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Cimigo on vietnam residential energy use 2013

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A report on energy use and associated CO2 emissions in residential households in Vietnam. Based on a Cimigo nationwide online survey in March 2013 of 1,400 households. The report exploring residential dwellings and energy use by household and the impact of household composition, appliances and building materials. The report addresses the prevalence of conservation and attitudes to renewable energy.

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Cimigo on vietnam residential energy use 2013

  1. 1. Vietnam ResidentialEnergy UseEnergy use and associated CO2emissions in residentialhouseholds in VietnamCimigo Sustainable Futures AsiaRichard Burrage Matt Parkesrichardburrage@cimigo.com matt.parkes@sustainablefutures.asiawww.cimigo.com www.sustainablefutures.asiaMarch 2013
  2. 2. Contents About the authors 3 Why does residential energy use matter? 6 How did we understand energy use and CO2 emissions in Vietnamese homes? 11 How does residential energy use vary? 17 What impact do building materials have today? 30 Which energy conservation actions and attitudes prevail? 34 So what? 39 About Sustainable Futures Asia 44 About Cimigo 48 2
  3. 3. About the authors 3
  4. 4. Matt Parkes, Sustainable Futures Asia  Matt is the founder of Sustainable Futures Asia. He is a UK qualified Architect with an MSc in Climate Change and Sustainable Development.  Matt is involved with the UK Urban Development Working Group, working with the UKTI and British Council in promoting business and educational links between the UK and Vietnam. In March 2010 he was responsible for producing the British Council / UKTI’s ‘Sustainable Design & Architecture Conference’ that was held in Ho Chi Minh City.  He is now leading a PhD research project with The Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development at De Montfort University, UK, looking at developing new models of low cost, energy self- sufficient, sustainable housing for south east Asian countries, focusing on Vietnam.  Matt moved to Vietnam in 2004, and prior to that has lived and worked in the UK and Hong Kong. 4
  5. 5. Richard Burrage, Cimigo Richard Burrage has twenty one years of experience in market research and strategic consulting. Richard has worked across Asia Pacific consulting across a range of industries and business issues. Richard has spent the last sixteen years in Vietnam assisting in the development and building of numerous brands to achieve leadership positions. Richard is a UK national and resides in HCMC with his Vietnamese wife and their children. Richard founded Cimigo in 2003 and today has offices across eight countries in Asia. 5
  6. 6. Why does residential energy use matter? 6
  7. 7. Increased energy demand – 800 Twh in 2030 Population (Million) Total mtCO2e (Million) 800140,000 700 Base Demand TWh120,000 600100,000 500 80,000 400 60,000 300 40,000 200 20,000 100 0 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Historic and Future Energy Demand - 1990 to 2030 Vietnam population and CO2 emission yearly growth (Historic data – Tuyen & Michaelowa, 2004; (Population data - ADB, 2009; mt/CO2/capita – UNdata, 2009) Future projections – Cuong, 2011) 7
  8. 8. 37% is residential. US$124 billon investment required. Coal Gas Oil Hydro The estimated total investment Nuclear Diesel Renewables Imports capital required up to 2030 = US$123.8 Billion 80 (MONRE, 2011) 70 Industry Residential Other Buildings Urban Infrastructure Others 60 2% 4% 50% Contribution 40 20% 37% 30 20 10 37% 0 1995 2000 2010 2020 2030 Energy use by type Historic and Future % Fuel Contribution to Energy Generation - 1995 to 2030 (Energy Conservation Centre of HCMC: 2010) (Historic data – Tuyen & Michaelowa, 2004; Future projections – Cuong, 2011) 8
  9. 9. Which levers can be used to adjust energy use? • Consumer habits. • Extent of use of passive architecture. • Use of high efficiency energy generation and management systems. 9
  10. 10. Residential dwellings in Vietnam Villas Row Houses Apartments 10
  11. 11. How did we understand energy use and CO2 emissions in Vietnamese homes? 11
  12. 12. Cimigo interviewed 1,394 households nationwide This is a part of the Cimigo giving back programme which includes; Vietnamese Attitudes to Philanthropy, Vietnam’s NetCitizens and so much more, available at www.cimigo.com. Cimigo conducted a nationwide online survey in March 2013. Survey evaluation (N=1,394) 86% positive towards the survey (scored 6-10) 0 11 3 10 9 19 23 17 16 Extremely Boring 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Extremely Interesting 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 12
