MARDI report training


Published on

Contoh repot prektikal.

Published in: Education
1 Comment
  • assalamualaikum Cikgu marzuqi boleh mintak copy slide show ni tak?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

MARDI report training

  1. 1. STATION MARDI CAMERON HIGHLANDS PETI SURAT 19,PEJABAT POS TANAH RATA, 39007 CEMERON HIGHLANDS, PAHANG. Industrial Training Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of D.Sc (hons), Planting, UiTM Faculty Applied Science University Technology Mara By MARZUQI BIN MOHD SALLEH OCT 2009 1
  2. 2. Student’s DeclarationI declare that this report is the result of my own works except as cited in thereferences. The report has not been accepted for any diploma and is notconcurrently submitted in candidature of any other diploma.Signature :Name : Marzuqi Bin Mohd SallehMatrix No :Date : 28 January 2010 2
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Writing reports has become a practical way unusual for me; anexperience not be alone with the blessings of Allah Al-mighty. I have severalpeople to thank for helping me achieve this exceptional performance andextraordinary. First, I have a family, especially my father Mrs Mohd Salleh Bin Ahmad tothank for providing emotional support and inspiration. He continued to encourageme to stay motivated and focused. Secondly, I have a mother Salbiah BinteMahamud and my family to thank for their extraordinary patience, moral andfinancial support. In addition, I was really doing my practical training for 5 weeks. I havebeen conducting, Mrs. Zainal Bin Salleh, all friends and all stations Mardi supporthave helped me a lot to thank you for doing good deeds to keep running onpractical training. Last but not least, I would also like to thank all lecturer practical training,all my friends, other students for their continuous support in the training practical. In short, for every person who has touched my life, and especially thoseinvolved in writing reports misery, I thank you. Thank you from my heart policy,because I can’t do this without you. Thank you very much, you are the best! Thank you. 3
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES• To educate the DPIM students to become a professional person with the characteristics are credibility, responsible hardworking level. And also are sincerely religious in exploring the earth with responsibility especially in agriculture.• For build the attitude to DPIM students. So that, the DPIM students will have are courage, hardworking and also strong in physically and mentally as well as. Knowledge among DPIM students need to establish.• To develop estate with plenty types of crops as convenience when the student having their practical training.• To develop the landscape / garden that is beautiful and interesting places in the campus not just as a recreation park but also as an education and exposure to the students about method and landscape design that is very interesting.• To upgrade the product produce by this farm by using new method in agriculture as well as a source of income for UiTM Perlis.• Complete the equipment that is use for agriculture for the student convenient to achieve goals and to rise up the student potential in agriculture.• To help general academic department and student affairs in any types of facilities that farm department should have.• To have are responsible, positive attitude and with the highly moral ethics of workers when giving their services. 4
  5. 5. CONTENTS Content Page________________________________________________________________Student’s Declaration iAcknowledgements iiObjectives iiiContent iv – vCHAPTER 1 : COMPANY PROFILE 1-2CHAPTER 2 : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY2.1 Programs and Activities 3-5CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL INVOLVES3.1 Who are involves 6-83.1.1 Supervisors from MARDICHAPTER 4: EQUIPMENT OR WORK PROCEDURES INVOLVES4.1 Nature of crops 94.1.1 The Chrysanthemum (Kekwa plants) 9 - 104.1.2 Tea planting 114.1.3 Apple (Malus Domestica) 124.1.4 Nursery 134.2 Field Maintenances 144.2.1 Control of Grass 14 – 164.2.2 Pruning 174.2.3 Mulching 18 5
  6. 6. 4.3 Information4.3.1 Setting the drip system 194.3.2 Technology of Fertigation 204.3.3 Soil and water conservation 214.3.4 Asexual Propagation 224.3.5 Landscaping 23 - 254.3.6 Compost 26 - 274.3.7 Propagation techniques 27 - 304.3.8 Outdoor activities 31CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION32CHAPTER 6: REFERENCES 33CHAPTER 7: APPENDIX 34 – 40Appendix 1 34 – 35Appendix 2 36 – 39Appendix 3 40 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1: COMPANY PROFILEWelcome to Agro Technology Park in MARDI Cameron HighlandsThe Cameron Highlands countryside is endowed with inexhaustible historical,natural and human riches, generously revealed to the visitor. Its traditionalvillages, enhance and complement a wonderful natural environment, with theirlocal character, traditional architecture and village planning.The district