Guidelines and
Practical Approaches for
Test Construction
Cindy Cruz-Cabrera
Professor | Consultant | Gender Specialist
ab...
Why do we give tests?
Tests have many purposes in our schools.
• To assess a student’s understanding of a given
topic within a subject and ident...
• To determine who will receive
awards, recognition, and scholarships
• To provide a basis of qualification for entry
into...
Kinds of Tests
Intelligence tests
Personality tests
Psychological tests
Aptitude tests
Performance tests
Achievement tests
Comprehensive ...
Other categories of tests
Placement
Diagnostic
Achievement
Proficiency
Criterion-referenced
Norm-referenced
Formal
Informal
Key Concepts
• Knowledge, Comprehension, Application,
Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
• Memorization, Comprehension and
Ownership
• Con...
Issues
• Do tests accurately reflect and measure what
students should be learning OR are learning at
school?
• Teaching th...
What are your thoughts
and insights?
“There is a difference between knowing
the path and walking the path.”
>>> Morpheus
• What is more important to measure:
memorization or comprehension / ownership?
Or both/all? Explain your answer.
• Should...
Types of Tests
Multiple Choice
A number of set answers for each
question or item is provided
Chamber of Secrets
What does Uncle Vernon do with Harry's
items from Hogwarts when Harry gets home
for the holidays?
a) Lo...
Deathly Hallows
Where is Harry Potter when he is first
encountered in the book?
a) At a house on Privet Drive.
b) At Gring...
Deathly Hallows
What are the three objects that make up
the Deathly Hallows?
a) Phoenix feather, stone, and invisibility
c...
Advantages
• Multiple choice questions usually requires less
time for test takers to answer.
• They are easy to score and ...
Disadvantages
• Multiple choice items do not allow test takers
to demonstrate knowledge beyond the
choices.
• They may enc...
Guidelines
• Design each item to measure an important
learning outcome.
• Present a single, clearly formulated problem in
...
• Emphasize negative wording whenever it is
used in the stem of an item.
• Make certain that the intended answer is
correc...
Alternate Response
(TRUE or FALSE)
Binary choice – a statement is either
TRUE or FALSE
Modified TRUE or FALSE
• Harry Potter is a muggle.
• A Squib is someone born to non-magical
parents who can do magic.
• There are four houses at ...
Advantages
• True-False items can cover a wide range of
difficulty levels.
• These require less time to answer, and are
ea...
Guidelines
• Include only one central significant idea in
each statement.
• Word the statement so precisely that it can be...
Matching Type
Provides a defined term and requires a
test taker to match identifying
characteristics with the correct term.
• This alien being gains
strength from the solar
system’s yellow sun.
• This scientist met a
laboratory accident, which
ca...
Tony Stark
Bruce Banner
Steve Rogers
Clint Barton
Natasha Romanov
Clark Kent
Bruce Wayne
Celina Kyle
Peter Parker
Spiderma...
Advantages
• Matching type items usually requires less time
for test takers to answer.
• They are easy to score and grade....
Guidelines
• Keep the lists of items short and put the
brief responses on the right.
• Use a larger, or smaller, number of...
Completion Type
(Fill-in-the-blanks)
Provides a test taker with identifying
characteristics and requires the test
taker to...
• Lord Voldemort appeared in “Chamber of
Secrets” as _______________, a student at
Hogwarts.
• In “Goblet of Fire”, ______...
Sirius Black Severus Snape Cedric Diggory
Rubeus Hagrid Tom Marvolo Riddle
• Lord Voldemort appeared in “Chamber of
Secret...
Types
• Word bank provided – each word to be used
once
• Word bank provided – some words to be used
more than once, others...
Essay
A response is written in paragraph
form to in answer to a question or to
fulfill requirements of an item.
Short
• Describe Harry's feelings for Hogwarts, his
school, as compared to the Dursley house
where he lives with his aunt ...
Comprehensive
The Chamber of Secrets had been opened
only fifty years ago. Many of the people at
Hogwarts, such as the gho...
Comprehensive
Oftentimes, a book is more of a character-driven
plot rather than action driven, and oftentimes
the other wa...
Advantages
• Essay items can test complex learning
objectives and processes used to answer the
question.
• Summary, critiq...
