Belarus Potential of Becoming Europe's Silicon Valley By 2015


Published on

Ciklum has reviewed recent Belarus ICT and Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) achievements as well as plans for the future innovative development in order to assess the feasibility of its declared strategic goal of becoming Europe's Silicon Valley by 2015

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Belarus Potential of Becoming Europe's Silicon Valley By 2015

  1. 1. www.ciklum.comWHITE PAPER | BY CIKLUM | MAY 2012 Want to read more? Visit our Knowledge Center and Ciklum Blog
  2. 2. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! The Belarusian government has repeatedly announced its ambitious goal of converting Belarus into the European “Silicon Valley” by 2015. To reach it, the country’s policy makers have already made some significant steps aimed to: Executive Summary | 1  Better promote Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Introduction | 2 education among today’s students and graduates Belarus Unique Selling Points | 4  Re-train and upgrade the existing pool of specialists with science, technology, economics and math (STEM) skills to meet the future 1. Geographical Location | 4 internal and external demand for ICT professionals 2. Education | 4  Align ICT educational programs with the real-life needs of the 3. Technology Parks | 6 business and technology environments  Innovate and modernize ICT infrastructure 4. Competence & Cost of IT Resources | 9  Attract more foreign investors by offering favorable taxation and pricing conditions Conclusion | 11 References | 12 Ciklum has reviewed recent Belarus ICT and Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) achievements as well as plans for the future industry development in order to assess the feasibility of its strategic goal. In particular, Ciklum’s research has focused on the three key areas, which are: education, Technology Parks, and competences and costs of IT resources.CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 1 | of 14
  3. 3. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! Research and Development (R&D) and IT, even though it is rarely mentioned in the official global industry ratings. Since 2005 Belarus hasIn the recent years the Belarusian ITO market has been developing at a made and continues to make important steps towards becoming a true e-fast pace, with: country with a well-developed ICT infrastructure, well-promoted ICT education, best-on-market IT resources and innovative ICT projects for  24% - 28% growth rate on a year-on-year (YOY) basis (since both private and public sectors – steps that other officially recognized 2009), Central and Eastern European (CEE) hubs have not even planned yet.  25% revenue increase, and 1  Market volume assessed at $384 million (as of 2011) (see Fig. Figure 1: Belarus’ ITO Market Growth Compared to 2 1 ). Other Central Eastern European CountriesIn the 2011 “Analysis of Belarus as an Offshoring Destination” Gartnerconcluded: “A strong education system and cost-competitive salaries, together with a reasonably strong workforce, have enabled Belarus to develop a mature IT outsourcing industry, supporting the country as an alternative destination for offshore activities, especially software 3 development.”While being one of the most controversial countries in Europe, oftentimesreferred to as a “dictatorship”, over the past few years Belarus hasmanaged to become one of the most powerful hotspots for the outsourced *Expected growth as of end of 20101 ITO News, 20122 Analysis Case Study, 20113 Park.By, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 2 | of 14
  4. 4. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! 6 region . According to the Forbes Magazine, per capita income from ITTable 1: Belarus at a Glance: services export in Belarus exceeds that of Russia and Ukraine . 7Politics, Economics and ICT Climate Belarus is ranked 56 by the ICT price basket, leaving behind such EU # of Scientific-Production Centers - 56Population – 9.6, of which 1.9 m reside states as Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia, and Czech Republic and countries # of Research Organizations – 295in the capital city of Minsk (2009 # of Technology Transfer Centers – 24 8 like Argentina, Brazil, India, China, and Mexico . In the 2011 Ease-of-census) 4 # of business incubators - 9 Doing-Business Rating Belarus has climbed up by 22 positions fromGDP (PPP) (as est. 2011): 9 2010 . These and other indicators already put Belarus in an equal position State funding of the innovativeTotal - $141.771 billion 5 programs (2011-2015) – USD 4,75 bnPer Capita - $15,028 with other CEE ITO leaders such as Ukraine, Hungary, Romania or Poland. The Belarusian government has ambitious goals of expanding theSoft-authoritarian presidential republic IT Services market is consolidated, as it(no political buzz, no political forces is mainly represented by large service pool of ICT resources from today’s 25,000 up to 300,000 and increasingcompeting at high level) with Alexander providers focused on mid- to long-termLukashenko being the president since partnerships with the Western significantly the ICT readiness by 2015.1994 European and US clients The questions that Ciklum intends to answer with this Review are:The fact that many international giants such as Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, 1. Whether Belarus competitive advantages are strong enough toSiemens, T-Mobile, Alcatel, Coca-Cola, Philips, SAP as well as leading make these set goals feasible.innovative niche players such as eBuddy and Steely Eye have entered the 2. Whether or not the launched and/or planned initiatives areBelarusian ITO market in recent years proves Belarus’ ability to offer sufficient enough to turn Belarus into the Central and Easternrobust technology solutions and qualified resources comparable to the European “Silicon Valley” in the years to come.leading recognized ITO hubs.Today’s Belarus ICT Talent pool is assessed at 25,000 specialists, whichmakes it one of the largest pools in the Central and Eastern European 6 IT Strana, 2011 74 Park.By, 2012 8 Belarus Innovation Performance Review, 2011 SBBA, 20125 9 Ibid., 2012, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 3 | of 14
  5. 5. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! Foreigners visiting Belarus require a visa (only the CIS countries’ residents are exempt from it): a single entry visa can be obtained right at the airport upon arrival, while a multiple entry visa (up to 12 months) should be obtained at the Belarus Embassy beforehand.When the Belarusian government initiated the first High-Tech Park (see p.6 “Technology Parks”) in the mid-2000s, it launched a massive promo 10campaign under the slogan “Silicon Valley of Belarus” . After therespective Decree “On Belarus High-Technology Park” had been signed Back in the USSR times, Belarus was a hotspot for civil and militaryby the President in 2005, the government announced its ambitious plans software development, robotics, artificial intellect, distributed computingto gradually convert the entire country into the European “Silicon Valley”. networks and other high-tech solutions. As a result, the independentWith this and other initiatives to be discussed below in this Review Belarus Belarus has inherited an excellent technical education system which ishas “opened a door” for foreign companies to come in and use its ITO being strongly supported by the government. As of today, Belarus has 34potential. universities and higher degree institutions that graduate 16,000 ICT 12 specialists annually .Having analyzed the most up-to-date analytics related to Belarus ICT andITO markets, Ciklum has determined four unique selling points (USPs) that In an effort to modernize the technical education system and alignare likely to help convert Belarus into the Europe’s “Silicon Valley” in the educational programs with the real-life business needs, in 2010 thenear future. Belarusian government together with the state telecom companies initiated the ambitious project called “IT Country”. The project’s key goal is to boost the development of the Belarusian ICT market by creating a pool of overBelarus has a favorable geographical location, especially for the European 300,000 IT specialists and generating around $7 billion in annual profit by 13customers. It takes only 2 hours to get to Minsk from Paris, Frankfurt, 2015 . 11Vienna, and less than 3 hours from Rome, London and Madrid by air .10 12 Belarus Time, 2006 GoalEurope, 201211 13 High-Tech Park, 2012 IT-Strana.By, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 4 | of 14