of Cameron Highlands countryside is endowed with inexhaustiblehistorical, natural and human riches, generously revealed to the visitor. Itstraditional villages, enhance and complement a wonderful natural environment,with their local character, traditional architecture and village planning.The MARDI Cameron Highland’s Stations was first established by the British in1925. It was then known as the Federal Experimental Station. Tea was firstintroduced in the country in 1925 and these early tea bushes are growing healthyat the station until today. The first tea factory built in 1935 is still capable ofprocessing black tea.The Agro technology Park MARDI Cameron Highlands is located within thestation and was officiated by His Royal Highness DYMM The Sultan Of Pahangon 14th of June, 2003. Since then, about 65,000 visitors, visit the park each year.The Agro technology Park is only 1km away from the town of Tanah Rata andeasily reaches by car, taxi, bus or even by foot. Among the major attractions arethe English Garden, strawberry production, vegetable and cut flower production,green house research and the sale centre. 7
  8. 8. Figure 1.0 Office.Map of Agro Technology Part Figure 1.2 all areas in the MARDI Cameron Highlands. 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 2: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY2.1 Programs and ActivitiesWe are 3 members. My group’s members are: 1. Marzuqi Bin Mohd Salleh 2008502409 2. Mohamad Syazwan Bin M. Rosley 2008766593 3. Muhamad Hafiz Bin Shamsudin 2008754211 Date Unit Conductor Activity18 to 23 Soil and water Pn. Aini Hayati 1. Transplant.Nov.2009 conservation. • The chrysanthemum plant. 2. Weeding. • At the soil and conservation plot.24 to 25 Cutting, Roses, En.Yazid 1. Weeding.Nov.2009 Orchid Mahiyuddin Management. • At the Gerbera plant. 2. Transplant. • The chrysanthemum plant. 3. To make a simple landscape. • At the orchid house.30 Nov. to Commercial En. Mustafa 1. Weeding.04 Dis.2009 Project. Kamal • At the arachinis 9
  10. 10. hypogaea L. 2. Soil reparation. 3. To fill up the cocopeat into the poly bag. 4. Medium mixture. 5. Setting up the drip system. 6. Compound clearing. • At the arachinis hypogaea L. 7. Pruning. • At the arachinis hypogaea L.07 to 09 Dis. Sub-tropical En. Osman sah 1. Planting the orange2009 project. plant at the orange plot. 2. To make the wedge grafting. 3. Transfer the orange plant at the nursery. 4. To make the cut grafting. 5. To make the marcotting.10 to 14 Tea plantation En. Muhammad 1. Clearing the morningDis.2009 and banana Nor glory plant at the tea khaki. plot. 2. Weeding at tea area. 10
  11. 11. 3. Visit to Nursery.15 to 17 Agronomy En.Mohammad 1. Pruning tomatoesDis.2009 Abid plant. 2. To fill up the cocopeat into the poly bag. 3. Planting the pearl grass at the edible garden area.21 to 22 Entomology En. Zulkifli bin 1. Weeding.Dis.2009 Mohd Saaid • At the edible garden and clearing that area. 2. Planting. • Planted the vegetable plant into the pots. 3. Pruning. • Tomato plants at the tomatoes plot. 11
  12. 12. CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL3.1 Who are involves 3.1.1 Supervisors from MARDI 1. Name : Puan Aini Hayati binti Abd. Rahman Position : Assistant Research Officer (Q32) Unit : Soil and Water Conservation Status : Married Name of Husband : Jamaludin bin Ismail 2. Name : En. Jamaludin bin Ismail Position : Research Assistant (Q17) Unit : Soil and water Conservation Status : Married Name of Wife : Puan Aini Hayati binti Abd. Rahman 3. Name : En. Yazed bin Mahiyuddin Position : Research Assisstant (Q17) Unit : Cutting, Roses, and Orchid Management Status : Married 12
  13. 13. 4. Name : En. Mustafa Kamal bin Hanafiah Position : Research Assistant (Q17) Unit : Commercial Project Status : Married5. Name : En. Osman Sah bin Md Daud Position : Research Assistant (Q22) Unit : Sub. Tropical Project Status : Married6. Name : En. Muhammad Noor bin Bahauddin Position : Research Assistant (Q23) Unit : Tea Plantation and Banana Khaki Status : Married 13
  14. 14. 7. Name : En. Mohammad Abid bin Ahmad Position : Research Officer (Q41) Unit : Agronomy Status : Married8. Name : En. Saiful Zaimi bin Jamil Position : Research Officer (Q41) Unit : Entomology Status : Married9. Name : En. Zulkifli bin Mohd Saaid Position : Assistant Research Unit : Agronomy Status : Married 14