Disadvantages
• Test items can be made quickly but take quite
some time to answer and check.
• The grading process may be ...
Rubric
A chart that communicates and outlines the
following:
• Expectations for the project / activity / exercise
• Criter...
Areas of Assessment
5
A
4
B
3
C
2
D
Ideas
Presents ideas in an
original and
interesting manner
Presents ideas in an
consis...
Mathematics Questions
State a mathematical problem or
exercise that requires a student to
write a freehand response.
• Identify the laws of physics present in the
game ANGRY BIRDS. Explain the occurrence of
these laws in the game and how t...
• Maths, Chemistry, Physics, Economics
• Steps (process)
• Multiple parts (series)
• Variations on true or false, which in...
Physical Fitness Test
Designed to measure physical
strength, agility and endurance
• Usually part of the physical education
curriculum
• Fulfills eligibility requirements in fields
that focus on physical a...
Performance Test /
Practical Exam
Requires an examinee to actually
perform a task or activity,
rather than simply answerin...
• Actual or simulation – demonstration of
ability or judgment
• Reason: greater fidelity to what is being
tested
• Driving...
Types of Tests:
What are your thoughts
and insights?
• What type of tests are best suited for
evaluating your subject area? Explain
your answer.
• Create an essay test rubric ...
Guidelines
for Test Construction
Preparing the Test
• Write test items according to rules of
construction for the type(s) chosen.
• Select the items to be ...
Planning for the Test
• Outline subject matter content to be
considered as the basis for the test.
• Identify learning out...
Content
Outline
Knowledge Compre-
hension
Application Analysis Synthesis Evalua-
tion
Total
History of
Adolescence
5 2 1 8...
Verbs that indicate behaviors for instructional objectives
(Bloom, 1967)
Knowledge define, repeat, record, list, recall, n...
Reviewing, Selecting & Editing Items
• Is the item free from extraneous clues?
• Is the difficulty of the item appropriate...
Reviewing, Selecting & Editing Items
• Does each test item measure an important
learning-outcome included in the table of
...
Arranging the Items
• The items should be arranged so that all items
of the same type are grouped together.
• The items sh...
Writing Directions
The directions for an achievement test should
be simple and concise and yet contain
information concern...
TIPS
• Construct test items bearing in mind that
they must be answerable by most students.
• Each item must be evaluated with r...
Use feedback to aid in both teaching and
test construction.
• On Results: Tests are not just important
for grading, but al...
Guidelines and Tips:
What are your thoughts
and insights?
• Do you agree that test items should be
arranged from the easiest to the most
difficult? Why or why not?
• “Each item mus...
Open Forum
Connect with me!
cindycatz javadiggincat oldgirlinpeyups cindy cruz-cabrera
09166843723
cindycruzcabrera@gmail....
References
• “Educational Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation” by Boyet B.
Aluan http://www.slideshare.net/BoyetAluan/e...
References
• “The Physics of Angry Birds”
https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd
=4&cad=rja&ved=...
Guidelines and Practical Approaches for Test Construction  Cindy Cruz-Cabrera June 3 seminar-workshop
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Guidelines and Practical Approaches for Test Construction Cindy Cruz-Cabrera June 3 seminar-workshop

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This seminar-workshop was developed at the request of Ephesians Publishing Inc. for the Holy Angel School of Caloocan teacher training series for primary school, intermediate and high school teachers. This was conducted on June 3, 2013.

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Guidelines and Practical Approaches for Test Construction Cindy Cruz-Cabrera June 3 seminar-workshop

  1. 1. Guidelines and Practical Approaches for Test Construction Cindy Cruz-Cabrera Professor | Consultant | Gender Specialist about.me/cindycruzcabrera
  2. 2. Why do we give tests?
