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Mobile Backhaul 101


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An overview of the mobile backhaul market, the demands being placed on backhaul networks by wireless technologies such as 4G LTE, and technologies such as Carrier Ethernet that can help create more robust mobile backhaul networks.

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Mobile Backhaul 101

  1. 1. Mobile Backhaul 101 The Basics of Mobile Backhaul using Carrier Ethernet© Ciena
  2. 2. Market Dynamics Driving Changes inBackhaul Networks© Ciena
  3. 3. Mobile Subscribers Keep Growing Worldwide Mobile Subscribers 4.5 4 3.5 3 Billions 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 CY06 CY07 CY08 CY09 CY10 CY11 Source: Infonetics Research, March 20083 © Ciena
  4. 4. Mobile Backhaul ConnectionsAre Increasing Worldwide 4000 Connections (K) 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 CY05 CY06 CY07 CY08 CY09 CY10 Calendar Year New Connections Installed Connections Source: Infonetics Research4 © Ciena
  5. 5. Data Traffic Is Growing Rapidly Worldwide Average Bandwidth per Installed Connection (Mpbs) 25 20 15 Mbps 10 5 0 CY05 CY06 CY07 CY08 CY09 CY10 Calendar Year SONET/SDH PDH and ATM over PDH New Ethernet Wireline Source: Infonetics Research5 © Ciena
  6. 6. Data Dramatically Increases Traffic Load Source: T-Mobile Europe T-Mobile adds HSDPA6 © Ciena
  7. 7. 4G Mobile Networks Are Going Live Source: Light Reading Backhaul Tracker, October 20097 © Ciena
  8. 8. The 4G Marketplace Major carriers committed to LTE include 39 LTE network commitments in 19 countries (Source: GSA) LTE Rollouts 14 LTE networks anticipated to be in service by end 2010 (GSA) 31 LTE networks anticipated to be in service by end 2012 (GSA) 136 million subscribers expected by end 2014 (Pyramid Research May 2009) $70 Billion service by 2014 (Source:Juniper Research)8 © Ciena
  9. 9. Causing an Even Greater Growth in Demand Source: Light Reading Backhaul Tracker, October, 20099 © Ciena
  10. 10. Cost is driving MNOs from TDM to Ethernet Ethernet Provides Bandwidth at Reduced Cost per Bit10 © Ciena
  11. 11. Ethernet Backhaul Technology Choices© Ciena
  12. 12. Ethernet Backhaul – Network Choices Legacy Ethernet (No MEF compliance) Carrier Class Ethernet (MEF compliance) 1. Connection-less Ethernet 802.1Q or 802.1ad or 802.1ah: VLANs 2. Connection Oriented Ethernet 802.1Qay (PBB-TE): VLANs MPLS-TP: Traffic Engineered PWs over LSP 3. IP control plane based IP or MPLS VPNs IP VPN: Ethernet over L2TPv3 over IP MPLS VPN: Ethernet PW or VLAN over LSP12 © Ciena
  13. 13. Connection Oriented Ethernet Backhaul Technology ComparisonKey aspects Connectionless IP VPNs MPLS MPLS-TP PBB/PBB-TE Ethernet (Work In Progress)Interoperability - EthernetMEF Ethernet UNI/ENNI             MEF Ethernet Services Need IWF (L2TP, GRE)Interoperability - other      MPLS NNI  ATM/FR/TDM/MPLS UNI Need IWF, dry Martini Need IWF (L2TP, GRE) Need IWF, dry MartiniTransparency   L3Address & control protocols             L2ScalabilityNetwork & Services           (Pt-Pt & MPt)Reliability50-100msec protection    FRR       Disjoint Working/Protectpaths    1+1ManageabilityFault sectionalization     TBD     Service & Network OAM/PMDeterministic Perf/QoSGuaranteed rate,           latency/jitter/lossLow CapEx and OpEx       TBD      13 © Ciena
