Avifauna in Mt Kitanglad Range Natural Park

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General background of the area, important birds and mammal list including descriptions

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Avifauna in Mt Kitanglad Range Natural Park

  1. 1. Compiled by:Cindy B. BitangcorDepartment of Biological SciencesMSU-Iligan Institute of Technology
  2. 2. IBA Code: PH094Region: X –Bukidnon Province (Manolo Fortich, Sumilao, Impasugong, Malaybalay,Lantapan, Talakag, Baungon, Libona)Area: 31, 297 haCoordinates: 8˚06’N 124˚54’EAltitude: 700-2,938 m
  3. 3. General Description• “Kitanglad” - combination of Visayan words “kita” (to see) and “tanglad” (lemon grass), taken from a legend, which says that lemon grass was the only thing visible on top of the mountain as a great flood once submerged Bukidnon• declared a protected area through RA 8978, known as the Mt. Kitanglad Range Protected Area Act of 2000 and as an ASEAN Heritage Park in October 2009• Main peaks are Mt. Imbayao, Mt. Kaatoan, Mt. Nangkabulos, Mt. Dulang-Dulang and Mt. Kitanglad.• Mt Imbayao has the most extensive remaining lowland forest at 800- 200 m• Peak of Mt Kitanglad is denuded of vegetation because of a fire in 1983• Most important source of water of Bukidnon and Mis. Oriental
  4. 4.  Known mammal fauna: 58 species  natural habitat for several endemic mammals such as (DENR, 2013): Golden crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus) Mindanao moon rat (Podogymnura truei) Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus) Philippine tailless roundleaf bat (Coelops hirsutus) Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans) Philippine pygmy fruit bat (Haplonycteris fischeri) Phil. warty pig (Sus philippinensis) Mindanao tree shrew (Urogale everetti) Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta) Sustains substantial populations of: Mindanao Lorikeet Mindana Raquet-tail Mindana Scops-owl Slaty-backed Jungle-flycatcher Red-eared parrotfinch Apo Myna has record of the poorly known Whitehead’s swiftlet And supports important population of the Philippine Eagle
  5. 5. Conservation IssuesHuman activities severely impacting the area:• High value crop plantations• Kaingin• Small-scale logging• Establishment of buildings and roads for telecommunication and military campsOther issues:• Lack of security of tenure over the land• Fires from adjacent grasslands
  6. 6. AVES
  7. 7. Philippine Duck Anas luzonicaSeen in or near at the base of Mt. Kitanglad in 1994.Threat Category: VulnerableHabitat and Ecology: Philippine endemic. It frequents most in freshwater and saltwater habitats, including mangroves, open sea and watercourses inside forest. It appears to be sedentary although some seasonal aggregation occurs. It feeds on fish, shrimps, insects, rice and young vegetation.
  8. 8.  Recorded at several localities in or near to the Mt Kitanglad Range in the 1980s and 1990s including Manolo Fortich, Libona, Impasugong, Dalwangan (nesting), Kinabulan (nesting), Sangaya, Malaybalay Philippine and Dulang-dulang peak. Threat Category: Critically endangered Eagle Habitat and Ecology: Pithecophaga jefferyi Philippine endemic. It inhabits primary dipterocarp forest, particularly in steep terrain, sometimes frequenting secondary growth and gallery forest (but not occupying open canopy forest), from lowlands to at least 1,800 m. Estimates based on the distribution of nests in Mindanao suggest that each pair covers an average of 133 km2, including an average of 68 km2 of forest . In Mindanao, eagles begin nesting from September to December in primary and disturbed forest, with some differences in the timing of breeding between Mindanao and Luzon. A complete breeding cycle lasts two years, with successful pairs raising one offspring. Birds form a monogamous bond for life with sexual maturity for females at around five years and for males at around seven years (J. Ibanez in litt. 2008). The young fledge after 4-5 months, but stay in the nest vicinity for almost a year and a half.