  3. 3. Tests have many purposes in our schools. • To assess a student’s understanding of a given topic within a subject and identify what they have learned • To evaluate a student’s progress in a subject within a given period of time • To assess a student’s strengths and weaknesses for focus, assistance or individualized instruction
  4. 4. • To determine who will receive awards, recognition, and scholarships • To provide a basis of qualification for entry into a school, program, internship, higher education, scholarship • To gain college credit – advanced placement exams • To measure a teacher or school’s effectiveness – Part of teacher evaluation – High-stakes testing
  5. 5. Kinds of Tests
  6. 6. Intelligence tests Personality tests Psychological tests Aptitude tests Performance tests Achievement tests Comprehensive exams Gatekeeper tests Standardized tests Teacher-made tests
  7. 7. Other categories of tests Placement Diagnostic Achievement Proficiency Criterion-referenced Norm-referenced Formal Informal
  8. 8. Key Concepts
  9. 9. • Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation • Memorization, Comprehension and Ownership • Content and Performance • Assessment vs. Evaluation • Objective VS. Subjective items / questions • Validity and Reliability
  10. 10. Issues • Do tests accurately reflect and measure what students should be learning OR are learning at school? • Teaching the curriculum VS. “Teaching to the test” • On the measurement of a teacher or school’s effectiveness: “Many factors influence a student’s grade on an exam.”
  11. 11. What are your thoughts and insights?
  12. 12. “There is a difference between knowing the path and walking the path.” >>> Morpheus
  13. 13. • What is more important to measure: memorization or comprehension / ownership? Or both/all? Explain your answer. • Should we “teach to the test”? Or should we just stick to teaching the curriculum? Or should we do both? Why or why not? • Should students’ tests results and grades be made part of a teacher’s evaluation? Why or why not?
  14. 14. Types of Tests
  15. 15. Multiple Choice A number of set answers for each question or item is provided
  16. 16. Chamber of Secrets What does Uncle Vernon do with Harry's items from Hogwarts when Harry gets home for the holidays? a) Locks them away under the stairs in the cupboard b) Puts them in a chest in the attic c) Burns them d) Throws them away Answer: A
  17. 17. Deathly Hallows Where is Harry Potter when he is first encountered in the book? a) At a house on Privet Drive. b) At Gringotts. c) At Hogwarts. d) At Platform 9 ¾. Answer: A
  18. 18. Deathly Hallows What are the three objects that make up the Deathly Hallows? a) Phoenix feather, stone, and invisibility cloak. b) Stone, invisibility cloak and basilisk tooth. c) Wand, basilisk tooth and Phoenix feather. d) Wand, stone, and invisibility cloak. Answer: D
  19. 19. Advantages • Multiple choice questions usually requires less time for test takers to answer. • They are easy to score and grade. • They provide greater coverage of material and allows for a wide range of difficulty. • They can easily diagnose a test taker's difficulty with certain concepts. • They test many levels of learning as well as a test taker's ability to integrate information, and can provide feedback to the test taker about why distractors were wrong and why correct answers were right.
  20. 20. Disadvantages • Multiple choice items do not allow test takers to demonstrate knowledge beyond the choices. • They may encourage guessing or approximation due to the presence of at least one correct answer. • Multiple choice items that are effective usually take a great time to construct.
  21. 21. Guidelines • Design each item to measure an important learning outcome. • Present a single, clearly formulated problem in the stem of the item. • State the stem of the item in simple, clear language. • Put as much of the wording as possible in the stem of the item. • State the stem of the item in positive form, wherever possible.
  22. 22. • Emphasize negative wording whenever it is used in the stem of an item. • Make certain that the intended answer is correct or clearly best among choices. • Make all alternatives grammatically consistent with the stem of the item and parallel in form. • Avoid verbal clues which might enable students to select the correct answer or to eliminate an incorrect alternative. • Make the distracters plausible and attractive to the uninformed.
  23. 23. Alternate Response (TRUE or FALSE) Binary choice – a statement is either TRUE or FALSE Modified TRUE or FALSE
  24. 24. • Harry Potter is a muggle. • A Squib is someone born to non-magical parents who can do magic. • There are four houses at Hogwarts school. • Gryffindor won the Quidditch Cup in Harry Potter's second year at Hogwarts. • Rita Skeeter's Animagus is a ladybug. • The student Harry Potter was supposed to save in the Triwizard Tournament was Hermione Granger. • Neville Longbottom's parents were killed by Bellatrix Lestrange.
  25. 25. Advantages • True-False items can cover a wide range of difficulty levels. • These require less time to answer, and are easily graded and scored. Disadvantages • These do not allow for test takers to demonstrate broad range of knowledge. • Guesswork may work.
