   Feed ...
copyright cmassengale   47
Taxons•Most genera contain anumber of similar species•The genus Homo is anexception (only containsmodern humans)•Classific...
Basis for Modern Taxonomy• Homologous structures (same  structure, different  function)• Similar embryo development• Molec...
Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows                Similarities in mammals.                      copyrigh...
Similarities in Vertebrate         Embryos          copyright cmassengale   51
CladogramDiagram showing how organisms are related  based on shared, derived characteristics  such as feathers, hair, or s...
Primate                        Cladogramcopyright cmassengale               53
Dichotomous Keying•Used to identify organisms•Characteristics given inpairs•Read both characteristicsand either go to anot...
Example of Dichotomous Key1a   Tentacles present – Go to 21b   Tentacles absent – Go to 32a   Eight Tentacles – Octopus2b ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Classification of lifecindy

835 views

Published on

Complete notes using this powerpoint!

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
835
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
43
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.
  • Classification of lifecindy

    1. 1. Classification copyright cmassengale 1
    2. 2. Species of Organisms•There are 13 billion knownspecies of organisms•This is only 5% of allorganisms that ever lived!!!!!•New organisms are still beingfound and identified copyright cmassengale 2
    3. 3. What is Classification?Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClassification is also known as taxonomyTaxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms copyright cmassengale 3
    4. 4. Benefits of Classifying•Accurately & uniformly namesorganisms•Prevents misnomers such asstarfish & jellyfish that arentreally fish•Uses same language (Latin orsome Greek) for all names Sea”horse”?? copyright cmassengale 4
    5. 5. Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names copyright cmassengale 5
    6. 6. Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists copyright cmassengale 6
    7. 7. Early Taxonomists• 2000 years ago,Aristotle was thefirst taxonomist• Aristotle dividedorganisms intoplants & animals• He subdividedthem by theirhabitat ---land,sea, or air dwellers copyright cmassengale 7
    8. 8. Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778• 18th century taxonomist• Classified organisms by their structure• Developed naming system still used today copyright cmassengale 8
    9. 9. Carolus Linnaeus•Called the “Father ofTaxonomy”•Developed the modernsystem of naming knownas binomial nomenclature•Two-word name (Genus &species) copyright cmassengale 9
    10. 10. Standardized Naming•Binomialnomenclature used Turdus migratorius•Genus species•Latin or Greek•Italicized in print•Capitalize genus,but NOT species•Underline whenwriting American Robin copyright cmassengale 10
    11. 11. Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related? copyright cmassengale 11
    12. 12. Classification Groups• Taxon ( taxa-plural)related category into which is a organisms are placed• There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific• Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species copyright cmassengale 12
    13. 13. Hierarchy-Taxonomic GroupsDomain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Most Genus Specific Species copyright cmassengale 13
    14. 14. Did King Phillip Cross Over France Going South!copyright cmassengale 14
    15. 15. copyright cmassengale 15
    16. 16. Domains• Broadest, most inclusive taxon• Three domains• Archaea and Eubacteria(no unicellular prokaryotes are nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)• Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles copyright cmassengale 16
    17. 17. ARCHAEA• Probably the 1st cells to evolve• Live in HARSH environments• Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants –Thermal or Volcanic Vents –acid Springs or Geysers that are Hot –Greatsalty water (Dead Sea; Very Salt Lake) copyright cmassengale 17
    18. 18. ARCHAEAN copyright cmassengale 18
    19. 19. EUBACTERIA• Some may cause DISEASE• Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones• Important decomposers for environment• Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale 19
    20. 20. Live in the intestines of animals copyright cmassengale 20
    21. 21. Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms •Protista (protozoans, algae…) • Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) •Plantae (multicellular plants) •animals) Animalia (multicellular copyright cmassengale 21
    22. 22. Protista•Most areunicellular•Some aremulticellular•Some areautotrophic, whileothers areheterotrophic• Aquatic copyright cmassengale 22
    23. 23. Reproduction Asexually Mitosis and cytokinesis - unicellularhttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=mitosis+in+protist&view=detail Budding – similar to mitosis except daughter cell is smaller than parent – multicellularhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JIytOL-Q18&feature=related SEXUALLY Meiosis – special nuclear division to reduce chromosome number to haploid - multicellular Conjugation – exchange of nuclear material between two individuals - unicellular
    24. 24. Protists Three Types Animal-like Protists Plant-like Protists Fungus-like Protistshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
    25. 25. Protozoans animal-like protistUnicellular – made up of one cellHeterotrophs – they eat other organisms or dead organic matterClassified by how they movehttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=ameba+moving+by+pseudopodia&view=detail&mid=12BAAFBDAA246F74656112BAhttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=ameba+eating&view=detail&mid=2FAC7F7118693435B4B82FAC7F7118693435B4