  15. 15. CHAPTER 4: EQUIPMENT OR WORK PROCEDURES INVOLVES4.1 Nature of CropsThere are various types of green plants, fruits and vegetables. In Cameran Highlands,plants that live there in the cold temperatures. Therefore, MARDI cameran highlandsalso provide opportunities for visitors who want to see the various plants that coldweather.4.1.1 The Chrysanthemum (Kekwa plants) They came from China. They are living ‘Short-day-plant’. They need moreextra light at night (>10.5 hours) for a shape of flower. Get the suitable length ofthe chrysanthemum stem about (100 cm) in time of period and control for slowingthe flower to grown up, They need more extra light of 100 watt ± 4 hours at nightduring in 5 to 8 weeks. Used lamp until the plants grown about 35 cm high for 5to 8 weeks. A shaped of flower can be seen after 2 to 3 weeks and theyharvested in 6 to 10 weeks after switch off the lamp. In one season is about 3 to4 months. Spray/pompon species were planted >90% in Cameron Highlandsthan standard species. They are also planting with propagation by cutting andseeds. Popular species are Reagon Sunny, Reagon Purple, Jaguar Purple, Red,Monalisa Yellow, Monalisa White, Dublin Red and Spider White.The technology light with cutting propagation method of Chrysanthemum plants: The Chrysanthemum plant need more extra night light (Short-day-plant). After planted the Chrysanthemum tree it needs more extra light of 100 watt ± 4 hours at night. Also, they always need switch on the light during in 5 to 8 weeks after that switch off the lamp in 6 to 10 weeks. Used extra light every night for : -To get the suitable length of Chrysanthemum stem about (100 cm) in period date. 15
  16. 16. -To control for slowing to grown upIn plant planting, the transplant is very important because to give plant growth onthe soil actual and get direct nutrient and absorb water or air from soil.Normally, in this case they used propagation by cutting. As we know, propagationhave more advantages such as to retain the desirable characteristic of themother plant and increase or multiply the number of plants rapidly. Figure 4.0 Chrysanthemum shows that the way of retransplanting. Figure 4.1 show the place where chrysanthemum tree are planted.To produce the best quality of chrysanthemum plant they need more coolweather and produce the colourful flower. 16
  17. 17. 4.1.2 Tea planting Tea planting is a living green leaf in family of Camellia and they camefrom China, Tibet and North India. There are two varieties such as small leaf andwide leaf. In small leaf variety, known as Camellia sinensis, live well at district ofhighland in Cameron Highlands. In wide leaf variety, known as Camelliaassamica, most live well at district of tropical. In tea planting, there are colorfuldark green, small size and white flower. Figure 4.2 show that the current working of the plant weeded control. 17
  18. 18. Figure 4.3 show that way of planting in the Cameron Highlands.4.1.3 Apple (Malus Domestica) The apple thee is temperate plants. Dormant time for winter (<7°C, until >100 hours) need to promote the flowers. In tropical compound, there are pruning,bend the branch, drop leaves, and hormone spraying (Dormex 3%). Highlandsarea >800m have potential to planting apple from varieties that need shortdormant time (~300 hours) like Anna, Grany Smith and Rome Beauty. After >3years planted, all leave will be dropping. New leaves and flowers will be growingup after 2-4 weeks. Schedule of dropping the leaves are very importance to do sothat the production of flower occur in less rain season (open area). Fruit willmature after 125 days flowering. Produce two time a year (May- June and Nov-Dis.). Figure 4.4 show that the place where apple tree are planted. Figure 4.5 show that way of planting in the Cameron Highlands. 18
  19. 19. 4.1.4 Nursery4.1.4.1 Planting of tea plant. Learn the techniques how to make planting the tea plant in nursery?• Select the suitable stem and free pest or disease.• Length of stem about 5 to 6 cm.• Put the hormone (IAA) at the end of stem.• To planting into the poly bag.• Follow by watering.• All poly bags must be put into the white plastic. Then, close be used to white plastic because they are enough nutrients, enough humidity, and weed controls.• For our information, in that case for tea planting they used to plant by cutting propagation because they are easy grown rapidly.• After 1 year they will transfer to the field. Figure 4.6 show that the place where tea tree are planted. 19
  20. 20. 4.2 Field Maintenances • Each plant must have care well to plant a garden so fertile. Care was often each week.4.2.1 Control of Grass1. Manual Control -Used the mulching (e.g. plastic, cover crop and etc). -Used the labor energy.2. Mechanical Control -Used the tractor3. Biology Control -Used the insect such as bacteria or virus.4. Chemical Control -Used the chemical spray. -Save cost. 20
  21. 21. figure 4.7 show that weeding method with good.Grasses Problem Grass is no need in plant. It makes trouble to plant. It challenged between the plant to get nutrient, water, space and light. Some grasses needs in plants such as Maman Pasir. The Maman Pasir is insect control. Cost of grass is 10 % to 35 % than cost of planting.Disadvantages of grass• A challenged with plant. The plant become dwarf and loses profit, it caused the grass more quite grown than plant.• Drain irrigation will become trouble.General Recommendations for Weed Management 21
