Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis          FINAL QUESTION AND ANSWER                            (COLLECTION)           Human Res...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis                PREPARED BY: MARZUQI BIN MOHD SALLHQuestion 1Define the term “downsizing”? Brie...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Self assessments-understand oneself, values and strength and aspirations   •   Gather in...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Off-the-job training allows employees to make contact with others in the same industry o...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisPART DQuestion 1Discuss the five (5) steps in the HR training and development process.         ...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Factors to consider when designing and planning a training programme are facilitators,  ...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •  A person specification describes the profile of a person who should be able to succeed in...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisDiscuss five (5) factors to be faced by human resource manager due to numerous influence andcha...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQuestion 4Why is management counseling important to organizations? Describe with appropriateexa...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   This is consistent to the behavioral approach to management theory   •   It is based upo...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Create qualified workers e.g. Provide training for existing workers   •   Recruit retiri...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Integrated into a performance management system   •   Receive top management support   •...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •  Technology has been forcing and enabling firms to become more competitive  •   For exampl...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisThis will lead to the determination of data collection.Step 2:Review relevant background inform...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   HR planning is a continuous process of linking the requirement for manpower with the    ...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisCounseling important:   •   Deal with problem employee who is not performing to standards or is...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQUESTION 1Briefly discuss two (2) goals of Human Resource Management.                          ...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis      Questionnaires      Critical incident reviewQUESTION 3Communication barriers are the th...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlisb) Rank-in-the person    •  Rank-in-the person promotion system is that when rank is more tied ...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   3. Likert continuum theory   •  Developed by Rensis Likert. A simple continuum between total...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   Wages may be supplemented by number of allowances including travel/transport       allow...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQUESTION 4Using plantation employees as an example, elaborate five (5) needs of Maslows Hierarc...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   5. Self-actualization Needs          •   Self-fulfillment and achievementQUESTION 5Counselin...
Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis   •   The counselor assumes that the employee is in the best position to know and       unders...
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Human resource management

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Human resource management

  1. 1. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis FINAL QUESTION AND ANSWER (COLLECTION) Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  2. 2. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis PREPARED BY: MARZUQI BIN MOHD SALLHQuestion 1Define the term “downsizing”? Briefly explain two (2) reasons why organizations adopt thisstrategic option. (5 marks)Define the term “downsizing”? • The process of dismissing employees when the organizations need to make cutbacks in personal.Reasons why organizations adopt this strategic option? • Involve these who are poorer-performing • When the company used machines to replace the assembly line workers. • When the company shut down one division to cut cost.Question 2List five (5) alternatives in the planning for surpluses. (5 marks) • Do not replace employees who retire/leave • Offer incentives for early retirement • Transfer or reassign excess employees to departments who need extra workers • Use slack time for employee training or equipment maintenance • Reduce work hours • Lay off workersQuestion 3 Oct 10Briefly explain the steps involve in career planning. (5 marks)Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  3. 3. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Self assessments-understand oneself, values and strength and aspirations • Gather information about different job opportunities and potential career paths-inside/outside present organization • Formulate career goals and plant for achieving them e.g. on/off the job training, special assignments, changes in job, occupation/employer • Need employer involvement because:  They have better information on internal career paths  A large percentage of employees can be induced to plan  Plans can be more realistic in view of future organizational needs and development opportunitiesQuestion 4 Oct 10Write short notes on any two (2) ways of conducting job analysis. (5 marks) • Interviews-A necessary and potentially useful method in job analysis, enabling the job analyst to raise questions to elucidate the evidence of observation and to to compare the perception of one job holder with other. The interviewer needs to be careful to distinguish fact from opinion. • Questionnaire-They enable the job analyst to put standard questions to all the job holders taking part in the survey. Specialized skill is needed in devising the questionnaire and framing the questions. • Diaries-the job analyst provides job holders with the areas of the job description about which information is required. They can be used as valuable bases on which to conduct interview.Question 5 Oct 10Distinguish between on-the-job training and off-the –job training. (5 marks)On-the-job training • Includes all types of training offered by employer to his employees which takes place at the work site, i.e. wherever the worker normally carries out his work is where the training will take place. • On-the-job training can other be done at the workstation or in a centralized place within the organization’s environs.Off-the –job trainingHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  4. 4. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Off-the-job training allows employees to make contact with others in the same industry or locality who may be of future use to the company. Networking has many advantages. • Training carried out by parties external to the organization and usually on premises not owned or controlled by the employer. • The government, professional bodies and private sector training organizations offer a wide variety of seminar, workshops, conferences and courses.Question 6 Oct 10, Oct 09List five (5) characteristics of an effective appraisal system. (5 marks) • Integrated into a performance management system • Receive top management support • Customized to the need of the organization • Acceptable and understandable • Reliable and unbiased as far as possibleHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  5. 5. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisPART DQuestion 1Discuss the five (5) steps in the HR training and development process. (10 marks)1. Identify Training Needs • Before any action is taken to organize a training programme, a training needs analysis should be carried out. • Timothy Ho Ha Yin (2003) defines a training need as “the gap between an actual situation and the desired situation. ‘Situation’ may refer to job performance, knowledge, skills, behavior or attitudes.’’ • Gap analysis identifies the difference between what is actually happening and what was planned to happen. • Not all employee problems lend themselves to training solutions.2. Set Training Objectives • To improve employees’ abilities and performance on the job. • For each programme offered, clear and specific objectives must be laid down. • Wherever possible, these objectives should be quantified as measurable objectives are an important aid in evaluation. • The objectives also act as a guideline to the trainee as to what is expected of him.3. Design the Training Programme • In order to organize an effective training programme, a great deal of time and thought has to go into designing and planning the programme.Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  6. 6. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Factors to consider when designing and planning a training programme are facilitators, value, duration and scheduling of programme, number of participants, training method, logistics, and budget.4. Implement the Training Programme • Before the programme is implemented, employers need to do some careful planning. • Resources and facilities will have to be booked, trainees need to be informed of the programme’s schedule, and curse materials need to be printed and ready for distribution at the appropriate time.5. Evaluate the Training Programme • Every training programme or session must be evaluated. • There is no alternative method of ensuring that investment in training is worthwhile. • Evaluation is a difficult process to do well but it must be attempted in order to improve the standard and effectiveness of the programmes being offered.Question 2As The Northern Plantation Assistant Manager, you are giving a task to prepare a job analysisfor a new field supervisor position. Explain the step involves in conducting job analysis.(10 marks) Oct 10The job description • The process of preparing job descriptions helps to identify unnecessary tasks, overlapping responsibilities and even the existence of functions for which no one has responsibility. The typical heading include:  Basic details, Purpose, Standards, Responsibilities, Physical and social environment, Training/education, Advancement opportunities, Conditions of employment, Trade union/associations, and Job circumstances.Person specificationHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  7. 7. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • A person specification describes the profile of a person who should be able to succeed in the job and will guide the recruitment officer to the best candidate. Typically:  Requisite knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal attributes.  Specific qualifications  Age range  Health (general and specific requirements)  Special conditions (e.g. travel, unsocial hours, etc.)Methods are often used:  Direct observation  Interviews  Diaries  Questionnaires  Critical incident reviewQuestion 3Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  8. 8. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisDiscuss five (5) factors to be faced by human resource manager due to numerous influence andchallenges. Oct 10 (10 marks)Globalization • Globalization results in global competition where firms need to compete with foreign competitors. • For example, exchange of foreign workersTechnological change • Technology has been forcing and enabling firms to become more competitive • For example, computer change to lab top.Employee education and expectations • The level of education among employees is rising • For example, with higher levels of education, workers are becoming more aware of their employment rights and therefore more liable to make a complaint to the relevant authorities if they believe their rights are being abused.Workforce diversity • Employees in different age groups have different expectation. • For example, there are significant dissimilarities between them which should be taken into consideration by employers.Downsizing (slower growth) • Slower growth in markets and in some cases, declining markets have reduced opportunities in many organizations. • For example, give training.Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  9. 9. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQuestion 4Why is management counseling important to organizations? Describe with appropriateexamples two types of counseling normally used in organizations to deal with problememployees. Oct 10, Apr 09 (10 marks)Counseling important: • Deal with problem employee who is not performing to standards or is violating standing plans. • Constructive employee attitudes • Reduce stress in the workplace which is correlated to job performance.Types of counseling:Directive counseling • The counselor controls the discussions during the counseling process • He/she may permit the employee to volunteer solution by directing a series of leading questions • The major tools of correction used by the directive counselor after discovering the nature of difficult are advice, warning, exhortation, praise, and reassurance • These actions emphasize the superior position of the counselor and the dependent one of the employee • This process often leads to the employees to find excuses instead of opening up to the counselor to reveal the source of the problem/trouble.Nondirective counselingHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  10. 10. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • This is consistent to the behavioral approach to management theory • It is based upon the respect for the individual, a belief in the person’s ability to solve personal problems with the aid of a sympathetic listener • It emphasizes the role of the counselor as one of understanding rather than one of passing judgment • The goal is to facilitate the development of self-insight • There is no attempt to create a superior-subordinate relationship • The counselor assumes that the employee is in the best position to know and understand the problemPARTCQUESTION 1Define recruitment process. Name two (2) types of specialist needs throughout the process ofrecruiting new employees. (5 marks) • The process of attracting suitable people to apply for job vacancies.Types of specialist(kepakaran) needs • The personal qualities and skill required of human resource specialists. • For example, communication skills, ability to bring about change, information technology (IT) savvy, numerate and able to analyse data, ability to understand the business context, and high ethical standards. • The recruiters-one who specialize in seeking and seeking potential new employees. • The hiring managers-responsible in giving information about the job requirements to be filled.QUESTION 2List five (5) alternatives for shortage of employees. (5 marks)Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  11. 11. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Create qualified workers e.g. Provide training for existing workers • Recruit retiring employees on a part-time basis • Identify courses of turnover to reduce rate of turnover • Pay over-time for existing workers to work extra hours • Subcontract some work to another company • Hire temporary workersQUESTION 3Briefly explain two (2) steps involve in career planning. (5 marks)Apr 11 • Self assessments-understand oneself, values and strength and aspirations • Gather information about different job opportunities and potential career paths-inside/ outside present organization • Formulate career goals and plant for achieving them e.g. on/off the job training, special assignments, changes in job, occupation/employer • Need employer involvement because: • They have better information on internal career paths • A large percentage of employees can be induced to plan • Plans can be more realistic in view of future organizational needs and development opportunitiesQUESTION 4Write short notes on two (2) ways of conducting job analysis. (5 marks)Apr 11 • Interviews-A necessary and potentially useful method in job analysis, enabling the job analyst to raise questions to elucidate the evidence of observation and to to compare the perception of one job holder with other. The interviewer needs to be careful to distinguish fact from opinion. • Questionnaire-They enable the job analyst to put standard questions to all the job holders taking part in the survey. Specialized skill is needed in devising the questionnaire and framing the questions. • Diaries-the job analyst provides job holders with the areas of the job description about which information is required. They can be used as valuable bases on which to conduct interview.QUESTION 5List five (5) characteristics of an effective appraisal system. (5 marks)Apr 11, Oct 09Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  12. 12. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Integrated into a performance management system • Receive top management support • Customized to the need of the organization • Acceptable and understandable • Reliable and unbiased as far as possibleQUESTION 6Distinguish between on-the-job training and off-the-job training. (5 marks)Apr 11On-the-job training • Includes all types of training offered by employer to his employees which takes place at the work site, i.e. wherever the worker normally carries out his work is where the training will take place. • On-the-job training can other be done at the workstation or in a centralized place within the organization’s environs.Off-the –job training • Off-the-job training allows employees to make contact with others in the same industry or locality who may be of future use to the company. Networking has many advantages. • Training carried out by parties external to the organization and usually on premises not owned or controlled by the employer. • The government, professional bodies and private sector training organizations offer a wide variety of seminar, workshops, conferences and courses.PARTDQUESTION 1Discuss five (5) factors to be faced by human resource manager due to numerous influence andchallenges. Apr 11 (10 marks)Globalization • Globalization results in global competition where firms need to compete with foreign competitors. • For example, exchange of foreign workersTechnological changeHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  13. 13. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Technology has been forcing and enabling firms to become more competitive • For example, computer change to lab top.Employee education and expectations • The level of education among employees is rising • For example, with higher levels of education, workers are becoming more aware of their employment rights and therefore more liable to make a complaint to the relevant authorities if they believe their rights are being abused.Workforce diversity • Employees in different age groups have different expectation. • For example, there are significant dissimilarities between them which should be taken into consideration by employers.Downsizing (slower growth) • Slower growth in markets and in some cases, declining markets have reduced opportunities in many organizations. • For example, give training.QUESTION 2 Apr 11As The Northern Plantation Assistant Manager, you are given a task to prepare a job analysis fora new field supervisor position. Explain the steps involves in conducting job analysis. (10 marks)Step 1:Determine the purpose of the job analysis-how/the purpose of information to be used.Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  14. 14. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisThis will lead to the determination of data collection.Step 2:Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and jobdescription.Step 3:Select representative positions to be analyzed.To analyze the job of an assembly workerStep 4:Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities required employee behaviors, working conditions,and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.Step 5:Review the information with job incumbentsThe job description • The process of preparing job descriptions helps to identify unnecessary tasks, overlapping responsibilities and even the existence of functions for which no one has responsibility. The typical heading include:  Basic details, Purpose, Standards, Responsibilities, Physical and social environment, Training/education, Advancement opportunities, Conditions of employment, Trade union/associations, and Job circumstances.Person specification • A person specification describes the profile of a person who should be able to succeed in the job and will guide the recruitment officer to the best candidate. Typically:  Requisite knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal attributes.  Specific qualifications  Age range  Health (general and specific requirements)  Special conditions (e.g. travel, unsocial hours, etc.)Methods are often used:  Direct observation  Interviews  Diaries  Questionnaires  Critical incident reviewQUESTION 3What do you understand by the term "planning"? Discuss the four main phases in the HRPlanning process. (10 marks)The term planning:Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  15. 15. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • HR planning is a continuous process of linking the requirement for manpower with the financial and operational plant of organization in a particular time period.Main phases in the HR Planning process:Situation analysis or environmental scanning • This the point where HRM and strategic planning initially interact • Environmental scanning management reviews the environmental conditions/changes then develops their strategic plans to adopt to these changes. • The HRM then helps the organization to materialize the adaptive measures specified in the strategic plans.Forecasting demand for human resource • It is the process of estimating how many and what kinds of employees will be needed to meet the organization’s objectives.Analysis of the supply of human resources • This phase determines how many and what kinds of employees are needed in term of skills and training necessary for the future.Development of plans for action • Planning is based on the information provided in the earlier stages and it involves; • Matching the forecasts for supply and demand • Identifying key areas essential to the achievement of objectivesMonitoring the system and apply corrective measuresQUESTION 4Why is management counseling important to organizations? Describe with appropriateexamples two types of counseling normally used in organizations to deal with problememployees. Apr 11 (10 marks)Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  16. 16. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisCounseling important: • Deal with problem employee who is not performing to standards or is violating standing plans. • Constructive employee attitudes • Reduce stress in the workplace which is correlated to job performance.Types of counseling:Directive counseling • The counselor controls the discussions during the counseling process • He/she may permit the employee to volunteer solution by directing a series of leading questions • The major tools of correction used by the directive counselor after discovering the nature of difficult are advice, warning, exhortation, praise, and reassurance • These actions emphasize the superior position of the counselor and the dependent one of the employee • This process often leads to the employees to find excuses instead of opening up to the counselor to reveal the source of the problem/trouble.Nondirective counseling • This is consistent to the behavioral approach to management theory • It is based upon the respect for the individual, a belief in the person’s ability to solve personal problems with the aid of a sympathetic listener • It emphasizes the role of the counselor as one of understanding rather than one of passing judgment • The goal is to facilitate the development of self-insight • There is no attempt to create a superior-subordinate relationship • The counselor assumes that the employee is in the best position to know and understand the problemHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  17. 17. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQUESTION 1Briefly discuss two (2) goals of Human Resource Management. (5 marks)Recruit suitable workers • Attracting suitable people to apply for job vacancy.Ensure the workers receive appropriate training • Systematic training will provide for money.Establish systems for compensation and rewarding employees • Benefits are normally given to all employees, although different benefits may be given to those in different categories.QUESTION 2Identify and explain steps involved in preparing Job Analysis. (5 marks)The job description • The process of preparing job descriptions helps to identify unnecessary tasks, overlapping responsibilities and even the existence of functions for which no one has responsibility. The typical heading include:  Basic details, Purpose, Standards, Responsibilities, Physical and social environment, Training/education, Advancement opportunities, Conditions of employment, Trade union/associations, and Job circumstances.Person specification • A person specification describes the profile of a person who should be able to succeed in the job and will guide the recruitment officer to the best candidate. Typically:  Requisite knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal attributes.  Specific qualifications  Age range  Health (general and specific requirements)  Special conditions (e.g. travel, unsocial hours, etc.)Methods are often used:  Direct observation  Interviews  DiariesHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  18. 18. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis  Questionnaires  Critical incident reviewQUESTION 3Communication barriers are the things that prevent the receiver from receiving the message asintended by the source. Explain five (5) of the communication barriers. (5 marks) • Noise and distraction (external and internal) • Information overload • Perceptual and languages differences • Restrictive environments (filters) • Deceptive tactic (channel breakdowns)QUESTION 4List and explain two (2) methods which can be used to overcome problems of relocation andtransfers. (5 marks) • Offer temporary transfers to replace the absence of key employees or during peak production periods • Maintain a well developed job-evaluation system • Proper matching of job titles, pay and duties • Offer job transfers only to those who wish to move to the new locationQUESTION 5Describe two (2) of the competitive pressures that affect todays organizations. (5 marks)Globalization • Globalization results in global competition where firms need to compete with foreign competitors. • For example, exchange of foreign workersTechnological change • Technology has been forcing and enabling firms to become more competitive • For example, computer change to lab top.Employee education and expectations • The level of education among employees is rising • For example, with higher levels of education, workers are becoming more aware of their employment rights and therefore more liable to make a complaint to the relevant authorities if they believe their rights are being abused.QUESTION 6Write short notes on the following promotion system: (5 marks)a) Rank-in-the job • Rank-in-the job promotion system is that the level of skill, effort, and responsibility determines its pay classification and place in the hierarchy of jobs.Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  19. 19. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlisb) Rank-in-the person • Rank-in-the person promotion system is that when rank is more tied to the person than his job. • The position levels in the career hierarchy are dependent more upon the levels of skill and performance of the professionals rather than the differences in content of the jobs. • This system is more popular in both private and government organization.PARTDQUESTION 1 (10 marks)a) Define Leadership. • Social influence process of inspiring and guiding other in order to achieve organizational goal. There are three key variables to leadership such as people, influence and goals.b) Discuss three (3) types of leadership skills that managers should possess. 1. Blake and mouton grid or management grid • This theory identifies the ideal leadership style as having a high concern for production and people. There are five major leadership styles: • The impoverished management (1, 1)-exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. • The authority-compliance (9, 1)-efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. • The country club management (1, 9)-throughout attraction to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. • The middle of the road management (5, 5)-adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. • Team management (9, 9)-work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. This is the best way. 2. Fiedler’s contingency theory of Leadership • This is situational approach to leadership style. Situational control is effected by three factors in the following order of importance: • The leader-member relationship, the degree to which employees trust and respect the leader and are willing to follow his guidance • The ease or difficulty of the task (e.g. structured or unstructured)-refers to clarity or ambiguity of operating procedures. • The leader’s vested authority (position power)-the extent to which the leader possesses legitimate, reward, and coercive power over subordinates.Human Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  20. 20. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis 3. Likert continuum theory • Developed by Rensis Likert. A simple continuum between total autocracy to total democracy. • Exploitative autocracy • Benevolent autocracy • Consultative leadership • Participative group leadershipQUESTION 2Sri Tanjung Plantation is planning to upgrade the incentive plan for the company which focusesfor operations employee. As HR Manager, describe five (5) major incentive measures that canlink pay with performance in order to assist the company in accomplishing the plan. (10marks)Health care • Increasingly becoming a valuable benefit to employees in tandem with the rising cost of medical care. • For example, health care may be extended to an employee’s dependants and may include payment of dental and optical bills.Insurance • Employers commonly but life and accident insurance group policies, usually combined with medical benefit to protect their employees. • For example, this benefit is most likely to be offered to executive and managerial level staff.Financial services • Loans to buy houses, cars and other items such as computers may be given to employees, usually with interest rates lower than those charged by the bank. • Alternatively, workers may have the interest rates on their bank loan subsidized by the employer.Subsidies and services • A range of services may be provided to employees either free or on a subsidized basis. • Canteens and transport to and from work are examples of such services as are childcare facilities, club membership and accommodation at holiday resorts.Retirement benefits • Although all employees contribute to the Employees Provident Fund (EPF), it has been recognized that the present level of contributions may not guarantee workers a reasonable standard of living when they retire. • Therefore, some employers are willing to pay a higher contribution into the Fund on behalf of their employees.AllowanceHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  21. 21. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • Wages may be supplemented by number of allowances including travel/transport allowance, meal allowance, housing allowance, Hand-phone allowance, shift allowance, standby allowance, and entertainment allowance.Educational fee assistance • To encourage workers to develop themselves, companies may build up libraries of reading materials and computer-readable files which are made available to workers. • For example, if employees wish to attend any training course after working hours which is related to the job, the company may pay the fees for the course.QUESTION 3Tabung Haji Plantation wants to offer a Management Trainee Program where the bestparticipants will be absorbed as an Assistant Manager at the company. Discuss five (5)recruitment sources of potential candidates for the program. Internal recruitment (10 marks)Employee audit or inventory • If the organization has a well-develop, up-to-date system of personnel records, the human resource office can check though employees’ files to identify any potentially suitable people. • If these exist, they can be contacted and recommended to join the pool of candidates if they are interested.Job posting and bidding • To overcome some of the problems associated with the audit method of finding internal applicants, the job posting and bidding method could be used. • All that is required is a notice on the organizational notice board or on the company intranet stating that a vacancy exists, outlining the specification and mentioning who should be contacted by those interested in applying. • If the job is to be advertised outside the organization as well, the same wording could be used.Advantages of internal and sources of recruitment • Employment record of applicant available, thus accurate assessment possible • No induction needed • Little or no cost involved • Employees’ morale and motivation increasedHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  22. 22. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM PerlisQUESTION 4Using plantation employees as an example, elaborate five (5) needs of Maslows Hierarchytheory. (10 marks) Self Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Affiliation Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of human Needs 1. Physiological Needs • Food, water, air and shelter 2. Security Needs • Safe physical and emotional environment 3. Affiliation Needs • Friendship, love and a feeling of belonging 4. Esteem Needs • Feelings of achievement and self worth through recognition, respect and prestige from otherHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  23. 23. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis 5. Self-actualization Needs • Self-fulfillment and achievementQUESTION 5Counseling is needed to discuss on various reasons which could bring positive impact toemployee. Explain three (3) types of counseling that may be used in organizations. (10 marks)Directive counseling • The counselor controls the discussions during the counseling process • He/she may permit the employee to volunteer solution by directing a series of leading questions • The major tools of correction used by the directive counselor after discovering the nature of difficult are advice, warning, exhortation, praise, and reassurance • These actions emphasize the superior position of the counselor and the dependent one of the employee • This process often leads to the employees to find excuses instead of opening up to the counselor to reveal the source of the problem/trouble.Nondirective counseling • This is consistent to the behavioral approach to management theory • It is based upon the respect for the individual, a belief in the person’s ability to solve personal problems with the aid of a sympathetic listener • It emphasizes the role of the counselor as one of understanding rather than one of passing judgment • The goal is to facilitate the development of self-insight • There is no attempt to create a superior-subordinate relationshipHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL
  24. 24. Marzuqi Salleh, UiTM Perlis • The counselor assumes that the employee is in the best position to know and understand the problemCooperative counseling • It is between directive and nondirective counseling • Cooperative counseling begins with exclusive emphasis upon nondirective approach • The employee is encouraged to voice difficulties, and the supervisor accepts (listening actively, interestedly, and intelligently) • After the supervisor is certain he/she has heard as much as the employee will provide a more directive role in counseling is assumed • One may reassure the employee that the problem is not really insoluble. Or one may provide more information about the broader situation • The supervisor must demonstrate a willingness to listen and a desire to come to some conclusion that helps the employee as is consistent with the needs of the organizationHuman Resource Management CONFIDENTIAL

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