  13. 13. Understanding dwellings and households therein Interviewing predominantly Household energy survey - sample distribution % (n=1394) urban (87%) and ABC South 54% economic (93%) households Region across 59 provinces. North 36% Central 10%  ABC economic Row house 69% households account for Dwelling Apartment the top 65% of 29% household wealth Villa house 2% distribution. Own or rent Own 78% Rent The mean average 22% households sharing a # of Hholds/dwelling 1 household 52% dwelling is 2.3. 2 - 3 households 28% Mean 2.3 Hholds 4+ households 20% 13
  14. 14. Exploring single household size and structure Household size and materials % (n=1394) Understanding the building 100 or less 57% materials of the dwelling. Sq m / Hhold 101 - 250 30% Mean 136 sqm More than 250 13% 1 floor 30% # of floors Note the average row house 2 floors 31% Mean 2.3 floors dwelling is; 3+ floors 39% 1 - 3 rooms 32%  Width mode 4 metres # of rooms Mean 4.7 rooms 4 - 5 rooms 37%  Depth mode 20 metres 6 - 7 rooms 8+ rooms 20% 12%  Floors mode 2 Corrugated iron 43% Roof materials Cement 42%  Mean Sq metres 210 Tiles 12% Other 3% Wood 1% The mean average Brickwork Floor materials Wall materials 67% apartment dwelling is 60 sq Cement 29% Steel 2% metres on a single level. Wood 1% Ceramic tiles tile 83% Cement 10% Wood 5% Other 1% 14
  15. 15. Per household space and key appliances Household size and appliances % (n=1394) As dwellings are typically Sq m / Hhold 100 or less 57% shared the mean average size 101 - 250 30% of one household is: Mean 136 sqm More than 250 13% 1 - 3 people 35% # of people /  Row house is 167 sqm. Hhold 4 people 30% Mean 4.2 people  Apartment 50 sqm. 5+ people 34% # of electrical < 20 items 88% appliances 20 - 40 items 11% The survey drilled down to Ventilation open to air 79% one household, their No aircon 52% appliances and energy use. Air-con 1 aircon 28% 2 or more aircon 20% Penetration of appliances PC, Laptop Tablet 91% Washing machine 72% Electric water heater 51% Ceiling fan 45% Solar water heater 10% Electric bicycle 8% 15
  16. 16. Household durable penetration Household durable penetration (n=1394)100 94 94 3.00 91 91 89 Incidence % 90 87 86 Mean (inc. 0) 2.51 2.50 80 2.39 72 70 67 2.05 2.00 60 1.64 51 48 50 45 1.50 40 37 1.16 .97 .95 1.00 30 23 .74 .78 .78 .74 20 .66 10 .50 .38 8 7 10 4 .23 .11 .09 .08 .04 0 .00 16
  17. 17. How does residential energy use vary? 17
  18. 18. Electricity bill is 11% of household expenditure Monthly electricity and household expenditure VND (n=1394) Mean monthly VND electricity bill / household Mean other household VND expenditure / month Electricity % of household expenditure 6,000,000 606,142 624,562 12% 565,758 11% 11% 529,284 5,000,000 11% 461,777 11% 379,511 4,000,000 11% 11% 4,875,118 3,000,000 4,728,298 4,577,512 4,447,336 4,129,043 10% 10% 3,443,589 10% 2,000,000 10% 1,000,000 - 9% Total Apartment Row house North Central South 18
  19. 19. 2.15 t-CO2 / household / annum Variance in CO2 emmissions by household % (n=1,394) t-CO2 / household / annum t-CO2 / person in Hhold / annum 2.50 2.33 2.15 2.03 2.00 1.55 1.50 1.00 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.50 0.41 - Total South North Central 19
  20. 20. 3,722 KWH / household / annum Variance in electricity use by household % (n=1,394) 4,500 4,042 4,000 3,722 kWh/ household / annum 3,530 kWh / person in Hhold / annum 3,500 3,000 2,689 2,500 2,000 1,500 971 1,063 905 1,000 717 500 - Total South North Central 20
  21. 21. Factors to interrogate Total Total Roof materials Corrugated iron Dwelling Apartment Roof materials Cement Dwelling Row house Roof materials Tiles Dwelling Villa house Wall materials Cement Region North Wall materials Brickwork Region Central Floor finish Ceramic tiles Region South Floor finish Cement Strata City Exposed ventilation Yes Strata Rural Exposed ventilation No SEC AB # of electronic appliances <20 SEC C # of electronic appliances 20-40 Ownership Rent Electric heated water Washing clothes Ownership Own Electric heated water Washing in kitchen Household per dwelling Only 1 Electric heated water Washing in bathroom Household per dwelling 2 to 3 Cooking with electric Cooking with Electric Household per dwelling 4 or more Ceiling fans Ceiling fans People in household 3 or less Aircon No Aircon People in household 4 Aircon 1 Aircon People in household 5 or more Aircon 2 or more Aircon Sq meter of each household 100 or less Electric usage Electric water heater Sq meter of each household 101-250 Electric usage Solar water heater Sq meter of each household More than 250 Electric usage PC, laptop or tablet Floors 1 Floor Electric usage Electric heated water machine Floors 2 Floors Electric usage Electric bicycle Floors 3+ Floors Water source Tap Number of rooms 1-3 rooms Water source Tap & Well Number of rooms 4-5 rooms Water source Well only Number of rooms 6-7 rooms Number of rooms 8 or more 21