  22. 22.  Likewise with insects, identifying all the different weed types in the farm and understanding their means to survival and their role in agro-ecosystem are important steps towards their management. It is also essential to adhere to this basic principle in managing weeds. Which is minimizes to competition between the weed and the cultivated crop. For weed control, the following methods and materials could be used. figure 4.8 show the weeds that have been extracted by hand.1) Cultural Practices-The use of cultural practices, which limit weed development include manualweeding around the base of the plant and on the beds, crop rotation, forking,digging and burying, rot ovation, close spacing and the use of ground covers.2) Mulching-The use of dried grass mulch on the beds and regulated use of plastic mulch tocover the surface of the beds before planting help to reduce weed infestation. 22
  23. 23. 3) Physical Control -In some instances, flame weeding could be used. • Weeds are major problem in any farm. They need to be managed well even at an early stage of cultivation; otherwise the following problems will result in:a. High costs for labor and time taken for management (almost 50%) to remove these weeds;b. Adverse effects on crops when they start to complete for water, nutrients and light. They can stunt crop growth and cause loss of yield.c. Harboring of pest and pathogens, such as Cleome rutidospema, which is host of flea beeties, H. undalis and P. xylostella.• To avoid the above problems, early interventions are necessary to prevent the build-up of high weed populations, especially during rainy seasons. The major weed species found in a vegetable farm include both broadleaf and grasses. The major grassy weeds include nutgrass, Eleusine indica, Cyperus rotundus and Paspalum conjugatum. The broadleaf weeds commonly found are borreria latifolia, C. rutidospema, Asystasia gangetica and Amaranthus spinosus. Naturally, the type of weed species found in an area depends on the inherent soil conditions and agronomic practices typical of the farm. 4.2.2 Pruning • Pruning is the activity of removal of a plant to improve its appearance and health and to control it growth and shape. Purposes of the pruning are: • Removed the dead / diseased portion /part. • To get the shape of the plant-landscape. • Sanitation. 23
  24. 24. The different between pruning and thinning is:• Pruning is the removal of portion of the plant to improve its appearance and health and to control it growth and shape whereas pinching is the removal of the terminal shoot on each branch of the flower and allows the lateral shoot to develop, thereby creating fuller plant. figure 4.9 shows the results of clipping trees and a shady.4.2.3 Mulching• Is the process of spreading generally organic plant materials between and around the plants to cover the soil. Mulches reduce soil moisture loss, reduce soil temperatures, control weed and increase organic matter content after decoying. Example of materials used: Leaves, rice straws, grass clippings, cocoa beans, sawdust, oil palm shell and ground fir bark.• A plastic Mulching used to site location plants as to control the weeds. 24
  25. 25. • White color: A minimizes attack from insect to perch under leaf.• Black color: For soil treatment. -To kill the pathogen from soil. figure 4.10 show the mulching completed installed. figure 4.11 to show the installation is in progress.4.3 Information4.3.1 Setting the drip systemIn all the plants, flow system is very important to planting because to support theplant growth well. From planting on flower bed (planting Chrysanthemum) it usedthe drip system. What we did it? Firstly, from the drip system has loose. So, we 25
  26. 26. learn the technique How to taut the rope. Most importantly, we should have bendcrossing string well. It’s because to support the drip system flow stay in wellposition and easy to manage.• Netting is used to support the Chrysanthemum plant. It needs to move up when the plant starts increasing to grown up. Figure 4.12 show how to made a setting the drip system4.3.2 Technology of Fertigation Fertigation is a combination of two words ‘Fertilization’ and ‘irrigation’. Theconcept of this system is to deliver fertilizer in form of a solution to the root zonethrough the irrigation system. This technology can be the applied in the soil orsoilless, in the open field or under protective structive structure (PS), However, 26