  26. 26. Guidelines • Include only one central significant idea in each statement. • Word the statement so precisely that it can be judged unequivocally true or false. • Use negative statements sparingly and avoid double negatives. • Statements of opinion should be attributed to some source. • Keep statements short and use simple language structure.
  27. 27. Matching Type Provides a defined term and requires a test taker to match identifying characteristics with the correct term.
  28. 28. • This alien being gains strength from the solar system’s yellow sun. • This scientist met a laboratory accident, which caused him to change form whenever angry. • This scientist-businessman describes himself to be a “Genius, billionaire, playbo y, philanthropist.” Spiderman Captain America The Incredible Hulk Superman Iron Man Hawkeye Batman
  29. 29. Tony Stark Bruce Banner Steve Rogers Clint Barton Natasha Romanov Clark Kent Bruce Wayne Celina Kyle Peter Parker Spiderman The Black Widow Captain America The Incredible Hulk Superman Cat Woman Iron Man Hawkeye Batman
  30. 30. Advantages • Matching type items usually requires less time for test takers to answer. • They are easy to score and grade. • Distractors may be provided. Disadvantages • Answers are already provided, which makes it prone to guesswork. • These items do not allow test takers to demonstrate knowledge beyond the choices.
  31. 31. Guidelines • Keep the lists of items short and put the brief responses on the right. • Use a larger, or smaller, number of responses than premises, and permit the responses to be used more than once. • Specify in the directions the basis for matching and indicate that each response may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
  32. 32. Completion Type (Fill-in-the-blanks) Provides a test taker with identifying characteristics and requires the test taker to recall the correct term.
  33. 33. • Lord Voldemort appeared in “Chamber of Secrets” as _______________, a student at Hogwarts. • In “Goblet of Fire”, _____________ dies during the tournament. • In “Prisoner of Azkaban”, Harry discovers that ____________ is his godfather. • The gamekeeper at Hogwarts who later becomes a teacher is ____________. • ____________ was their potions teacher who later taught Defense of the Dark Arts.
  34. 34. Sirius Black Severus Snape Cedric Diggory Rubeus Hagrid Tom Marvolo Riddle • Lord Voldemort appeared in “Chamber of Secrets” as _______________, a student at Hogwarts. • In “Goblet of Fire”, _____________ dies during the tournament. • In “Prisoner of Azkaban”, Harry discovers that ____________ is his godfather. • The gamekeeper at Hogwarts who later becomes a teacher is ____________. • ____________ was their potions teacher who later taught Defense of the Dark Arts.
  35. 35. Types • Word bank provided – each word to be used once • Word bank provided – some words to be used more than once, others not at all • No word bank provided • Students may guess but with more difficulty. • This type of item is generally feared by students when no word bank is provided.
  36. 36. Essay A response is written in paragraph form to in answer to a question or to fulfill requirements of an item.
  37. 37. Short • Describe Harry's feelings for Hogwarts, his school, as compared to the Dursley house where he lives with his aunt and uncle from what is detailed in Chapter One. • Give one word that explains Vernon Dursley's reaction when Harry says "magic" in Chapter One. Explain why you have given this word.
  38. 38. Comprehensive The Chamber of Secrets had been opened only fifty years ago. Many of the people at Hogwarts, such as the ghosts and teachers, were around at that time. Part 1-Describe why they were so quick to dismiss the fact that the chamber was a myth and didn't exist. Part 2-How would things have been different if the Chamber of Secrets had been taken as a more serious threat in the beginning?
  39. 39. Comprehensive Oftentimes, a book is more of a character-driven plot rather than action driven, and oftentimes the other way. Some books seem to balance the two. Discuss the following: 1. What do you think it means to say that a plot is character-driven or action-driven? 2. How do you think a plot differs if it is character-driven versus action-driven? 3. Which type of plot do you find more interesting? Why? 4. Do you think it is possible to have a plot where action and character development share equal time?
  40. 40. Advantages • Essay items can test complex learning objectives and processes used to answer the question. • Summary, critique, analysis, defense, stand, et c. • These items require test takers to demonstrate their writing skills as well as correct spelling and grammar. • Essay items are not given to guesswork.
