NUTRITION PREPARED BY :-MUSTAFIZURAHMAN BIN MUSTAFA KAMAL CLASS 5 UKM NUTRTION
-INTRODUCTION- All living organism need food to survive Food contains various type of nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats , vitamins and minerals The intake of nutrients by living organisms is known as nutrition Food is needed by living organisms (a) to maintain health (b) as a source of energy (c) to carry out life processes such as breathing, growing, excreting and reproducing• The energy content of a food is known as its calorific value• The calorific value of a food can be determined by using a bomb calorimeter
-INTRODUCTION- The diagram show the instrument ”bomb calorimeter” that is used to determine the calorific value of a food
What is Nutrition?- Nutrition is the intake of nutrients by living organisms- The unit used to measure the energy contained in food is calorie (kJ)- The calorific value of food is the total energy released from food when it is oxidized completely in bodyThe table shows that the food have different calorific value Class of food Calorific value (kJ) Carbohydrates 17.2 Proteins 22.2 Fats 38.5
CLASSES OF FOOD PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATE CLASSES OF FOOD WATER FATS ROUGHAGE VITAMINS/MINERALS
CARBOHYDRATES- Carbohydrates is the main source of energy- Examples that food that rich in carbohydrates is:-1. Rice2. Beef Food that have major calories in carbohydrates3. Bread Carbohydrates shown right contains starch that needs to keeps on control in intake
FATS- Fats acts as a heat insulator and protects internal organs- Food that rich in fats:-(a) Chocalate(b)Pizza(c)Cheese These food cannot take excessively !!!
VITAMINS/MINERALS- Vitamins helps a person to maintain our health- Food rich in vitamins(a)Vitamin A –Carrots(b)Vitamin B-Tablets, tempe(c)Vitamin C-mostly vegetables and fruits
PROTEIN- Protein builds new cells for growth and replace damage cells- Examples food rich on protein(a) Fish(b) Grain(c) Assorted beans Protein makes a person to grow in height.
-WATER-- Water is a medium that is needed in the body for chemical reactions in our body. We should take 8 glasses of water a day
-ROUGHAGE-- Roughage helps the movement of food through digestive tract (to avoid constipation) -Food that rich on roughage:- (a)Fruits (b)Vegetables (c)Nuts (e)Barly
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS CALORIES REQUIREMENT FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS CALORIES REQUIREMENT:-- Infants, children and teenagers need more calories than the old people- This is because they are still growing and needs more energy to undergo the process- Old people need less energy ; because they are less active -Less- (old people) -More- (teenegers)
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS CALORIES REQUIREMENT Generally, males need more calories than female because:- (a) Male are more active than females (b) Males have large body size than females - An individual with big body size need more calories than smaller sized individual because:- (a) There are no weight to support (b) There are more cell to feed
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS CALORIES REQUIREMENT -A physically active worker such as farmer or a laborer requires more calories than an office worker. -This is because a lot of energy is used up for muscular contraction -A healthy person generally requires more calories than one who is sick. -This is because is sick person is generally less active or be bedridden
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUALS CALORIES REQUIREMENT - A person who is in a cold surroundings needs more calories than ones who is in a warm place -This is because in a cold surroundings, more energy is lost from our body to the surroundings; therefore more calories will be needed to maintain a constant body temperature Need more (cold surroundings) Need less (warm surroundings)
HEALTH PROBLEMS RELATED TO NUTRITION- The diet of a person should contain sufficient nutrients in correct quantity- Dietition are people who are trained to give people advice about what they eat or drink to be healthy- Improper nutrition can lead to health problems such as:- CLICK ANY OF THE TOPIC TO VIEW MALNUTRITION OBESITY ANOREXIA NERVOSA
MALNUTRITION- A person is suffering from malnutrition if his diet contains insufficient or an excess amount of certain nutrients- Malnutrition can lead to many types of health problems, list of problem will be shown on the next slide. Scurvy High blood pressure Kwashiorkor Diabetes Gout Rickets
MALNUTRITION Disease/health Cause Symptoms Can be prevent disorder with:-High blood pressure -excessive intake of -mostly without -exercise salt, fat , cholesterol symptoms -eat less food contain fatDiabetes -excessive intake of -presence of sugar -eat less sweet food sugar on urineScurvy -lack of vitamin c -bleeding gums -eat more fruits and vegetablesKwashiorkor -lack of protein -diarrhoea Consume more -accumulation fluid seafoodsRickets -lack of vitamin d -soft bones -Drink more milk - Bow leggedness -Expose to sunlightGout -excessive protein -pain in joints -Reduce taking -disposition uric acid protein foodsNight blindness -lack of vitamin A -poor vision in dim -eat liver,egg,carrots light more often
OBESITY- A person is said to be overeating when he takes in more than what his body needs- The extra calories will be stored in the form of fats under the skin and around organs- This can lead to obesity. THIS SHOULD BE PREVENTED BY REGULAR EXERCISE THREE TYPES OF DIESEASES ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY -HEART ATTACK -DIABETES -HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
-ANOREXIA-- Anorexia is a psychological illness- Anorexia is an illness due to intense fear of gaining weight and starving oneself to become thin and underweight.- It occurs more often in adolescent females than males- It can develops slimming which makes a person dislike eating or refusing to eat- As a result, they suffer malnutrition and lose a lot of weight -Death can occur due to extreme starvation. - It usually needs counseling to treat it.
DISEASES RESULTING FROM UNHEALTHY EATING HABITS - Un healthy eating habits can also leads to diseases - The table shows some comparisons unhealthy eating habits and their consequences Unhealthy eating habit Consequences -Eating too much meat food which -narrowing of arteries due to deposit are rich in saturated fats and of cholesterol cholesterol Overeating, especially over - Diabetes consumption of carbohydrates and fats -Eating too much snacks and junk -High blood pressure food, especially which high in salt - Diabetes - Irregular meal times or skipping - Gastric ulcers meal to often -Eating too fat and swallowing food - Indigestion without proper chewing
GOOD NUTRITION ANDGOOD EATING HABITS- Many health problems and diseases are related to improper nutrition and bad eating habits- We should take good nutrition and practice good eating habits- We should take balanced diet- A balanced diet contains all the classes of food in the right amount, in accordance with the needs of our body- It should contain plenty of grains, fruits and vegetables, moderate amount of protein-rich food, and as little fats and sugar as possible.- Using a food pyramid will help a balanced diet in daily life
-FOOD PYRAMID- THE FOOD PYRAMID ONCE YOU TAKING NUTRITION BASED ON FOODPYRAMID,YOUR DAILY INTAKE NUTRIENT IS BALNCED AND HEALTHY
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