  27. 27. this system recommended implement in soilless media under prodectivestructure to reduce the risk of soil borne disease and disease of leaves, shootsand fruit on the plants. In addition, PS can also avoid the fertilizer solution givento the plant to be too liquid. Therefore, Fertilization is not effective. Media used iscoconut coir. Dust or better know as cocopeat because it is cheap and easily canobtained from local source. Equipment used in this system is stock tanks, solution tanks, filter, main pipe,delivery pipe, micro tube and dripper. Electrical power pump may be used as analternative to the gravity method to deliver the fertilizer solution to the plant ifinsufficient water pressure or to irrigate a vast area of the farm. The used of thelimer will make the fertigation system more efficient in terms of management ofthe fertilizer solution to the plant. Application of fertigation of fertigation systemhas many advantages, which may reduce the operation cost, improve quality andproductivity, time saving, reduce the number of labour and labor cost andincrease the efficiency of field management. Besides, fertilizer and water areeffectively used. Soilless media can reduce the risk of soil borne disease and avoid the soilpollution caused by salt accumulation. Fertigation is a clean system, odorless,environmental friendly and crop such as tomato, red chili, cucumber, zucchini,eggplant, melon, capsicum and strawberry.4.3.3 Soil and water conservation Soil erosion by water is main soil degradation process in CH. Erosion processis detachment and transportation of soil particles by erosion agent (i.e water andwind) and ended with deposition. Erosion carried together with nutrients, andpesticides resulting in eutrophication (nutrients enrichment in rivers and lakes).Objective of the soil and water conservation plot is to show the effectiveness of 27
  28. 28. cover crop and horizontal arrangement of soil bunds. Visitors are exposed to thetechniques in measuring soil loss, surface runoff and rainfall. Rhizotron isconstructed to show the root growth of daylily which is comparable to vetivergrass is recommended by FAO to control erosion on slopes.There are six construct plots in soil and water conservation area:1. Cabbage (Capitata)2. Kum Chum (Hemeocalis Fulva)3. Cover Crop (Desmodium sp.)4. Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides (L) Nash )5. Cabbage (Capitata)6. Lycium Sinensis (Kau Kei) Figure 4.13 show that how to use the clinometer. Slope for soil and water conservation plot is 5°. Used the clinometer for determine or measuring the slope.In researched, the Desmodium sp. is the best reducing in soil erosion.4.3.4 Asexual Propagation• Is the reproduction of plant which is not involved the fusion of gametes. The propagation utilizes the vegetative parts. 28
  29. 29. • Part of plant can be used in asexual propagation. Leave Stem Root Embryos Pollen grains Shoot tip CallusPurposes:• To retain the desirable characteristic of the mother plant.• To increase or multiply the number of plants rapidly.• To shorten the bearing age of plant, especially in fruit trees.• To prevent the plant species from being lost or extinct.• To produce superior strains and disease-resistance plant that will be best suitable under given climate and soil condition. 29
  30. 30. Figure 4.12 show that how to made the wedge and marchoting methods.4.3.5 Landscaping• Is the art of purposely changing the natural features that exist out-of-doors, with the intention of making the environment more attractive or functional. This is done to meet the extended needs for man for his physical needs, mental health and comfort.Functions of plants in Landscape design. Contribute to landscaping in two majorfunctions:a) Plants Physical Function:-Control Erosion-Soothes the climate-Provide screening from light, wind and from unwanted views-Create a form of direction-Protect wild-lifeb) Plants Esthetic Function:-Create spatial effect-Planning views-To soften the concrete effect on the environment-To connect concrete and structure with the ground effect-Creating unity effect on various elements in particular area 30
  31. 31. figure 4.13 show the landscape area.Figure 4.14 show the road landscape. 31
  32. 32. figure 4.15 show the cuctus garden area.As we know, Plants may be propagated under two (2) general categories: Sexualand vegetative or asexual propagation. Sexual Propagation• Is the common method of reproduction and multiply of plants. This is usually done with the use of seeds and spores. Garden vegetable like tomato, eggplant, radish, carrot, mustard and legume crops (Cawpea, Munyo and Peas) are generally propagated by seeds. Fruits trees such as avocado, santol, jackfruit, guava, mango, etc. are also propagated by the use of seeds, although in some cases, the resulting plant may not come true to type and to not have the same characteristic as the parent plants.• Seeds are still the most economical and fastest means in the reproduction of plants. However, some plants like fruit trees produced from seeds very in their characteristics. Hence, we cannot always expect springs or progenies. Ferns and mosses are by natural propagation by spores.Asexual Propagation• Is the development of new plant natural or artificial with the use of seeds, since it does not involve the function of sex, it is commonly referred to as asexual. 32