  6. 6. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! The following are some of the most robust initiatives under the “IT Country” Project aimed at improving and fostering ICT education amongTable 2: Belarusian Education and IT Talent Pool the Belarusian youth. Education IT Resources55 universities # of ICT graduates annually – 16,000 1. To create a vast pool of ICT resources, the project initiators are attracting more students and graduates to get / improve the requiredAll high-tech educational programs are IT Talent pool – 25,000being implemented and adjusted in ICT skills by offering innovative short-term training and re-trainingaccordance with the National Program IT Talent employed by ITO sector – 20,000 programs (one to eight weeks in duration) as well as longer-termof Accelerated Development of ICTServices 2011-2015 Resource pool in Minsk – 15,000 modular programs. They also foster competition among different higher degree institutions to ensure a better quality of the obtainedIn 2011 Belarus applied to join the Global rating by the number of theEuropean Higher Education Area (the most Master-Level certified IT expertise. Another step planned by the “IT Country” project is to re-Bologna Declaration) to speed up the specialists – 6 (out of 50)14delivery of ICT graduates to employers train people with engineering and accounting backgrounds to gain theand improve foreign language skills most demanded technology skills. This initiative is supposed to addamong students value to other projects (listed below) aimed to provide a sufficientIn 2011 Belarus joined forces with QAI IT skills available – all mainstream 16 workforce supply level for the future ITO industry .Global Institute (USA) to upgrade the (PHP, .Net, ASP.Net, C#, C++, Java),standards of ICT education and launch SAP and mobile (iPhone, Android,over 70 new programs focusing on IT Blackberry, Windows Mobile)project management, business 2. A huge milestone achieved within the “IT Country” Project is theanalysis and intelligence, and more establishment of the IT Academy, an international training and R&DIn 2011 Belarus signed a Master-Level Skills - COM/DCOM center. The Center determines the future strategy of the ICT marketMemorandum of Cooperation with (Visual Basic), JAVA (Corba), DB2Magna Carta College (UK) allowing programming & administration, JCL, development, requirements for knowledge levels and skills, and alsoBelarusian IT specialists to gain Oracle, SAP, etc.15 ensures an appropriate knowledge exchange among national andinternational IT Master’s Degrees foreign students and certified specialists. Today, the IT Academy is the14 Brainbench, 201215 16 Ibid., 2012 Lenta.Ru, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 5 | of 14
  7. 7. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! only educational center in Belarus that prepares business analysts for 17 ICT sphere .3. The prospective milestone to be met in the near future within the “IT Country” Project is the establishment of the IT Test Center that will develop special tests and metrics to better determine IT specialists’ levels of qualification as well as solutions to effectively re-direct them to innovative areas and technologies.4. In October 2011 the Belarusian Ministry of Education and QAI Global Institute (Orlando, USA), the world’s leading provider of express IT training programs, joined forces to create conditions for introduction and implementation of the leading international ICT training programs Minsk Independence Square and certifications. The agreement signed by both parties envisions joint seminars and other educational events dedicated to software development project management, QA and testing, business analysis, processes’ maturity, competence assessment, teamwork and Belarus is currently home to two Technology Parks: the High-Tech Park 18 collaboration, and other important topics . and the Infopark. They both aim to provide a solid legislative, administrative and economic base for the future development of theIt is expected that these and other initiatives will help promote ICT national ICT and IT Outsourcing industrieseducation among the Belarusian youth and significantly increase thesupply of qualified IT resources for both domestic ICT and ITO industries 3.1. Belarus’ High-Tech Park (HTP) is a growing hub for bothin the years to come. domestic and international IT and software companies that was founded in 2005 after President Lukashenko had signed a respective Decree. HTP17 was established to: Park.By, 201218 IT-TUT.By, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 6 | of 14