  14. 14. Meeting 4G Backhaul Requirements  Carrier-class OAM (SONET-like) OAM   Performance management Protection mechanism support  OAM & clock sync message delivery QoS   High priority user traffic (VoIP, Video) Managed traffic flows with multi-class QoS Granular bandwidth control for better QoS management Bandwidth   Protection path management Management  Oversubscription for low priority traffic  Rapid protection Protection  Managed bandwidth and QoS on failover  Node and link diverse paths  Support more cost-effective topologies Topology  uWave, copper, fiber hybrid support  Reduced tower footprint Minimize provisioning cost/effort/complexity Provisioning and   SONET-like simplicity Management  MAC address management Co-existence with legacy networks during transition Transition and   Convergence with residential and enterprise packet transport Convergence14 © Ciena
  15. 15. Key 4G Objectives Higher Speeds – 100 Mbit/s peak downlink, 50 Mbit/s peak uplink – Network MIMO and MBMS-Single Frequency Node (MBMS-SFN) requirements – enable new applications Lower Latencies Less than 10 ms – enables high speed apps Clock Synchronization Phase and frequency clock synchronization X2 Interface Support Provide efficient delivery of tower to tower traffic Backward Compatibility Hand-over and roaming with existing GSM/EDGE/UMTS networks15 © Ciena
  16. 16. Ethernet Backhaul Solutions© Ciena
  17. 17. Solution: Example Ethernet Backhaul Architecture Core Metro Edge Access ISP P PE 10Gig Q-in-Q (Q) 10Gig GigE (P) PBB-TE (P) PBB-TE (P)National P PE MPLS H-VPLS (H) Summary  Diverse path PBB-TE from every radio site  IEEE 802.1ag used throughout the network  Tiered resiliency solution for minimal impact to services  CIR/EIR per service and per tunnel  Advanced OAM features Y.1731, per service loop-backs, etc  Management for tunnel and service provisioning 17 © Ciena
  18. 18. Solution Component: Accelerating Installation,Provisioning and Upgrades – Reduced OPEX NOC pushes service profile to server 3 ESM Network Servers OPERATOR 1 NOC creates work order Switch Installed with no configuration 4 2 required by field personnel Ethernet switch self-configures Automation leads to 75% less installation & configuration time with zero touch upgrades18 © Ciena
  19. 19. Solution Component: Performance Management Y.1731 Performance Management Y.1731 ETH-LM PM PRIMARY PBB-TE BCBs PBB-TE PBB-TE BEB BEB BACKUP Connection Oriented Ethernet with Y.1731 Performance Management • Performance Management between Tunnel Endpoints • Provides Service Independent Tunnel Monitoring • Enhanced Scalability: 1,000’s of services may traverse the tunnel without the need to monitor every service • Leverages 802.1ag frames for reduced overhead • Multiple packets sent at 100ms interval to perform the test • Frame Delay / Frame Delay Variation / Loss Measurement • 2-way Delay Roundtrip Measurement • 1-way Delay Measurement (requires common time base) • Single Ended Frame-Loss (MEP to MEP)19 © Ciena
  20. 20. Solution Component: Protection / Restoration 802.1ag CFM Continuity Check Messages (CCM) 802.3ah OAM – Physical Link • Link Loopback CCM ( + CCM.rdi from far-end MEP) • Service Affecting (dual homed) • Active or Passive per port config PRIMARY • Errored frame seconds reported (Link Monitoring) • Link based dying gasp reported (Fault Signaling) PBB-TE • OAM Discovery 802.1ag CFM / Y.1731 Virtual Service BCBs • Non Service Affecting • Per VLAN/Tunnel MAC Ping (LoopBack) PBB-TE • Per VLAN/Tunnel MAC Traceroute PBB-TE BEB • Per VLAN/Tunnel Continuity Check BEB • Constantly Checks Service State BACKUP • Reports Error if 3 CCMs are lost • 10 msec to 10min intervals • Maintenance End-Points & Intermediate-Points • Y.1731 Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) • Hierarchical Maintenance Domains (MD)Connection Oriented Ethernet with 802.1ag CFM• Single or Dual Homed• Intelligent Tunnel Synchronization• Tunnel Monitoring and Failure Detection • 802.1ag CCMs (loss of 3 CCM indicates a fault) • Rapid protection switching • Optional automatic Reversion with configurable timers• Configurable EtherTypes to facilitate vendor interoperability 20 © Ciena