  33. 33. Disadvantages:• There is possibility of disease being transmitted from the parent to the new individual plant.• Some source of certified scion or buds sticks is a usual problem. 4.3.6 CompostWhat is Composting? Zucconi and Berthold (1987)defined composting as a controlled bioxidative process that:i. Involved a heterogeneous organic substrate in the solid state.ii. Evolves by passing through a hemophilic phase and a temporary release of phototoxic and ;iii. Leads to production of carbon dioxide, water minerals and a stabilized organic matter (compost).Factors Affecting Composting Process• Micro-organism• Carbon : nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio)• Particles size 33
  34. 34. • Aeration• Moisture• Temperature• Size of heapCube Box Cocopeat• When wallowed into the water and they are also to be enlarge used to fill up into the poly bag are about 10 poly bags. Figure 4.16 show the Cube Box Cocopeat.Other Benefits of compost are:• It stores and slowly releases some nutrients, for some effective use to the plants.• The organic matter is increased, thereby the root structure, especially the root hairs of the plants are increased.• It balances the pH of the soil by acting as butter.• By recycling wastes into compost, the environment becomes more sustainable.• It attracts earthworms and soil organisms that are responsible for making the soil a ‘living’ soil.• It reduces soil erosion• It suppresses certain soil borne diseases• It reduces reliance on petroleum based fertilizers 34
  35. 35. Manage Labour• Weed control• Organic fertilizer application• Compost making• Crop production measures• Post harvest handling and marketing4.3.7 Propagation techniques• Are the studies of process of extending the life of a particular species of plant such as propagation by grafting like wedge grafting, and whip or tongue grafting. Whip or Tongue Grafting• This method has districts advantage of allowing a much greater area of cambial contact than either cleft or saddle grafting.Procedure:• Start in the same manner as cleft or saddle grafting• After cutting back the rootstock, make a smooth slanting cut about 3-5 cm long where you intend to make the graft• About 1/3 from the cut surface, make a downward cut so it would form some sort of a tongue that point upward• Make similar but reverse cut on the scion• Fit them together making sure their tongues interlock snugly and bind with a plastic tape.Method of Artificial propagation 35
  36. 36. CuttingIs a detached portion of the selected mother plants intended to be multiplied, ofwhich at least one-third to one-half of the length is inserted in the soil or rootingmedia with the sole purpose of producing new plant. Cuttings may be divided intotree classes: Root cuttings made from matured roots as in the case of rimas. Leaf cuttings as in Begonia Stem cuttings soft wood cuttings may either be made from young and immature parts of the plants as in the case of Gumammela, San Francissco and Papua. Hardwood cuttings are made from matured twigs of the plants intended to be produced as in the case of Bougainvillea. Lately, success has been made in producing rooted Chico and citrus with the use of cuttings dipped in root hormone solution.Factors to be Considered in Grafting The weather conditions and the stage of plant should be considered forthe success in grafting. Grafting may be done at the beginning of the dry seasonand rainy season. The scion should be well-prepared from selected pedigreedtrees, the characteristics of which are to be perpetuated. In the same manner, thestock should be healthy, vigorous and free from diseases and insect pests.Basic Requirements of Plant Life1) Water2) Energy3) Air4) MediumWater Water enables all the major metabolic processes within the plant. Water acts as a solvent to convey nutrients, foods and other substances throughout the plant. 36
  37. 37.  Water provides plant cells with their internal Turgor Pressure. The quantity and quality of water in important -Too much water in the soil can cause the plant to suffocate. Wet roots are more susceptible to rot or mold (kulat). -Too little water will result in loss of turgidity, wilting. Metabolic processes will be reduced, leading to growth retardation and possible death. -Water can be unsuitable for plants if it contains: Pollutants such as herbicides; high salinity: mud or silt.Marcotting• Is the process of inducing Brach or twigs to produce roots while still attached to the parent plant.Procedure:• Firstly, to prepare all equipment those like knife, suitable plant, medium, hormone and etc.• To select the suitable plant.• Make a girdle around the branch about 1 to 2 cm wide or depend on the size of the branch.• Scrape off the cambium layer completely to prevent the re-growth of the bark. It may help to apply a rooting compound to the exposed the stem.• Wrap the cut surface with about a handful of medium. If the medium is too wet, the stem may decay.• Wrap with a piece of plastic film about 15 × 20 cm around the ball of medium and tie all around with cotton twine. The plastic film keeps down loss of moisture from the medium.• As soon as you see enough roots throughout the plastic film, cut the marcotted branch from the mother plant. It may be from 2 to 12 months after marcotting depends on the crop. 37