  8. 8. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! January 1,2012), execute orders for customers from 52 countries  Foster development of modern software and other ICT solutions in worldwide, including Russia, the United States, Germany, the United 21 22 order to increase the national economic competitiveness on the Kingdom, Czech Republic and others . According to the HTP statistics , global scale, of 80% of the exported software produced in the Park, 45% account for North America, 30% account for Western  Create favorable conditions to attract foreign investments and European countries, and 20% - for Russia and CIS countries. increase the volume of the exported technology solutions, and 19  Improve innovation and entrepreneurship policy and regulation Belarus’ HTP is an important contributor to the development and implementation of the “IT Country” Project. It cooperates actively with all of Currently, HTP offers economic the major higher education institutions, supports 30 research labs all over incentives to its 109 members Belarus, and promotes ICT professions among primary school students. such as exemption from corporate taxes and customs 3.2. The Infopark is Belarus’ Scientific and Technological Association duties and a fixed 9% income that stimulates and fosters cooperation between local IT business and tax for all employees until 2020. Universities, interacts with permanent government commissions to As a result of this, international improve regulations in the national IT sphere, and helps connect giants such as Microsoft, Cisco Belarusian IT companies with prospective customers both within andSystems, Honeywell and other Fortune 500 and 100 companies entered outside Belarus.HTP in 2010 and 2011. Today, 50% of all HTP members are companieswith foreign capital. In 2011 the HTP residents exported $225 million worth Unlike the High-Tech Park thatof products and services, which accounted for 85% of the total HTP mainly represents the interests of 20output . The HTP software production volume increased by 199% foreign IT companies doing business in Belarus, the Infopark focusesbetween January and September 2011, compared to the same period in more on supporting the domestic ICT business and ensures2010. The HTP resident companies, employing 12,000 people (as of implementation of the governmental innovation programs and initiatives.19 21 Korrespondent, 2005 BELTA, 201120 22 Centre for eGovernance Development, 2011 Park.By, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 7 | of 14
  9. 9. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!Table 3: Belarus Technology Parks Compared Some of the Infopark projects include: The High-Tech Park The Infopark  Computer Programs as an Object of Intellectual Property (COMPIS) is a series of events such as international conferences,Average gross USD 1,431 (Feb. 2012) N/Asalary seminars, and workshops focused on practical issues of software development and maintenance as well as procurement, licensing,Total Production USD 803M (2006-2011) N/AOutput and accounting.IT Export USD 225M (2011) N/A  Software Engineering Forum (SEF.BY) aims to connect Belarusian IT professionals with their foreign peers and provideSoftware Export 150% (Jan - March 2012 vs. N/AGrowth Jan - March 2011) conditions for effective knowledge exchange, timely identification and resolution of the most critical software engineering problems,# of Resident 109 69Companies and re-engineering of today’s business processes in the IT.# of employees 12,000 12,000  Software Engineering Forum to Students (SEF.BY toNew jobs created 2,267 (2011) N/A Students) aims to provide students with the factual and useful information about IT professions, trends, technologies, andTaxation The Park residents are The members of the Infopark exempt from taxes, are exempt from taxes, the training options. In general, the Forum helps promote ICT contributions and agricultural contribution, and education among school and college graduates to ensure an other obligatory payments to other obligatory payments to the state budget and non- state non- budget funds with adequate supply level in the future. budget funds (e.g., state respect to revenue derived social security funds) with from the sale of information respect to revenue derived technologies and services for from the sale of goods (works, the development of such services and ownership rights technologies, except for profits 23 for intellectual property) . tax paid at a rate of 5% and Social Fund 24 contributions . 23 Worldwide Corporate Tax Guide, 2010 24 Ibid., 2010 CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45 Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 8 | of 14