  21. 21. Solution Component: Service Guarantees Explicit QoS per Tunnel per ServiceIngress QoS Two Rate/Three-Color Policing CIR/EIR, 64kbps-1Gbps, 64kbps increments Classification  Ingress Port  Customer VID  CoS  802.1p  IP Precedence  Diff Serve  MPLS EXP (LE-311v)  2R/3C QoS Maximizes the DynamicEgress QoS Bandwidth of a Packet-based Network Two Rate/Three-Color Shaping  EIR – Excess (Peak) Information Rate CIR/EIR, 64Kbps-8Gbps, 64Kbps Bandwidth Up To the EIR is Used When increments Available RED Congestion Management Strict and WFQ Scheduling Bandwidth Above the EIR is Dropped Classification  CIR – Committed Information Rate  Ingress/Egress Port Bandwidth Up To the CIR Is Guaranteed  Service VID  Both Unicast and Multicast may have  CoS EIR/CIR  802.1p  IP Precedence  Diff Serve  MPLS EXP (LE-311v) 21 © Ciena
  22. 22. Solution Component: Multiservice over Ethernet W-CDMA Node B (R4/R99)GSM BTS 2G BSC ATM TDM (GSM or (NxE1 IMA) (Ch STM1 to CDMA) 64kbps level) TDM (NxE1) Pseudowire ATM (STM1) Access GE Aggregation FE  GE 3G RNC Ethernet True Carrier Ethernet (UMTS R99) (10/100) Gigabit Ethernet/IP 3G RNC - W-CDMA NodeB (R5/R6) - CDMA2000 Node B (UMTS R5/R6 or CDMA2000)  Multiservice platforms built for TDM, ATM and Ethernet backhaul  Voice, Data & Video isolation achieved via Individual Pseudowires Individual VLANs  Flexible & Cost effective  Carrier grade & QoS/CoS aware 22 © Ciena
  23. 23. Solution Component: Synchronization over a Packet Network Timing Distribution Mechanisms: 4G 4G eNB MME GPS Synchronization 3G NB S-GW Direct E1/T1 Circuit P-GW NodeB Ethernet Differential Timing3G Source Recovery 3G Adaptive Timing RNC E1 /T1 IEEE-1588v2 Ethernet BTS E1/T1 Synchronous Ethernet Ethernet2G 2G Gateway Aggregator BSC Packet Switched Network There are multiple ways to synchronize an end device over a packet infrastructure RAN :  GPS synchronization system at the cell-site and the head-end site  Traditional Network Synchronization (BITS, Line, Sonet/SDH, etc) at each end  Differential timing over PSN using RTP - distribution at BSC/RNC with recovery at cell-site  Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR) with recovery at the cell-site using jitter buffers and PLLs  G.8261 Synchronous Ethernet - Uses physical layer for accurate frequency distribution  IEEE 1588v2 – Time and frequency distribution using time-stamp information exchange 23 © Ciena
  24. 24. Solution Component: Time SynchronizationSync-E (G.8261) provides frequency sync only  Accesssufficient for 2G/3G non-TDD radio technology Ring OC AccessSync-E requires all devices along the path from RingGM to radio be capableIEEE 1588v2 (G.8262) provides frequency andphase sync Transport Ordinary Clock (OC) at cell sites Ring OC Transparent Clock (TC) deployed strategically BC Boundary Clock (BC) for regen & scalability TC1588v2 can traverse non-1588v2 aware L2/L3 TC OCswitches TC Transport To meet LTE radio timing requirements  Sync-E for BC Access OC TC Ring Ring frequency, 1588v2 for phase alignment and TC frequency TC TC 1588v2 Evolved SyncE Packet Core24 © Ciena
  25. 25. Summary• Increasing mobile traffic demands force a migration to packet backhaul• Ethernet architectures meets technical requirements (if it includes all the appropriate components) • Scalable bandwidth • Automated management • Performance management • Resiliance • QoS • Timing• Pseudowire technology provides a seamless migration strategy to LTE backhaul25 © Ciena
  26. 26. Thank You© Ciena