  38. 38. • Cutting may be done in gradual basis until if attain sufficient roots to live by itself as indicated by a new flush of growth (a critical period for the new plant). figure 4.17 marcotting completed.4.3.8 Outdoor activitiesWe have an opportunity there with staff Mardi mountain climbing. 38
  39. 39. CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION In conclusion, we have got more information and knowledge in MARDICameron Highlands. One of all, many thank to MARDI Cameron Highlandsorganizers because they were accepted us as practical training students there.As long as 5 weeks we have completely done our practical training, also we have7 units followed such as Ms. Aini Hayati bt Abd Rahaman in unit Soil and WaterConservation. With her, we have learned about Chrysanthemum plant. Secondly, followed by Mr. Yazed bin Mahiyuddin in unit of Cutting,Roses, Orchid Management. In his unit, we learned that how to make transplantthe Chrysanthemum plant and pruning at Gerbera plant. Thirdly, we followed En. 39
  40. 40. Mustafa Kamal bin Hanafiah in unit of commercial project. With his, he teaches tous how to make that filled up cocopeat into the poly bags, put mulching on thebed and make medium mixture (cocopeat:Organic fertilizer)(1:1,5:1). We learnedabout organic plants there are no need chemical matters and they use biologicalcontrol for maintenance. After that, we have followed Mr. Osman Sah in unit SubTropical Project. With his, we learned about propagation techniques such asmarcotting and cutting. We have got experience to make marcotting and cutting.It was interesting for us to learn. Then, we have followed Mr. Mohammad Nor in unit Tea Plantation. Wewere learned to pruning and weeding. Morning Glory is challenging between teaplant and Morning Glory, so they need to cut off. Propagation for tea is cutgrafting. Tea plant has live for many years. After that, we have followed Mr.Mohammad Abid in unit Agronomy. We have put mulching on the bed, filled upthe cocopeat, pruning and harvest tomatoes. Lastly, we have followed Mr. Saifulin unit Entemology. In his unit, we have learned about pest and disease forexample, there are four main insects in Cameron Highlands such as PlutellaXylostella, Leaf Minor, Red Spider Mites and White Fly. For control component,there is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) such as parasite, predator, bacteriaand virus. Finally, we have apologies to all organization. We hope all thoseknowledge we can use for next time. All profits that come from God and all comethat from our lack. Virtually all gains and losses have come from Allah S.W.T. 40
  41. 41. CHAPTER 6: REFERENCESDerector, infomardi : Chrysanthemum, Info Center Argo Technology, MARDI, Cameron Highlans.Derector, infomardi: tea, Info Center Argo Technology, MARDI, Cameron Highlans.Derector, infomardi: fruits, Info Center Argo Technology, MARDI, Cameron Highlans.En. Zulkifli bin Mohd Saaid, A. R. (2009), Agronomy, MARDI Cameron Highlands.Pahang.Aro technology part, welcome to Cameron HighlandsSelamat, Pahang.Puan Aini Hayati, A.R. (2009), Sistem Fertigasi, Bahagian Pengurusan dan Pemuliharaan Sumber Tanah, MARDI Cameron Highlands.Prof Rasyid: Landscape AGR 112, propagation, UiTM Arau, Perlis. 41
  42. 42. CHAPTER 7:APPENDIX Appendix 1 Crop pests Major insect pest attack should be given particular attention to plants grown under the protective structure of plants. Among the main insect pest, the type of damage and control methods for plant tomatoes, chilli and melon are as follows. Plant Pest Damage controlChili Afid (Aphis gossypii) • Tues suck fluid • Mulching plastic leaves, young leaves shine can prevent • Flea leaf green wrinkled landing afid, reduce kehijau parents, berkerinting the number of afid, there below the produce klorosis can further reduce surface of the spots, stunted fruit disease virus leaf trees and attacked infection. virus disease • natural enemies such as tortoise beetles can help reduce the number of afid. Selected chemical poisons such as profenofos and imidacloprid spraying when necessary and repeated 7 days later. 42
  43. 43. Chili Kutu Trips (Thrips • Tues suck fluid leaves, • mulching plastic sp.) leaves become smaller shine prevent and and privation, wrinkled reduce the number • Insects fine, and curved tapering of early attacks. yellow, found in upward, brown leaves Poisonous chemicals flowers, shoots under the surface. such as imidacloprid, and leaves Kill young shoots, the fipronil and carrier virus disease. profenofos spraying when necessary and repeated 7 days later.Chili Hama • ues suck fluid leaves, • Poison pests such (Polyphagotarsonemu leaf berkerinting, as propargit used s latus, Tetranychus small, pointed and when necessary and sp.) Very small curved down. repeated 7 days (<1 mm) white later. • Texture thick and Yellowish brittle leaves, shoots to kill. White fly • Insects are sucking the • insecticide such as (Bemisia tabaci) fluid from the surface of profenofos (10 HST),Chili • Small, white wings the leaf. Leaves turn prothiophos (7 HST), and body. yellow and sometimes furathiocarb (7 HST), there are spots klorosis. malathion (7 HST), oil • This insect produces and white imidaclorprid sweets that encourage (7 HST) effective control fungal growth-kan soot of these flies. Insecticide on the surface of leaves. sprays can also prevent This prevents fungus the spread of white fly virus spread as • affect the process of permanent (persistent). photosynthesis and plant growth. 43