  22. 22. Most efficient have shared dwellings and large households Less living space per person provides more energy efficiency. Electricity efficiency is greatest in dwellings that have:  Multiple households (and hence shared recourses)  Large household sizes (4 plus)  Yet demographic trends to less households/dwelling and less people per household. Rural households and households relying on well water are more efficient.  Yet demographic trends are to urbanisation. Natural climate sees reduced use in Central followed by the North. Usage is highest in the South. Smaller structures are more efficient. Apartments followed by row houses with fewer rooms (and floors) use less. Renters are more efficient than home owners. 22
  23. 23. Least efficient have small households and air con Small households with three or less members are particularly inefficient users. Air conditioning has a massive impact on energy use. Inefficient households have larger homes (250 sqm +), 3 or more floors, many rooms and multiple air conditioners. Cooking with electricity and electric water heaters also increase use significantly. Solar water heaters have low penetration at 10%. However 3 in 10 households with a solar water heater also have an electric heater. 23
  24. 24. Rural dwellings, in central Vietnam with no air con fair best Factors which lower electricity use by 8% or more of average (All dwellings n=1,394) People in Household per People in Number of Strata Water source Region Aircon household dwelling Floor finish Ownership Dwelling household rooms Apartment 1-3 rooms No Aircon 5 or more 4 or more Well only Cement Central Rural Rent 4 30% 22% 20% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 10% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 -7% 0% -5% -9% -8% -10% -15% -15% -9% -20% -15% -17% -15% -26% -19% -19% -19% -25% -30% -31% -23% -29% -28% -27% -35% -40% 24
  25. 25. Many rooms, many air cons and small households fair worst Factors which increase electricity use by 8% or more of average (All dwellings n=1,394) Sq meter of each Cooking with # of electronic People in Number of Electric usage household Region Aircon Electric usage Floors electric appliances household Aircon rooms Cooking with Electric Electric water heater Solar water heater 2 or more Aircon More than 250 8 or more 3+ Floors 1 Aircon 3 or less 20-40 South 60% 52% 53% 52% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 50% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 40% 35% 35% 25% 25% 26% 30% 26% 23% 18% 20% 14% 11% 11% 14% 9% 9% 9% 8% 12% 10% 5% 0% -10% -20% -18% 25
  26. 26. Row houses: Renters, with large households and no air confair well Factors which lower electricity use by 8% or more of average (Row houses n=961) People in Household per Number of People in Strata Region Water source Ownership household Aircon dwelling rooms household Region 4-5 rooms No Aircon 5 or more 4 or more Well only Central North Rural Rent 420% 17%10% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 0% -9% -7% -5% -5%-10% -9% -9% -8% -19%-20% -17% -22% -28% -21% -21% -23%-30% -32% -25% -30% -30% -34%-40% 26
  27. 27. Row houses: small households and air con fair badly Factors which increase electricity use by 8% or more of average (Row houses n=961) # of electronic Region Floors Electric usage Cooking with electric appliances Number of rooms Aircon People in household Cooking with Electric Solar water heater 2 or more Aircon 8 or more 3+ Floors 3 or less 20-40 South 50% 46% 44% 46% 40% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 35% 32% 33% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 30% 23% 21% 20% 20% 16% 10% 13% 10% 9% 13% 8% 0% -10% -13% -20% 27
  28. 28. Apartments: large households, no air con fair well Factors which lower electricity use by 8% or more of average (Apartments n=410) People in household Aircon Household per dwelling No Aircon 5 or more 4 or more 40% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 30% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 20% -4% 10% 0% 32% -11% -10% -17% -18% -20% -16% -30% 28