  41. 41. Disadvantages • Test items can be made quickly but take quite some time to answer and check. • The grading process may be subjective – different score results for different teachers. • Essay questions may potentially be unreliable in assessing the entire content of a subject matter.
  42. 42. Rubric A chart that communicates and outlines the following: • Expectations for the project / activity / exercise • Criteria • Scoring guide and corresponding performance indicators / levels of quality Rubrics are used to TEACH as well as EVALUATE. • These focus on the process as well as the product. • These guide students to make dependable judgments about their work and give feedback. • Clarify standards for quality performance and progress towards those standards
  43. 43. Areas of Assessment 5 A 4 B 3 C 2 D Ideas Presents ideas in an original and interesting manner Presents ideas in an consistent manner Ideas are too general Ideas are vague or unclear Organization Strong and organized beg/mid/end Organized beginning/ middle/end Some organization; attempt at a beginning/ middle/end No organization; lack/s beginning/ middle/end Understanding Writing shows strong understanding Writing shows clear understanding Writing shows adequate understanding Writing shows little understanding Word Choice Sophisticated use of nouns and verbs make essay very informative Nouns and verbs make essay informative Needs more nouns and verbs Little or no use of nouns and verbs Sentence Structure Sentence structure enhances meaning; flows throughout piece Sentence structure is evident; sentences mostly flow Sentence structure is limited; sentences need to flow No sense of sentence structure or flow Mechanics Few (if any) errors Few errors Several errors Numerous errors
  44. 44. Mathematics Questions State a mathematical problem or exercise that requires a student to write a freehand response.
  45. 45. • Identify the laws of physics present in the game ANGRY BIRDS. Explain the occurrence of these laws in the game and how these are illustrated. • Explain the physics concepts and their corresponding equations as illustrated in the catapult activity in ANGRY BIRDS.
  46. 46. • Maths, Chemistry, Physics, Economics • Steps (process) • Multiple parts (series) • Variations on true or false, which involves verifying validity by direct proof or counterexample.
  47. 47. Physical Fitness Test Designed to measure physical strength, agility and endurance
  48. 48. • Usually part of the physical education curriculum • Fulfills eligibility requirements in fields that focus on physical ability (more rigorous) • Standard requirement for school admissions and monitoring of students (less stringent)
  49. 49. Performance Test / Practical Exam Requires an examinee to actually perform a task or activity, rather than simply answering questions referring to specific parts
  50. 50. • Actual or simulation – demonstration of ability or judgment • Reason: greater fidelity to what is being tested • Driving, dancing, doing sports • Laboratory exam – specimens on display • Scientific method – laboratory sheet
  51. 51. Types of Tests: What are your thoughts and insights?
  52. 52. • What type of tests are best suited for evaluating your subject area? Explain your answer. • Create an essay test rubric for your subject area / department. What criteria would you employ? What weights would you assign each criterion and why? Explain your answer. • Create and share two items per type of test.
  53. 53. Guidelines for Test Construction
  54. 54. Preparing the Test • Write test items according to rules of construction for the type(s) chosen. • Select the items to be included in the test according to table of specifications. • Review and edit items according to guidelines. • Arrange items and decide on – Grouping of items, – Sequence of items within groups, – Sequence of groupings.
  55. 55. Planning for the Test • Outline subject matter content to be considered as the basis for the test. • Identify learning outcomes to be measured by the test. • Prepare the table of specifications. • Choose appropriate type(s) of test items for evaluation of learning outcomes as summarized in the table of specifications.
  56. 56. Content Outline Knowledge Compre- hension Application Analysis Synthesis Evalua- tion Total History of Adolescence 5 2 1 8 Physical Development 4 2 2 2 19 Psychological Implications 4 6 1 1 2 14 Cognitive Development 8 4 1 2 3 1 19 Total No. of Items 26 16 4 5 4 5 60
  57. 57. Verbs that indicate behaviors for instructional objectives (Bloom, 1967) Knowledge define, repeat, record, list, recall, name, describe, identify, match, select, outline, write Comprehension classify, explain, summarize, convert, predict, distinguish between Application demonstrate, compute, solve, modify, arrange, operate, relate, adapt, apply, implement Analysis differentiate, diagram, estimate, separate, infer, order, subdivide Synthesis combine, create, formulate, design, compose, construct, rearrange, revise Evaluation judge, criticize, compare, justify, conclude, discriminate, support
  58. 58. Reviewing, Selecting & Editing Items • Is the item free from extraneous clues? • Is the difficulty of the item appropriate for the students to be tested? • Is each test item independent and are the items, as a group, free from overlapping? • Do the items to be included in the test provide adequate coverage of the table of specifications?