  10. 10. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER! th Overall, Belarus ranks 4 globally (together with India) by the number of IT certificates granted in 2012, following Ukraine, the United States and thIn 2010 Belarus ranked 13 in the Global Services List of Top 20 Russia.Locations for ITO and High-Tech Services by the number of developers 25employed by the ITO sector . Employment in the ITO sector also offers a significantly lucrative salary for 28 the ICT specialists in Belarus, the average being around 1,400 USDBelarus is rich in all of the mainstream technologies as well as some rare (while the overall average monthly salary in Belarus is only 330 USD, as 29ones, such as SAP and Lotus. According to Ilya Yuriev, Managing Director est. in 2011 ). Though this is high for Belarus, it is still three or four timesof SAP Belarus, “SAP has a strong position on the Belarusian market and lower than in Western Europe or the USA.continues to see benefits from the investments here. There is a strongculture of IT development and innovation and that is the most valuable Salary-wise, the cost of the ICT resources depends on a seniority levelasset a company can have in the IT business .” 26 and technology skills. Android and iPhone developers are some of the most demanded ones nowadays due to an increasing number of theThe qualification of the Belarusian IT talent is undisputable and globally outsourced mobile projects, and their salary can reach up to $2,000 USDrecognized. According to the 2012 Bench Games, an international online per month or even more. The next in demand are JAVA developers. Theintellectual competition conducted by Brainbench, one of the world’s ones with more than 2 years of experience cost nearly 1,800 USD per thleading providers of skills assessment solutions, Belarus ranks 6 out of month, while senior developers (more than 6 years of experience) may50 countries by the number of the most certified specialists leaving behind cost up to 2,300 USD per month. The experienced (over 3 years) .Net andsuch Western European countries as the United Kingdom, Germany, PHP developers cost 1,600-1,700 USD per month, which is around 75% 30 thSweden and Norway, and it ranks 4 out of 50 countries by the number of less than in Western Europe . 27the most Master-Level certified specialists .25 28 IT-TUT.By, 2011 IT-TUT.By, 201226 29 ITO News, 2012 GoalEurope, 201227 30 Brainbench, 2012 Ciklum Statistics, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 9 | of 14
  11. 11. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!Several years ago Belarus faced a massive brain drain in the ICT sphere.However, today’s governmental support of the industry, existence of theHigh-Tech Park, and other initiatives help stop the brain drain andmotivate IT specialists to work within their home country. According to IgorMamonenko, MD of Belhard Group, an obvious trend is currently observed 33when a lot of former IT migrants return back to Belarus . It is just muchmore convenient for them to live close to their families, relatives andfriends and work for international companies where they can earn almostas much as in Russia or the United States, but pay fewer taxes and haveless administrative hassle related to migration and work permits. Figure 2: Comparison of an Average Monthly Salary of a Senior JAVA Developer in Belarus and United Kingdom31 32 Belarus (USD) UK (USD)Gross Salary 2,100 6,783Total tax (income tax + social security) 273 (13%) 1,406 National Library of Belarus In MinskNational Insurance 565Net Salary 1,827 4,81231 The Tax Calculator, 2012; IT Jobs Watch, 201232 Assumed total annual salary before any deductions = £52,500 ~ USD 81,404; experience – 3+ years; pension - contracted-out; no monthly overtime33 BEL.BIZ, 2012CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 10 | of 14
  12. 12. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!  Two Technology Parks that provide innovative R&D platforms for companies from over 50 countries, accumulate the best-on-marketThe goal of this Review was to assess the factual ability of Belarus to IT talent and ensure successful implementation of the state’s ICTreach its declared goal of becoming Europe’s “Silicon Valley” by 2015. initiatives.  High quality and affordable cost of IT resources who continuouslyThe analysis of the ICT initiatives launched in the period from 2005 till gain global recognition by such opinion leaders as Gartner,present shows the country’s vivid progress in terms of facilitation of doing Brainbench, Forbes and other expert and attraction of foreign investments. These achievements havealready led to the overall ITO market growth and increase in software Considering the progress it has made in only 7 years, the country’sexport volumes, modification of the ICT infrastructure, and better general goal of becoming Europe’s “Silicon Valley” by 2015 seems quitealignment of technical education with the real-world business needs. This feasible.progress became possible due to the fact that Belarus managed to timelyidentify its competitive advantages and develop effective programs tostrengthen them.Among these the key advantages are:  Favorable geographical location for the European customers and a GMT+2 time zone allowing a partial overlap of Belarusian and American working hours.  Well preserved strong technical education base inherited from the times when Belarus was a “Brain Center” of the whole Soviet Union. Ciklum IT Specialists Celebrating 1 Year of Ciklum Minsk, September 2011CIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 11 | of 14
