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Bio project!!!

  1. 1. THE MECHANISM OFDIALYSIS IN THECASE OF KIDNEYFAILURE  DONE BY : CINDY AND ATIQAH =D
  2. 2. 1. KIDNEY FAILURE  Why are kidneys important?• They are excretory organs, removing mainly nitrogenous waste products, excess water and mineral salts in the form of urine• Kidneys are osmoregulators. They regulate the salt and water balance of the body fluid.
  3. 3. What happens when the kidneys fail?   High blood pressure and diabetes are causes of kidney failure   Constant heavy drinking of alcohol may cause kidneys to lose their function   May also occur suddenly or after major surgery   One kidney failed to function, a person still can lead a normal life with the other kidney. If both kidneys fail to work, the person will die unless prompt medical treatment is given.
  4. 4. 2. KIDNEY DIALYSIS Patient with kidney failure can be treated with a dialysis or kidney machine. Blood drawn from patient’s artery  flow through tubing (bathed in a dialysis fluid) in the machine)  walls of tubing partially permeable  big molecules like protein and blood cells remain in tubing
  5. 5. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 11. Blood isdrawn from anartery in thepatient’s arm
  6. 6. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood isdrawn from an pumped throughartery in the a tubing to thepatient’s arm 2 dialysis machine
  7. 7. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood isdrawn from an pumped throughartery in the a tubing to thepatient’s arm 2 dialysis machine 3. The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi- permeable 3
  8. 8. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood isdrawn from an pumped throughartery in the a tubing to thepatient’s arm 2 dialysis machine 3. The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi- permeable 3
  9. 9. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood isdrawn from an pumped throughartery in the a tubing to thepatient’s arm 2 dialysis machine 3. The tubing is bathed in a 4 special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi- permeable 4. Small molecules (e.g. 3 urea) and metabolic waste products diffuse out of the tubing
  10. 10. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood isdrawn from an pumped throughartery in the a tubing to thepatient’s arm 6 2 dialysis machine 3. The tubing is bathed in a special dialy sis f luid and the tubing is semi-permeable6. The filteredblood is returned 4to a vein in thepatient’s arm 55. Largermolecules 4. Small(e.g. plates molecules (e.g.and blood 3 urea) andcells) remain in metabolic wastethe tubing products diffuse out of the tubing
  11. 11. 3. How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine? artery 1 2. Blood is1. Blood is pumped throughdrawn from an a tubing to theartery in the dialysis machinepatient’s arm vein 6 26. The filtered dialysis tubing 3. The tubing isblood is returned bathed in ato a vein in the special dialysis 4 fluid and thepatient’s arm Pump tubing is semi- dialysis permeable5. Larger fluid filtered 5molecules blood 4. Small(e.g. plates molecules (e.g.and blood urea) andcells) remain in fresh dialysis metabolic waste 3the tubing fluid products diffuse out of the tubingCopyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  12. 12. ♥ Exchange of substances betweenthe blood and the dialysis fluid ♥ Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of essential salts as the blood These salts can diffuse into the blood in the tubing if the body lacks such salts Dialysis does not contain metabolic waste products Tubing is long, narrow to increase surface area to volume ratio to speed up rate of exchange of substances between the blood and dialysis fluid Treatment is about 2 to 3 times a week, each time lasting several hours
  13. 13. Exchange of Substances between the blood and the dialysis Fluid 1. Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine dialysis machine dialysis fluid partially permeable membranepatient’s blood essential mineral saltCopyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  14. 14. 1. Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine dialysis machine dialysis partially fluid permeable membrane patient’s blood1 dialysis fluid 2 protein essential red blood cell molecule mineral salt 2. Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid
  15. 15. 1. Patient’s blood 3. Dialysis fluid contains the same enters dialysis concentration of essential substances as machine blood. No metabolic wastes present dialysis machine dialysis partially fluid permeable membrane patient’s blood1 dialysis fluid 3 2 protein essential red blood cell molecule mineral salt 2. Blood flows in the opposite 4. Concentration direction to flow of dialysis fluid gradient set up between dialysis fluid and blood
  16. 16. 1. Patient’s blood 3. Dialysis fluid contains the same 6. Filtered enters dialysis concentration of essential substances as blood is machine blood. No metabolic wastes present returned to the patient dialysis machine dialysis partially fluid permeable membrane patient’s blood filtered blood1 5 dialysis fluid4 3 2 dialysis fluid with waste products urea protein essential red blood cell molecule molecule mineral salt 5. Removal of 2. Blood flows in the opposite 4. Concentration metabolic direction to flow of dialysis fluid gradient set up waste products between dialysis from the blood fluid and blood
  17. 17. ENOUGH OF W ORDS, TIME FOR SOME VIDEOS TO FIND OUT ABOUT THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIALYSIS :Dhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?vhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v
  18. 18. 5.What are the different types of dialysis ? There are two types of dialysis - hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer) is used to remove waste and extra chemicals and fluid from your blood. To get your blood into it , the doctor needs to make an access into your blood vessels. This is done by minor surgery to your arm or leg. An access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel called a fistula. However, if your blood vessels are not adequate for a fistula, the doctor may use a soft plastic tube to join an artery and a vein under your skin. This is called a graft. In peritoneal dialysis, your blood is cleaned inside your body. The doctor will do surgery to place a plastic tube called a catheter into your abdomen to make an access. Extra fluid and waste products are drawn out of your blood and into the dialysate. There are two major kinds of peritoneal dialysis :_ Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is the only type of peritoneal dialysis that is done without machines._ Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD) usually is done at home using a special machine called a cycler.