  9. 9. Mindanao Brown-dove Phapitreron brunneiceps Specimens were collected on Mt. Imbayao and Mt. Nangkabulos in 1992 and 1993, and it was seen in MKRNP in 1995. Threat Category: Vulnerable Identification: Mindanao endemic. 27 cm. A medium-sized, generally brown-coloured dove. Brown head and neck with glossy reddish-violet patch on side of neck. Warm, dark brownish rest of upperparts. Paler tip to tail. Vinous-grey underparts, contrasting with buff undertail-coverts.
  10. 10. Spotted Imperial-pigeon Ducula carola Specimens were collected at Malaybalay in 1960, a sighting in 1997 but the species was not found during 1992-1993, and most suitable mid- altitude forest for this species may have been cleared. Threat Category: Vulnerable Identification: Philippine endemic. 33 cm. Small, imperial-pigeon. Male has pale grey head, neck and breast with white, crescent-shaped band across centre of breast. Blackish bar across lower breast, rest of underparts dark chestnut. Grey upperparts, tinged mauve, with dark spotting. Greenish-black flight feathers and tail. Whitish iris, reddish bill with paler tip, reddish legs. Female has darker head and underparts, lacking white breast-band and darker, mauvish-grey upperparts with more metallic gloss.
  11. 11. Mindanao Lorikeet Trichoglossus johnstoniae Many specimens were collected on Mt Kitanglad in 1967 and was seen on Mt Nangkabulos and at Dalwangan in 1980s and 1990s Threat Category: Near Threatened Identification: Mindanao endemic. 20 cm. Both adults in general green; pink/red forecrown and cheeks; band from lores to occiput dark purple; yellow underparts, scalloped with green; yellow/green underwing coverts and undertail coverts; underwing band yellow. Bill orange/red. Eye ring dark grey. Eye red.
  12. 12. Mindanao Racquet-tail Prioniturus waterstradti Many specimens collected on Mt Kitanglad, Mt nangkabulos, Mt Imbayao and Mt Dulang-dulang in 1993 and found to be fairly common in the 1990s. Threat Category: Near Thretened Identification: Mindanao endemic. 30 cm. Both adults-pale blue forehead to lores and beneath eyes; upperparts washed with brown; low back green/brown; belly olive/green; middle tail feathers green, "racquets" black, side tail feathers green tipped with black. Bill blue/grey. Eye dark brown.
  13. 13. Mindanao Scops-owl Otus mirus Seen on Mt Kitanglad, including on Mt nangkabulos by several observers in the 1990s. Threat category: Near Threatened Identification: Mindanao endemic. The owl’s greyish-brown head and upperparts are heavily marked with blackish streaks and blotches, and the whitish underparts are interlaced with a criss- crossed pattern of fine and heavy black lines. At the back of the neck a row of white spots form a distinct collar, and the whitish feathers at the shoulders form two prominent white lines. The ear tufts are reasonably small and whitish, the eyes are brownish-yellow and the bill is greenish-grey
  14. 14. Lesser Eagle-owl Mimizuku gurneyi  Specimens were collected in Mt Kitanglad as early as 1960s  Threat Category: Vulnerable  Identification: Philippine endemic. 30 cm. Medium-sized owl with well- developed ear-tufts. Dark eyes. Rufescent facial disc outlined in black, conspicuous white eyebrows. Rufescent-brown crown and upperparts with darker shaft streaks, barred flight feathers and pale line on scapulars. Whitish underparts, washed rufous with bold black streaks.
  15. 15. Phil. Eagle-owl Bubo philippensis Seen on Mt Kitanglad in 1987. Threat Category: Vulnerable Identification. Philippine endemic. 40 cm. Largish owl with small ear- tufts. Yellow eyes. Rufous-buff facial disc. Tawny-rufous crown and upperparts with conspicuous dark brown shaft-streaks. Dark brown wings and tail with buff barring. Whitish underparts, washed rufous especially on breast, with bold dark streaks. Subspecies B. p. mindanensis similar though darker.