  29. 29. Apartments: with air con, electric cooking and smallhouseholds fair badly Factors which increase electricity use by 8% or more of average (Apartments n=410) Number of People in Electric heated Household per Cooking with Region Water source Roof materials rooms Electric usage household water dwelling electric Aircon Cooking with Electric Electric water heater Washing clothes Corrugated iron 6-7 rooms 1 Aircon 3 or less South 2 to 3 Tap 40% 32% 30% 27% 21% 18% 20% 16% 19% 14% 9% 10% 10% 18% 18% 8% 9% 10% 13% 14% 7% 8% 5% 0% -10% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 -20% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 -22% -30% 29
  30. 30. What impact do building materials have today? 30
  31. 31. Building materials today have limited influence For row houses the optimal material (amongst existing use) is cement for roof, walls and flooring. For apartments the optimal materials (amongst existing use) are cement for roof, and brick for walls. 31
  32. 32. Row houses: limited influence – cement most efficient Building material impact (Row houses n=961) Dwelling Roof materials Corrugated iron Roof materials Roof materials Wall materials Wall materials Floor finish Floor finish Ceramic tiles Row house Brickwork Cement Cement Cement Tiles 8% 6% 5% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 4% 4% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% -1% 0% -2% -2% -1% -1% -2% -4% -6% -6% -6% -8% -8%-10% 32
  33. 33. Apartments: cement roof and brick walls fair well Building material impact (Apartments n=410) Dwelling Roof materials Roof materials Wall materials Wall materials Floor finish Corrugated iron Ceramic tiles Apartment Brickwork Cement Cement 12% 10% 10% kWh / household / annum: index to average base=0 8% kWh / person in Hhold / annum: index to average base=0 6% 5% 5% 4% 2% 4% 2% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% -3% -2% -2% -4% -6% -5% 33
  34. 34. Which energy conservation actions and attitudes prevail? 34
  35. 35. Growing vegetables and compost actions Households that are rural, in Renewable actions % (n=1394) the central region and use 0 20 40 60 80 100 well water are more likely to Total 47 40 exhibit renewable Apartment 42 Grow vegetables or herbs at home 35 behaviours in the home. 48 Use food and vegetable waste for Row house composting or animal feed 42 North 48 45 Even 1 in 3 inhabiting Central 66 57 apartments are active. 42 South 34 City 42 34 Rural 76 76 Rent 33 31 Own 51 43 Tap 41 35 Tap & Well 45 39 Well only 68 64 35
  36. 36. Recycling waste and rain water harvesting actions Recycling is common for 4 in Recycling actions % (n=1394) 10 households. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Total 45 22 Households that are rural Apartment 23 47 Separate recyclable waste from non-recyclable waste and use well water are more Row house 21 44 Capture rain water and use it for likely to harvest rain water. North 25 49 cooking, washing, flushing or garden watering Central 42 27 Even 1 in 5 inhabiting South 18 43 apartments harvest rain City 45 18 water. 46 Rural 43 Rent 50 20 Own 44 22 Tap 45 18 Tap & Well 45 20 Well only 41 32 36
  37. 37. Strong comprehension of renewable energy benefits Nearly all are aware of 97% are aware of renewable energies Perceived benefits of renewable energies % (n=1394) renewable energy sources. 0 50 100 Comprehension of Better for the environment 90 environmental impact and potential energy bill savings They will reduce my energy bills 79 is high. They are safer 54 They are better for my familys health 47 They are more reliable 21 They will save me time 17 I dont know 1 37
  38. 38. Barriers are design build, cost and knowledge 97% are aware of renewable energies Reasons for not using % (n=1394) 0 20 40 60 My home was not designed for these types of … 44 They are expensive to buy 30 I dont know how 30 These energy sources are not popular in homes 27 I don’t have the time to organise this 23 These energy sources are not convenient 16 I rent my home and can not take action 16 I live in an apartment and con not take action 16 The weather is not right for this type of energy 8 I am not convinced they will save me money 6 I do not trust these energy sources 3 I dont know 2 They are not reliable sources of energy 2 I am not convinced they will help the environment 2 They are not safe sources of energy 2 38
  39. 39. So what? 39
  40. 40. Household energy efficiency will decline without action1. The most energy efficient households have shared dwellings and large households. The least efficient have small households and air conditioning.2. The most energy efficient households which exist today are declining. They are a factor of a low living space per person.3. The desire to live in urban Vietnam, in single household dwellings, with less generations and hence a shrinking household size, is not a new phenomena.4. Increasing economic progress will only increase demands for energy sapping durables and devices, straining available energy resources.5. The building materials used to date have limited influence on household energy efficiency.6. Consumers have a strong comprehension of renewable energy benefits. However the barriers are design, build, cost and knowledge. 40