    26. 26. Plant like protists - AlgaeFlagellates: the motorboatsUse a whip-like extension called a flagella to moveSome cause diseasehttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=protist+-+flagellate&view=detail&id=23798BE7F96B6F0A5984FE05B9021A3DC78Ciliates – move by tiny hairs called ciliahttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=paramecium&view=detail&mid=0FFDD35BE3C8B0E5B95A0FFDD35BE3C8B0E5B95ASporozoans – parasites that do not movehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwsoK8O0lXEhttp://www.bing.com/images/search?q=plasmodium&view=detail&id=B6D2E36FD71E1288663C0034AD66233D443960A1&f
    27. 27. Plant-like protist What are Algae?Multicellular – made of more than one cellPhotosynthetic – make their own foodNo roots, stems, or leavesEach has chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigmentsExamplesEuglena, Diatoms, Red Algae, Brown Algae, Green Algaehttp://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=euglena+video&mid=C67E436CB272D7AAD478C67E436CB272D7AAD478&view=detail&http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=diatoms&view=detail&id=E76D2C31E51A3DF7230E4CD13C14ACABE8B0E9BA&first=0
    28. 28. Fungus-like protist Characteristics in CommonObtain energy by decomposing organicmaterialNot in kingdom fungi because theyhave cellulose instead of chitin intheir cell wallsExamples - Plasmodium Slime Molds, Cellular SlimeMolds,Water Molds, & Downy Mildews http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GScyw3ammmk
    29. 29. Fungi• Multicellular, except yeast• Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it)• Cell walls made of chitin copyright cmassengale 29
    30. 30. The Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are NOT plants Nonphotosynthetic Eukaryotes Nonmotile Most are saprobes (live on dead organisms) 30
    31. 31. The Characteristics of FungiImportant decomposers & recyclers of nutrients in the environmentLack true roots, stems or leavesSome fungi are internal or external parasitesA few fungi act like predators & capture prey MULTICELLULAR like roundworms UNICELLULAR YEAST MUSHROOM 31
    32. 32. The Characteristics of Fungi Produce both sexual and asexual spores Classified by their sexual reproductive structuresSpores come in various shapes 32
    33. 33. The Characteristics of FungiGrow best in warm, moist environmentsFungi include puffballs, yeasts, mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, smuts, ringworm, and molds Penicillium moldThe antibiotic penicillin is made by the Penicillium mold Puffball 33
    34. 34. CladogramWhich of mostfollowing is the closely related to a mushroom (fungus)? WHY? Recent DNA- based studies show that fungi are more similar to 34
    35. 35. Plantae•Multicellular•Autotrophic•Absorb glucose –to make sunlightPhotosynthesis•Cell walls made ofcellulose copyright cmassengale 35
    36. 36. PlantDivisions copyright cmassengale 36
    37. 37. TaxonomyPlants are dividedinto two groupsBased on thepresence (vascular Vascuplants) or absence lar(nonvascular plants) Bundlof an internal estransport systemfor water anddissolved materials copyright cmassengale 37
    38. 38. Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used copyright cmassengale 38
    39. 39. Nonvascular PlantsDo not have vasculartissue for support orconduction of materialsRequire a constantlymoist environmentPlants can’t grow astallCells must be in directcontact with moistureMaterials move bydiffusion cell-to-cell copyright cmassengale 39
    40. 40. Nonvascular PlantsLiverwor Hornwor copyright cmassengale 40
    41. 41. Main Parts of Vascular PlantsLeaves- Photosynthetic part of plantthat contains chloroplast- have stomata on underneathside for gas exchangeStems- carry water and nutrients toleavesRoots-Found below ground-Absorb water & minerals-Anchor the plant 41
    42. 42. Vascular Plants Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed-bearing vascular plants Club copyright cmassengale 42
    43. 43. Seedless Vascular Plants Whisk ferns Horsetails copyright cmassengale 43
    44. 44. Seed-Producing Vascular PlantsIncludes two groups – Gymnosperms and AngiospermsGymnosperms have naked seeds in conesAngiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale 44
    45. 45. Gymnosperms vsAngiosperms copyright cmassengale 45
    46. 46. Animalia• Multicellular• Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies)• Feed on plants or animals copyright cmassengale 46
    47. 47. copyright cmassengale 47
    48. 48. Taxons•Most genera contain anumber of similar species•The genus Homo is anexception (only containsmodern humans)•Classification is based onevolutionary relationships copyright cmassengale 48
    49. 49. Basis for Modern Taxonomy• Homologous structures (same structure, different function)• Similar embryo development• Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins copyright cmassengale 49
    50. 50. Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. copyright cmassengale 50
    51. 51. Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos copyright cmassengale 51
    52. 52. CladogramDiagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales copyright cmassengale 52
    53. 53. Primate Cladogramcopyright cmassengale 53
    54. 54. Dichotomous Keying•Used to identify organisms•Characteristics given inpairs•Read both characteristicsand either go to anotherset of characteristics ORidentify the organism copyright cmassengale 54
    55. 55. Example of Dichotomous Key1a Tentacles present – Go to 21b Tentacles absent – Go to 32a Eight Tentacles – Octopus2b More than 8 tentacles – 33a Tentacles hang down – go to 43b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5 copyright cmassengale 55

    ×