  16. 16. Whitehead’s Swiftlet Collocalia whiteheadi Reported from Mt Kitanglad and Mt Nangkabulos in 1993 but the occurrence awaits definite confirmation Threat Category: Data Deficient Range Description: Collocalia whiteheadi is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from only four mountains, one on Luzon (nominate whiteheadi) and three on Mindanao (race origenis) (Collar et al. 1999). On Luzon, it was collected on Mt Data in 1895, but has not been recorded there subsequently. On Mindanao, it is known from Mt Apo in 1904 and Mt Kitanglad and Matutum in the 1990s, with specimens taken recently at an unnamed locality in South Cotabato (the same province as Mt Matutum). Population numbers are entirely unknown, partly as a result of the speciess apparent preference for relatively inaccessible areas and partly due to identification difficulties, even with birds in the hand.
  17. 17. Phil Needletail Mearnsia picina Seen on Mt Kitanglad in the 1990s Threat Category: Near Threatened Range Description: Mearnsia picina is endemic to the Philippines where it has been described as fairly common on Mindanao, Samar, Leyte, Biliran, Cebu and Negros, with a recent record from Tawitawi, but it appears to be scarce and local even at the best sites Habitat and Ecology: This species is apparently restricted to lowland forest, although little is known of its breeding habits or life history. It feeds high above forest, either alone or in small groups.
  18. 18. Silvery Kingfisher Alcedo argentata A reliable local report from Dalawagan in 1997, although little of the lowland forest habitat of this species remain. Threat Category: Vulnerable Identification. Philippine endemic. 14 cm. Tiny, black- and-white kingfisher. Blackish underparts, washed blue with white throat and belly. Black head and upperparts, white loral spot, spots on side of head forming streaky supercilium, neck blaze and median covert tips. Silvery-white rump and blaze on back. Bright red legs. Subspecies A. a. flumenicola smaller with purple-washed underparts and yellow throat, loral spot and neck blaze.
  19. 19. Blue-capped Kingfisher Actenoides hombroni  Seen on Mt Kitanglad by several observers in the 1990s.  Threat Category: Vulnerable  Identification: Mindanao endemic. 27 cm. Large, secretive, forest kingfisher. Male has bright blue cap and moustachial area, rufous-orange cheeks and underparts. Off- white throat, rest of underparts rufous- orange. Blue-green upperparts with small buff spots on scapulars and wing-coverts. Brighter blue rump and tail. Bright red bill. Female has drabber cap and moustachial area. Green upperparts with larger buff spots than male.
  20. 20. Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis Seen on Mt Kitanglad by many observers in the 1980s and 90s. Threat Category: Least Concern Habitat and Ecology: It is social and often seen in pairs of small groups. These birds are noisy and emit an incessant sound that sounds like ta-rik- tik, hence the name. Despite their noise they are difficult to find, being well camouflaged by the dense foliage. The principal food of Mindanao Hornbill is fruit. It also eats insects, beetles, ants,and earthworms (rarely)
  21. 21. Writhed Hornbill Aceros leucocephalus Specimens were collected from Mt Kitanglad in the 1960s and several indiciduals were heard on Mt Nangkabulos in 1993 Threat category: Near Threatened Range description: Aceros leucocephalus is endemic to the Philippines occurring on three islands, Mindanao and its two small satellites Camiguin Sur and Dinagat. It is poorly known, but considered locally fairly common in suitable habitat. Most records come from between 300 and 1,000 m in primary lowland forest.
  22. 22. Wattled Broadbill Eurylaimus steeri  Recorded in Mt Kitanglad in 1952  Threat Category: Vulnerable  Identification: Philippine endemic. 17 cm. Small, brightly coloured passerine. Black throat and face. Green eye surrounded by large, prominent sky-blue wattle. Large, broad, pale blue bill. Maroon-purple crown, bordered by white nuchal collar. Dark grey mantle, bright chestnut rump and tail. Black wings with prominent white and yellow bar across tertials and secondaries. Lilac underparts becoming yellowish-white on lower belly. Female as male but gleaming white breast and belly. Juvenile duller.