  41. 41. Design, build, access, incentive and education1. More energy efficient design to reduce energy resources for cooling particularly.2. More efficient building design and materials which enable dwellings to absorb, retain, and release, at the appropriate times, radiate heat.3. Residential access to and business incentives to provide renewable resources in new built homes.4. Residential access to and incentives to convert to more efficient cooling/heating. Access encompasses availability and affordability (possibly financing).5. Raising consumer knowledge and demonstrating household costs savings are both critical. 41
  42. 42. What next…1. A nationwide standard method of survey measurement and benchmarking needs to be established.2. Promote greater transparency and sharing of data, making it more readily available to research institutions, corporate bodies and individuals who are looking to carry out research that support the development aims for Vietnam.3. Build an educational campaign to promote comprehension of and accessibility to the 1. efficient use of existing energy, 2. conversion to more efficient energy sources and 3. new design and build models.4. Establish a new public/private sector project, aimed at developing energy efficient housing models, against which future developments can be measured. 42
  43. 43. Download your copy at www.cimigo.com cimigo.com The Voice of the Customer 43
  44. 44. About Sustainable Futures Asia 44
  45. 45. Professional ‘sustainability’ servicesSustainable Futures Asia (SFA) was established in 2011 toprovide professional sustainability services throughout the SouthEast Asia region.SFA provide services in three key areas:• Project Consulting – assisting governments and private enterprise in reviewing existing, and developing new economically sustainable business strategies.• Architecture & Urbanism – providing sustainable design solutions, either leading or as part of the client design team, including VGBC Lotus accreditation services.• Knowledge Creation – carrying out research in to sustainability issues, and organising sustainability conferences and other knowledge sharing events. www.sustainablefutures.asia 45
  46. 46. Founding members Matt Parkes RIBA Matt is a UK registered architect who has worked in Vietnam since 2004, having previously lived and worked in the UK and Hong Kong. With an MSc in Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Matt is now undertaking PhD research into new models of sustainable housing here in Vietnam. Dr Vu Thi Hong Hanh Hanh is a Vietnamese registered architect who has lived and worked in Vietnam, Australia and the United Kingdom, completing her MSc in Melbourne, Australia and her PhD in Oxford, UK. Hanh teaches at the Ho Chi Minh City University of Architecture. 46
  47. 47. Recent clients include Partner organisations Khai Duong Joint Stock Company 47
  48. 48. About Cimigo 48
  49. 49. Starting 10 years ago in Vietnamwe’ve expanded to... India Hong Kong IndonesiaVietnam ChinaSingapore Philippines We now have the privilege of representing 3 billion customers 49
  50. 50. From sevenmain cities in Vietnam… 50
  51. 51. Cimigo’s extensive set of resources and expertise... 5 Call Centres 130 Full-time staff Online Panels 45 Consultants Face-to-face 12 Qualitative Specialists 650 Fieldworkers…put the consumer into the boardroom to deliver consumer-rooted growth 51
  52. 52. Cimigo delivers a full range of services to ensure yourbusiness remains connected to your consumers 1. Consulting Services Motivational research Market trackingMarket scoping and segmentation Product optimisation Concept testing Brand equity New product development Touch point management Brand positioning Customer loyalty 2. Research Services Ethnography Telephone interviewing Accompanied shopping Street intercepts In-depth interviewing Mystery shopping Focus groups On line surveys Vox pops Social media tracking 52
  53. 53. Cimigo for Brand ValueAnd for stronger consumer engagement &intelligence. www.facebook.com/CimigoVietnam www.linkedin.com/company/cimigo @cimigovietnam 53
  54. 54. Thank YouCimigo Sustainable Futures AsiaRichard Burrage Matt Parkesrichardburrage@cimigo.com matt.parkes@sustainablefutures.asiawww.cimigo.com www.sustainablefutures.asiaMarch 2013

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