When should sex education start? O before young people reach puberty, and before they have developed established patterns of behaviour. O The precise age at which information should be provided depends on the physical, emotional and intellectual development of the young people as well as their level of understanding. “Giving young people basic information from an early age provides the foundation on which more complex knowledge is built up over time.”
O Parents/carersO TeachersO Young people Teaching about HIV/AIDS and life-skills, Uganda.
Birth Control and Contraception: What’s the Difference?O Birth control: Anything that helps control the birth of a child, according to the wishes of the parents, i.e. the planning to control the number of children born.O Contraception: originates from the words contra + conception, i.e. anti-birth, or anything that prevents birth by natural or artificial means.Basically, contraception means preventing the male’s sperm frommeeting with the female’s egg. Birth Control is a broader term (itincludes contraception), and is a part of family planning.
Methods of ContraceptionO Sexual Abstinence - to refrain from sexual contact of any sort.→Effectiveness: When practiced all the time, abstinence is the only100 % effective method of birth control, and offers 100 % protectionfrom sexually transmitted infections.→ Cost: There is no cost.→ Advantages: 100 % protection from both pregnancy andsexually transmitted infections, no side effects, no cost→ Disadvantages: One partner may decide he/she nolonger wants to remain abstinent while the other partners wantsto continue practicing abstinence.
Hormonal Methods alter a woman’s hormonal cycle to prevent fertilization.O Oral Contraceptives (The Pill) - are pills that contain hormones, that when taken orally, prevents ovulation.→ Effectiveness: When taken correctly and consistently, the pill is more than99% effective. If the pill is not taken correctly and consistently, theeffectiveness can drop to 90%-95% or lower. The most common mistakes thatreduce the effectives of birth control pills are skipping or forgetting pills. Thepill must be taken at the same time everyday to be effective.→ Cost: Approximately $10-$20 per cycle (400)→ Advantages: Does not interrupt sexual activity, method is reversible, canreduce menstrual cramps and flow of period, reduces the risk of ovarian andendometrial cancer, can cause decrease in acne.→ Disadvantages: Can cause weight change, hormonal side effects,prescription is required, does not protect against sexually transmitted infections.
ImplantsO Intrauterine Device (IUD)The IUD is a small device made of plastic that is inserted into the uterusthrough the cervix. IUDs contain either copper or progesterone, whichcan alter tubal and uterine fluids, thicken cervical mucus, or disruptovulatory patterns to prevent pregnancy from occurring. IUDs arerecommended only for women who do not want any more children, haveat least one child, and are in a mutually monogamous relationship.→ Effectiveness: About 97%-99% effective against pregnancy.→ Cost: $250-$500 (10k)→ Advantages: Highly effective, long-term protection againstpregnancy, can work for up to eight years.→ Disadvantages: Higher risk of pelvic inflammatory disease,discomfort or cramping, does not protect against sexually transmittedinfections, increased chance of infertility.
O NorplantNorplant are thin capsules that contain synthetic hormonesthat are injected into a woman’s upper arm, where it releasessmall amounts of the hormones into the body for up to fiveyears. It prevents pregnancy by interfering with ovulation andby thickening the cervical mucus.→ Effectiveness: More than 99% effective in preventingpregnancy.→ Cost: Approximately $650 for five years (27k)→ Advantages: Birth control that lasts five years withouthaving to remember to take a pill, or interrupt sexual activity.→ Disadvantages: Costly, does not protect against sexuallytransmitted infections, requires prescription (must be insertedand removed by health professional), hormonal side effects.
OV aginal Ring→ a thin, transparent, flexible ring that you insert into thevagina to provide contraception protection. Leaving theVaginal Ring in for 3 weeks, it slowly releases estrogen andprogestin hormones into the body. These hormones stopovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, creating a barrier toprevent sperm from fertilizing an egg. The Vaginal Ring is 92-99.7% effective as birth control.→ Advantages : easy to use; can be worn for three weeks;effects fertility one month at a time;→ Disadvantages: does not protect against sexuallytransmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS; raised risk ofheart attack and stroke; requires a prescription.
O Emergency Pillprevent pregnancy after intercourse (also known as theMorning After Pill or EC). works by giving the body a short,high, burst of synthetic hormones. This disrupts hormonepatterns needed for pregnancy. Reduces the risk of pregnancyby 75 - 89%.→Advantages: can be used after intercourse; easily available ifyou are 17 or older; easy to use.→ Disadvantages: does not protect against sexuallytransmitted infections; must be taken within 120 hours ofunprotected vaginal intercourse; need prescription if you areunder 17 years old.
Barrier Methods physically prevent sperm from swimming into the uterus and fertilizing the woman’s eggO Male CondomCondoms (rubbers) are the only form of temporary birth control availablefor men. Condoms are thin latex sheaths that is placed over the penisduring intercourse and acts as a barrier to prevent sperm from entering thevagina.→ Effectiveness: The condom is 86% to 97% effective in preventingpregnancy. The failure rate of condom is usually due to human error,meaning that it was not used correctly and consistently. Condoms breakeasily if used with any oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or lotion.→ Cost: Approximately $0.50 to $2.00 per condom.→ Advantages: Available without a prescription, easy to obtain, alsoprotects against most sexually transmitted infections, no harmful sideeffects.→ Disadvantages: May interrupt spontaneity, may reduce sensation.
O Female Condoma thin, loose-fitting and flexible plastic tube worn inside thevagina. A female condom provides a barrier between partners toprevent sharing bodily fluids like semen, blood, or saliva. Femalecondoms are 79% effective.→ Cost: ranges from $2.50 to $5.00 each.→Advantages: prevents the spread of sexually transmittedinfections.; protects the vagina and vulva; does not reduce a malepartners stimulation; available without a prescription; no hormonalside effects; can be used by people with latex sensitivities;prelubricated and can be used with oil and water-based lubricants;erection not necessary to keep condom in place; does not affectfuture fertility.→ Disadvantages: noticeable during sex; sometimes difficult toinsert or use; does not contain spermicide; can break or leak; aboutthree times, more expensive than male condoms.
O Diaphragms or Cervical Capsact as a barrier to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Diaphragmsand cervical caps are inserted into the vagina up to 6 hours before sexualintercourse.→ Effectiveness: Between 80% and 94% effective against pregnancy,less effective for women who have had children.→ Cost: Fitting may cost between $50-$150, diaphragm or cervical capcan cost between $15-$30.→ Advantages: May be inserted into vagina 6 hours before intercourse,can last for several years if well cared for.→ Disadvantages: Must be re-sized if there is significant weight gainor loss, higher failure rate, may interrupt spontaneity, may cause bladderdiscomfort, no protection against sexually transmitted infections.
OSpongemade of plastic foam and contains spermicide. It is inserteddeep into the vagina before intercourse.O These are small polyurethane sponges, shaped to fit over the cervix. They are disposable, impregnated with spermicide and they have a tape allowing them to be removed easily. The sponge is moistened before insertion..O Introduced up to 24 hours before intercourse.O Pregnancy rates up to 25 per 100 women
Okills or disables sperm so that it cannot causepregnancy. Spermicides come in many different forms: foam, gel, cream,film, suppository, sponge. Spermicides are 71 to 82% effective as birthcontrol.→ Advantages: easy to buy in drugstores; comes in manyforms: cream, gel, foam, and inserts.→ Disadvantages: using spermicide may increase risk of HIVinfection, may irritate vagina or penis, may be messy.