  23. 23. McGregor’s Cuckoo-shrikeCoracina mcgregori Specimens have been collected on Mt Kitanglad and Mt Kaatoan and Mt Imbayao most recently in 1992 and has been seen there including Mt Nangkabulos in 1980s and 1990s. Threat category: Near Threatened Range description: Mindanao endemic. It is described as common within the confines of its range and this is confirmed by the number of specimens obtained in short periods of time at various localities. This species inhabits montane-mossy forest and forest edge at 1,000 to 1,900 m.
  24. 24. Yellowish Bulbul Ixos everettiSpecimens were collected near this IBA at Mailag in the early 20th century.Threat Category: Least ConcernRange description: It is endemic to the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
  25. 25. Phil Leafbird Chloropsis flavipennisSpecimens were collected in Mt Kitanglad in 1951Threat Category: VulnerableIdentification: Philippine endemic. 18 cm. Small-medium, green, canopy- dwelling passerine. Entire plumage bright green except for yellow eye- ring, throat and line on closed wing formed by yellow primary fringes. Dark bill, iris and legs. Voice Short, loud melodious phrases such as whit- too-whee and see-tee-wee-oo.
  26. 26. Mountain Shrike Lanius validirostris  Specimens were collected on Mt Kitanglad in the 1960 and was seen there in 1990s.  Threat category: Near Threatened  Range description: Lanius validirostris is endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on Luzon (nominate validirostris, in Cordillera Central and Sierra Madre), Mindoro (race tertius) and Mindanao (race hachisuka, including on Mt Kitanglad, Civolig, Mt Malindang and Mt Apo)
  27. 27. Bagobo BabblerTrichastoma woodi Specimens have been collected in Dalwangan, Mt Nangkabulos and Mt Imbayao Threat Category: Least Concern Range description: Mindanao endemic. The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as probably common on all higher mountains in Mindanao.
  28. 28. Striated Wren-babbler Ptilocichla mindanensisSpecimens were collected in Mt Kitanglad in 1960 and has been seen in the 1990s.Threat Category: Least ConcernRange description: It is endemic to the Philippines. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
  29. 29. Pygmy Babbler Stachyris plateni Specimens were collected near to this IBA at Cabanglasan in 1951, and it was seen on Mt Kitanglad in 1987. Threat Category: Near Threatened Identification: Mindanao endemic. Small, sexes alike. Forehead, sides of face and chin black-brown with prominent white shaft streaks; hind neck, throat and upper breast red-brown with finer white shaft streaks, whole head and neck appear as a hood; back is olive brown with faint shaft streaks. The wings and tail are brown, edged with olive; lower belly and undertail white. Bill blue-grey with white tip. Eyes are lined by pinkish orange ring, becoming fainter in colour towards the pupil. Legs grey.
  30. 30. Miniature Tit-babblerMicromacronus leytensisSeen on Mt Kitanglad in 1995Threat Category: Data DeficientIdentification: Philippine endemic. Small in size with elongated, erectile feathers on back and sides. Sexes similar. Bill dark horn, lower mandible lighter. Eyes red; legs greenish- grey; toes straw yellow.
  31. 31. Long-tailed Bush-warblerBradypterus caudatusSpecimens were collected in Mt Kitanglad in1960, and it has been found to be common there in the 1990s.Threat Category: Least ConcernDescription: Philippine endemic. A species of grass warbler (family Locustellidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.
  32. 32. Rufous-headed Tailorbird Orthotomus nigriceps Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960, and it has been found to be common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: Mindanao endemic. A songbird species in the family Cisticolidae.
  33. 33. Slaty-backed Jungle-flycatcherRhinomyias goodfellowi  Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, Mt Imbayao and Mt Nangkabulos most recently in 1992, and it has been seen there in the 1990s.  Threat Category: Near Threatened  Description: a species of bird in the Muscicapidae family. It is endemic to the Philippines. The specific epithet honours British zoological collector Walter Goodfellow. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is becoming rare due to habitat loss.