  13. 13. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!Analysis Case Study. (2011). Central & Eastern European IT Outsourcing – 2011 Market Overview . Retrieved from european-it-outsourcing.htmlBEL.BIZ. (2012, March). IT-рынок в Беларуси: кадровый голод будет нарастать (IT Market in Belarus: Hunger for Resources Will Increase). Retrieved from Telegraph Agency. (2011). Belarus’ HTP increases software export by 48.6% in January-September. Retrieved from (2012). Bench Games Leader Board. Retrieved from d=2944Centre for eGovernance Development. (2012, March). Renaissance for eGovernance. Retrieved from 2_Wednesday/Belarus-presentation.pdfGoalEurope. (2011, Sertember). Belarus: IT Labor Market. Retrieved from industryshortage-of-software-engineers/Ernst & Young. (2010). The 2010 Worldwide Corporate Tax Guide. Retrieved from Belarus. (2010). High-Quality IT Professionals. Retrieved from Belarus. (2011, October). Gartner Analysis of Belarus as an Offshore Services Location. Retrieved from Belarus. (2012, January). HTP Educational Center Launches New Unique ”Business Analyst for IT“ Program. Retrieved from HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 12 | of 14
  14. 14. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!HTP Belarus. (2012). Quick Facts. Retrieved from IT-TUT.By. (2010). Беларусь вошла в список стран-лидеров сферы ИТ- аутсорсинга (Belarus Included in the List of Leading IT OutsourcingKorrespondent.Net. (2005). Лукашенко создает «белорусскую силиконовую Countries). Retrieved from долину» / Lukashenko is creating “Belarus Silicon Valley”. Retrieved from IT-TUT.By. (2012). IT Цифры – Статистика в Беларуси (IT Numbers – Belarus belorusskuyu-silikonovuyu-dolinu Statistics). Retrieved from News. (2012). Untapped Opportunities in the Heart of Europe. Retrieved from PayScale, 2012, Strana.Ru. (2012). Силиконовая Беларусь (Silicon Belarus). Retrieved fromITO News. (2012, January). FDi: “Hi-Tech Park in Belarus Is a Growing Hub for Both Regional and International Software”. Retrieved from Swedish Belarusian Business Association. (2012). Belarus in International Ratings regional-and-international-software and Domestic Statistics Facts & Figures as of October 2011. Retrieved from (2011). Подписан Меморандум о Сотрудничестве Между domestic-statistics-facts-figures-as-of-october-2011-2/ Министерством Образования РБ и Международным Институтом Качества QAI (A Memorandum of Cooperation United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. (2011). Innovation Performance Between Belarus Ministry of Education and QAI Global Institute Review: Belarus. Retrieved from Signed.) Retrieved from, 2012, HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 13 | of 14
  15. 15. SHARE THIS WHITE PAPER!Ciklum ( is a Danish IT outsourcing company Ciklum opened its office in Minsk (Belarus) in August 2010 and currentlyspecializing in nearshore software development by establishing and counts 120+ employees. The Minsk Office embodies all of theservicing clients’ own development teams and/or centres in Eastern nearshoring benefits and services, fully embraces Ciklum unique OwnEurope, in Ukraine and Belarus. The environment of services and Team model, and provides access to one of the world’s best IT talentknowledge sharing within the company helps clients to market quickly and pools.with less risk and minimal investment. CONTACT DETAILS FOLLOW CIKLUMEstablished in 2002, Ciklum employs nearly 2,000 IT specialists with morethan 170 global clients’ own software development teams. Ciklum has six CIKLUM HQdevelopment offices in Ukraine, one in Belarus, and two in Pakistan, as 12 Amosova St.well as representative offices in Denmark, Sweden, United Kingdom, 03680, Kiev, UkraineSwitzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Ciklum is recognized as CeBIT Tel.: +38 044 545 77 45, +45 46 92 77 002010 Top 20 innovative company delivering services/products for small and E-mail: ciklum@ciklum.commedium sized companies, and named the 2010 and 2011 Top 100 global Web: www.ciklum.comservices provider. Ciklum is rated Best Larger IT Employer 2010 & 2011 inUkraine by DOU, the Ukrainian Community of Software Developers. CIKLUM MINSK 11 Zmitroka Byaduli St., 5th floor 220034, Minsk, Belarus E-mail: ciklum@ciklum.comCIKLUM HQ T: +38 044 545 77 45Kiev, Ukraine E: Page 14 | of 14