  44. 44. Appendix 2WHAT KULTUR In-VitroCultured in-vitro culture covering protoplas, cells, tissues and organs in the mediaand the right environment and aseptik.USE IN TECHNICAL-vitro1. Plant breeding clones quickly2. Liberation of plant disease3. Method storage janaplasma4. Embryo rescue5. In plant breeding techniques such as culture specific haploid6. Production such as culture haploid7. Production of compounds, such as drugs, enzymes, flavorings and others.BENEFITS OF IN-vitro reproduction1. A high reproductive rate and fast2. Quality high yield and uniform3. Plant materials can be obtained at any time4. Production of planting material more easily controlled5. Planting material easily brought to anygrowth crops that can be difficult to breed in commonCROP PRODUCTION PROCESS MATERIALSPhase 1 - Preparation of plant materialsPhase 2 - Phase inductancePhase 3 - Phase reproductive shootsPhase 4 - Phase pengakaran shootsStage 5 - Stage management in the home nursery and natural conditionsPROBLEMS AND TECHNICAL doubts about the In-Vitro1. Melibatan the high cost2. Memerlikan expertise of high3. Mutation 44
  45. 45. EKSPLANEkspaln the tree that is separated from the parent tree, which is used to start theculture in-vitro. In theory any plant can be used as part eksplan, for example theend of shoots, stems, leaves and roots. Parts are used depending on the type ofcrops, methods and goals of the culture.MEDIUMEksplan separated from the parent tree interrupted supply elements essential tolife and further growth. Therefore, elements of this growth medium suppliedthrough (artificial). Medium can be solid or liquid medium. Generally in-vitroculture medium consisted of the following components:1. Macro nutrients2. Micro nutrients3. Sugar4. Vitamins5. Growth regulators6. Natural extracts7. Pemejal agents and otherMEDIUM MS (MURASHIGE AND SKOOG, 1962)A. Macro nutrients1. Ammonium Nitrate2. Potassium Nitrate3. Potassium Phosphate4. Magnesium Sulfate5. Calcium KloridB Micro Nutrients1. Acid Borik2. Manganum Sulfate3. Zinc Sulfate4. Potassium Iodid5. Sodium Molibdat 45
  46. 46. 6. Copper Sulfate7. Cobalt KlorideA. Iron 1. Iron Sulfate 2. Dinatrium ethylene Diaminatetra Acetate (Na EDTA) B Vitamins 1. Thiamine 2. Piridoksin 3. Nikotonoc acid 4. Glycine C. Material growth regulators (hormones) 1. Auxin 2. Sitokinin 3. Gibberelin D. Natural extracts 1. Coconut water 2. Tomato juice, fruit juice and other E. Agent pemejal 1. Agar-agar 2. Agar-agar Artificial (Gelrite) F. Other additional 1. Mio-Inositol 2. Activated charcoal 3. AntibioticsPHYSICAL FACTORS that affect tree growth1. Temperature - around 25 - 28oC2. Light - 1.000 to 3.000 lux in the room growth from 12 to 16 hours3. medium pH - 5.7 - 5.8 for MS medium4. ventilation - the volume of medium in about 20 - 25% of the volume of container. 46
  47. 47. GENERAL PRACTICES KULTUR In-Vitro1. THE ASEPTIKAmong the most important thing in the work culture in-vitro is cleanliness. Theaim is to maintain the status sterility (bacteria free) culture in the former. It isimportant to maintain cleanliness of the room, especially growth. Usedesinfaktant like Dettol to wipe floor room from time to time growth isencouraged. Culture that is often contaminated diautoklafkan separately beforethe former kutur washed for reuse.2. SUB-KULTURCulture should be transferred to new medium when the food supply in themedium has been exhausted, a different medium when needed or whenchanging the nature of medium (dry, changing colors). Discoloration mediumshowed production of hazardous waste to the tissue. Normally, eachpengsubkulturan done 2 to 6 weeks. 47
  48. 48. Appendix 3DEBT ORKIDMEDIA: VACIN AND WENT (VW1) 1949 (modification) KOMPONEN Total for 1 liter Total for Total volume Total volume stock of stock used of stock used Media (g/liter) (g/100ml) (m/liter) (m/liter)1 NUTRIEN MAKROA. Trikalsium fosfat 20 2 10 1 Ca3(PO4) + HClB. Kalium Nitrat 52.2 5.25 10 26.1 KNO3C. Asid monokalium fosfat 25 2.5 10 12.5 KH2PO4D. Magnesium sulfat 25 2.5 10 12.5 mgSO4 7H2OE. Ammonium sulfat 50 5 10 25 (NH4)2 SO42 NUTRIEN MIKROF. 1)Manganum Sulfat 0.075 0.0075 10 0.0375 2) Boric Asid 0.056 g 0.0056 0.028 3) Molybolic Asid 0.016 g 0.0016 - 4) Cuprum sulfat 0.04 g 0.004 0.02 5) Zink Sulfat 0.33 g 0.033 0.1653 FERUMG. 1) NaEDTA 3.73 0.373 10 1.865 2) Ferum Sulfat FeSO4 7H2O 2.78 0..78 1.394 OTHER ENHANCEMENTS Sukrose 20 Coconut water 200 ml Burn Frozen Agar-agar Gelrite 1.4 gm/liter Activate Charcoal 2 gm/liter 48