  34. 34. Black-and-cinnamon Fantail Rhipidura nigrocinnamomea Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960, and it was found to be common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: Mindanao endemic. The population trend appears to be stable. The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common to very common within its tiny range
  35. 35. Whiskered Flowerpecker Dicaeum propium Seen on Mt Kitanglad range on the lower slopes of Mt Nangkabulos in 1993 Threat Category: Near Threatened Distribution and population: Dicaeum proprium is endemic to Mindanao, Philippines, where it is found at Mt Mayo, Mainit, Manticao, Misamis Oriental, Mt Kitanglad on the lower slopes of Mt Nangkabulos, Mt Piapayungan at Saronayan, Lumba-Bayabao, Mt Apo, Lake Sebu, Mt Matutum at Tupi, and Mt Sugarloaf at Burakan Hill. Although previously considered an uncommon, low-density species, and hence as threatened, recent evidence of its occurrence on Mt Kitanglad and on Mt Apo, Mindanaos two largest mountains, suggests that its overall numbers may be moderately high.
  36. 36. Olive-capped Flowerpecker Dicaeum nigrilore Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960 and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: a species of bird in the Dicaeidae family. It is endemic to the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
  37. 37. Grey-hooded Sunbird Aethopyga primigenius Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960 and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Near Threatened Distribution and population: This species is endemic to Mindanao, Philippines, where it is fairly common to common including on Mt Hilong-hilong (race diuatae), Mt Kitanglad, Civolig, Daggayan, Mt Lamut, Mt Apo and Lake Sebu
  38. 38. Apo Sunbird Aethopyga boltoni Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960 and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Near Threatened Description: is a species of bird in the sunbird family Nectariniidae. It is endemic to the island of Mindanao in the Philippines.Its natural habitat is tropical moist montane forest. The species is not yet threatened by habitat loss, and is common within its range, but it is listed as Near Threatened due to its tiny range.
  39. 39. Cinnamon Ibon Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960 and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: Monotypic endemic to the mountains of Mindanao. Its natural habitat is tropical moist montane forests and mossy forests above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).
  40. 40. Mountain Serin Serinus estherae Specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad, most recently in 1960 and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1990s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: a species of finch in the Fringillidae family. It is found in Indonesia and the Philippines. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and subtropical or tropical high- altitude grassland.
  41. 41. White-cheeked Bullfinch Pyrrhula leucogenis Specimens have been collected on Mt Kitanglad at Kaatoan, most recently in 1960, and it was found to be fairly common there in the 1980s and 90s. Threat Category: Least Concern Description: a species of finch in theFringillidae family. It is found only in the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
  42. 42. Red-eared Parrotfinch Erythrura coloria Many specimens have been collected in Mt Kitanglad and Mt Kaatoan, most recently in 1969, and it has been seen there, including at Mt Nangkabulos and Kinubalan, by several observers in the 1980s and 90s. Threat Category: Near Threatened Distribution and population: This species is endemic to Mindanao in the Philippines, where it is now known in: Mt Hilong-hilong; Mt Pasian, Mt Puting Bato, Mt Kitanglad, Mt Kaatoan, Mt Nangkabulos, and at Kinubalan. It is described as moderately common but very local, although is probably present on every mountain in central Mindanao. It is very unobtrusive and secretive, and its high-pitched call (typical of the genus) is easily overlooked. On voice, however, it appears to be not uncommon at Kitanglad.
  43. 43. Apo Myna Basilornis miranda Seen on Mt Kitanglad by several observers in the 1990s, and found to be numerous in high altitude forest. Threat category: Near Threatened Distribution and population: Basilornis mirandus is endemic to Mindanao, where it is common within suitable habitats, including at Daggayan, Mt Kitanglad and Mt Apo. This species is found above 1,250 m in forest and forest edge, even in cut-over areas.