  19. 19. Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis
  20. 20. 6. WHY MUST THE DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW BE OPPOSITE TO THE DIRECTION OF FLOW OF THE DIALYSIS FLUID ?• The direction of blood flow must be opposite to the direction of flow of the dialysis fluid to ensure a diffusion gradient remains to allow urea to flow out.• This also ensures all the urea in the blood will be removed. Imagine if they flow in the same direction, when blood reaches the end, the dialysis solution is high in urea and so is the blood and urea will not be removed.
  21. 21. 6. After a transplant, will a patientbe able to live a normal life again ?  ♥ If the grafted kidney is well-looked after, the patient can go back to a near normal life that is productive and of better quality with fewer restrictions compared to when placed on dialysis and restrained from eating a normal diet.
  22. 22.  BECAUSE OF TIME CONSUMING, LET’S START WITH $1,000 QUESTION !QUESTION 1 : WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT THE REASON WHY THE KIDNEYS IS IMPORTANT ? B. Regulate the saltA. Remove waste products And water balance C. Regulate water D. Absorb water and potential of the blood mineral salts
  23. 23. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE D, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP -> Kidneys are excretory organs, removing mainly nitrogenous waste products, excess water and mineral salts in the form of urine♥ Kidneys are osmoregulators. They regulate the salt and water balance of the body fluid.
  24. 24. ♥ UH OH! IT’S INCORRECT, LET’S TRY AGAIN 
  25. 25.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $2,000 QUESTION !QUESTION 2 : WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT THE CAUSE OF KIDNEY FAILURE? A. Exercise vigorously B. High blood pressure C. Constant heavy D. After a major surgery drinking
  26. 26. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE A, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : High blood pressure and diabetes are causes of kidney failure Constant heavy drinking of alcohol may cause kidneys to lose their function May also occur suddenly or after major surgery
  27. 27.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $4,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 3 : WHAT CAN A PATIENT WITH KIDNEY FAILURE BE TREATED WITH ? B. Blood pressure A. Kidney machine machine C. Blood circulation D. Excretion care machine machine
  28. 28. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE B, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S SEE : When kidney function gets to about 15% or less, a person must start dialysis.
  29. 29.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $8,000 QUESTION ! WOW, IT’S A KILLER ONE! AFTER THIS WE WILL PROCESS TO THE $32,000 QUESTION! QUESTION 4 : A PERSON USUALLY BEGIN DIALYSIS WHEN THEIR KIDNEY FUNCTION GOES DOWN TO ABOUT HOW MANY PERCENT ? A. 50% B. 15% C. 20% D. 25%
  30. 30. ♥♥♥FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE C, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP- There are two types of dialysis : hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
  31. 31.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $32,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 5 : WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF DIALYSIS ? A. Graft dialysis and B. Catherer dialysis and Peritoneal dialysis Graft dialysis C. Hemodialysis and D. Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis Fistula dialysis
  32. 32. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE D, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : The catherer that is used for peritoneal dialysis is place at the abdominal area in the body
  33. 33.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $64,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 6 : WHERE IN THE BODY IS THE CATHETER THAT IS USED FOR PERITONEAL DIALYSIS ? A. Arm B. Leg C. Neck D. Abdominal area
  34. 34. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE C, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : An access is made by joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel called a fistula
  35. 35.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $125,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 7 : WHAT IS USED IN HEMOLDIALYSIS CREATED BY SURGICALLY CONNECTING AN ARTERY AND VEIN TOGETHER ? A. Catherer B. Dialysate C. Fistula D. Artificial kidney
  36. 36. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE B, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : Excess wastes and water pass from the blood into a the dialysis fluid for removal from the body by diffusion.
  37. 37.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $250,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 8 : WHICH TWO SUBSTANCES WILL PASS FROM THE BLOOD INTO THE DIALYSIS FLUID ? A. Plasma and mineral B. Water and mineral salts salts D. Metabolic wastes and C. Membrane and water mineral salts
  38. 38. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE A, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : The dialysis tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi-permeable
  39. 39.  LET’S CONTINUE WITH THE $500,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 9 : WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS ONE CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTY OF THE DIALYSIS TUBING ? A. Partially permeable B. Thin cell wall C. Fully permeable D. Lignified cell wall
  40. 40. ♥♥♥ FOR THOSE WHO CHOOSE C, YOU’RE CORRECT! ♥ LET’S RECAP : The direction of blood flow must be opposite to the direction of flow of the dialysis fluid to ensure a diffusion gradient remains to allow wastes to flow out.
  41. 41.  WOW! WE’RE ALREADY AT THE $1,000,000 QUESTION ! QUESTION 10 : WHAT IS THE DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW TO THE FLOW OF THE DIALYSIS FLUID ? A. Toward B. To the left C. Opposite D. To the right
  42. 42. CONGRATULATION TO THE WINNER !!!THANK YOU ! HOPE YOU ENJOYED IT ;)CREDITS :http://medicalpicturesinfo.com/dialysis/http://sciencephoto.comhttp://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/dialysisinfo.cfmhttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_does_the_fluid_in_dialysis_have_to_flow_in_opposite_directions#ixzz22fDjfLc8http://www.fmc-ag.com/files/Diffusion.gifCopyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International(Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

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