  59. 59. Reviewing, Selecting & Editing Items • Does each test item measure an important learning-outcome included in the table of specifications? • Is each item type appropriate for the particular learning outcome to be measured? • Does each item present a clearly formulated task? • Is the item stated in simple, clear language?
  60. 60. Arranging the Items • The items should be arranged so that all items of the same type are grouped together. • The items should be arranged in order of increasing difficulty. • For some purposes, it may be desirable to group together items which measure the same learning outcomes or the same subject- matter content.
  61. 61. Writing Directions The directions for an achievement test should be simple and concise and yet contain information concerning each of the following: • Purpose of the test. • Time allowed to complete the test. • How to record the answers. • Whether to guess when in doubt about the answer.
  62. 62. TIPS
  63. 63. • Construct test items bearing in mind that they must be answerable by most students. • Each item must be evaluated with respect to sensitivity to the needs of students from diverse backgrounds. • Promote a “daily review” “lesson recap” or “beginning/end-of-lesson test” (or other method best suited to you and your class). • Create an item bank.
  64. 64. Use feedback to aid in both teaching and test construction. • On Results: Tests are not just important for grading, but also for teaching and helping our students. • Check tests right away and get them back to students within a matter of days (next day / class meeting, if possible). • Allow for consultation, whenever possible.
  65. 65. Guidelines and Tips: What are your thoughts and insights?
  66. 66. • Do you agree that test items should be arranged from the easiest to the most difficult? Why or why not? • “Each item must be evaluated with respect to sensitivity to the needs of students from diverse backgrounds.” What are the ways that we can do this for our students when constructing tests? Give examples and explain. • What are your tips, best practices and success stories for test construction?
  67. 67. Open Forum Connect with me! cindycatz javadiggincat oldgirlinpeyups cindy cruz-cabrera 09166843723 cindycruzcabrera@gmail.com
  68. 68. References • “Educational Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation” by Boyet B. Aluan http://www.slideshare.net/BoyetAluan/educational-measurement- assessment-and-evaluation • “The Purpose of Tests” by Melissa Kelly http://712educators.about.com/od/assessments/tp/The-Purpose-Of- Tests.htm • Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_(student_assessment) • “What is an essay rubric?” by Janelle Cox (sample rubric) http://k6educators.about.com/od/GradingStudents/a/Essay-Rubrics.htm • “Four types of tests” http://www.teachers-corner.co.uk/four-types-of- tests/ • “Types of Tests” http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/assessment/typestests.htm • “Types of Test Item Formats” http://www.siop.org/workplace/employment%20testing/testformats.aspx • “Test Construction Manual” by Professors Marjorie Devine & Nevart Yaghlian of the Center for Teaching Excellence www.cte.cornell.edu • “The Physics of Angry Birds” http://ct- stem.northwestern.edu/assets/AngryBirds.pdf
  69. 69. References • “The Physics of Angry Birds” https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd =4&cad=rja&ved=0CEsQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fopen.umich.edu%2Fsit es%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2F2013-the-physics-of-angry-birds-jbon-jmoline- lab.docx&ei=SEmrUbHeL- GPiAeG2YD4DA&usg=AFQjCNER2X6qEHFUEEMcU7mW6Iu2B1ivXQ&sig2= 8ce-40WuCEXf5SU2eUishw&bvm=bv.47244034,d.aGc • Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows at www.bookrags.com http://www.bookrags.com/lessonplan/harry-potter-and-the-deathly- hallows • Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets at www.bookrags.com http://www.bookrags.com/lessonplan/chamber-of-secrets • Harry Potter Quiz http://quizlet.com/1515137/harry-potter-quiz-flash- cards/ • Harry Potter True or False http://www.braingle.com/trivia/1507/harry- potter-true-or-false.html • Harry Potter True or False • http://www.goodreads.com/quizzes/21583-harry-potter-true-or-false

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