  44. 44. MAMMALS
  45. 45. Phil Brown Deer Cervus mariannus Threat Category: Vulnerable Range description: This species is endemic to the Philippines, and occurs through most of the country except the Negros-Panay Faunal Region, the Babuyan/Batanes groups, the Palawan Faunal Region, the Sulu Faunal Region, and other isolated islets. Habitat and Ecology: This species formerly occured from sea-level up to at least 2,900 m asl in primary and secondary forest. The Mindoro subspecies also frequents open grasslands, where it may be able to persist. In general, however, this is a forest species, which forages in grassland.
  46. 46. Mindanao Gymnure Podogymnura trueiThreat Category: Least ConcernDescription: Mindanao gymnures are medium sized, ground dwellers with a body length of 130 to 150 mm. Their pelage is long, soft, and full. Mindanao endemic. The species is found in primary montane and mossy forest above 1,300 m up to 2,900 m.
  47. 47. Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis Threat Category: Least Concern Description: This is a widespread and often abundant species, and is sometimes commensal with humans. In the Philippines, it ranges from being locally common to uncommon, though this is largely dependent upon hunting pressure. The species is extremely tolerant of a range of habitats, including mangrove and swamp forests, and can be found in agricultural areas near forest
  48. 48. Bearded Pig Sus barbatus  Threat Category: Vulnerable  Description: The Bearded Pig has the slimmest torso and longest head of all the living pigs. Distinguishing characteristics include two pairs of warts on the face with the first pair covered by the beard hair, thin whiskers on the face, and a two-rowed tail tuft. It inhabit rainforests, mangrove thickets, and secondary forests.
  49. 49. Mindanao Tree Shrew Urogale everetti Threat Category: Least Concern Description: Urogale can easily be distinguished from other members of the Tupaiidae by its even-haired round tail and elongated snout. Furthermore, it has small zygomatic fenestra and large canine-like second incisors. The Philippine tree shrew is widely distributed on the Mindanao, Dinagat, and Siargao islands of the Philippines
  50. 50. Philippine Lemur Cynocephalus volans Threat Category: Least Concern Description: They are cat-sized and a little smaller than the Malaysian flying lemurs. Fur coloration is usually darker and less spotted than in the Malaysian species. They have huge eyes and faces that resemble those of Old World fruit bats. The head is broad, somewhat like a greyhounds in appearance, with rounded short ears and a blunt muzzle. The limbs are of equal length, with strong sharp claws for climbing, and the toes are connected by webs of skin.
  51. 51. Mindanao Flying Squirrel Petinomys crinitus Threat Category: Least Concern This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is found only in the Mindanao Faunal Region. Itis a ground squirrel and is found in lowlands to montane primary forest, although its abundance is higher in its preferred habitat (oak forest) at upper elevations. The habitat at that altitude is in pretty good shape since it is cold, wet, and difficult to access.
  52. 52. Mindanao Pygmy Fruit Bat Alionycteris paucidentata• Threat Category: Least Concern• Description: The Mindanao pygmy fruit bat is endemic to the Philippines where it is restricted to Mindanao on Mounts Kitanglad and Kalatungan where it occupies an elevational range of 1,500-2,250 m asl. Most records are from primary montane mossy forest, it is also present in secondary and primary montane forest but absent in lowland forest.
  53. 53. Kitanglad Shrew-mouse Crunomys suncoides Threat Category: Data Deficient Range and Description: The species is known only from a single specimen captured in April 1993 taken at 2,500 m on Mt. Kitanglad. This species is currently known only from the Kitanglad Range, though suspected to be more widespread in mossy forest on Mindanao. Habitat and Ecology: The individual was found in a primary mossy forest with little disturbance A semi- fossorial habit is inferred from a combination of external characters, including strong front feet with large claws, narrow head, tiny eyes, and dense, soft pelage.
  54. 54. REFERENCES http://www.iucnredlist.org http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu http://www.birdlife.org http://ibc.lynxeds.com http://www.arkive.org http://orientalbirdimages.org http://www.denr.gov.ph Haribon Foundation (1998); Heaney et al., (1993); Lambert (1993); NORDECO and DENR (1998); Peterson et al. (in prep); Rickart et al. (1998)

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