BIOGRAPHY• 1743, Thomas Jefferson born on April 13,1743, at Shadwell, Goochland• 1767, Began practicing law.• 1772, Married Martha Wayles Skelton (shedied in 1782, after giving birth to their sixthchild, Lucy Elizabeth).• 1775, While a delegate to the ContinentalCongress, Jefferson drafted the Declarationof Independence.
• 1776, Entered the Virginia House of Delegates, where he fought for theseparation of church and state.• 1779, Jefferson became the Governor of Virginia, but abdicated his secondterm in 1781 after the British invaded Virginia.• 1785, Appointed Minister to France (replacing Benjamin Franklin)• 1796, Jefferson elected Vice-President of the USA (John Adams was thePresident and his opponent in the election)
• 1800, Jefferson elected President of the USA. New reforms.• 1804, Jefferson re-elected President of the USA.• 1809, Jefferson retired from elected office and returned to Monticello (inVirginia).• 1819, Founded the University of Virginia.• 1826, Jefferson and Adams died at Monticello on July 4, 1826.
A summary view of the Rights of British America (1774)•This work originated in a paper by Thomas Jefferson entitled "Instructions," In it heset out his thoughts on government and human rights.•The book has been described by one historian as a "landmark in American history."Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking UpArms (1775)•On July 6, 1775, the day following adoption of the Olive Branch Petition,the Second Continental approved the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity ofTaking up Arms, a statement authored jointly by Thomas Jefferson and JohnDickinson.MAIN WORKS
• Congress asked ThomasJefferson and others to write adeclaration of independence.• They needed a document todeclare why the colonies had tobecome independent of Britain.• Jefferson wrote that people havethe right to live, the right to befree, and the right to seekhappiness.DECLARATION OFINDEPENDENCE, 1776
Virginia Statue of religionus freedom, 1777•The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 by ThomasJefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia.•In 1786, the Assembly enacted the statute into the states law.Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth(1804-1895)•was a book constructed by Thomas Jefferson in the latter years of his life bycutting and pasting numerous sections from the New Testament as extractions ofthe doctrine of Jesus.
• was a report submitted to the U.S.House of Representatives on July13, 1790 bySecretary ofState Thomas Jefferson.• On January 2, 1790, GeorgeWashington urged Congress toaddress the need for the uniformsystem of weights and measures,and on January 15, 1790, theHouse of Representativesrequested Thomas Jefferson todraw up a planPLAN FOR ESTABLISHING UNIFORMITY IN THE COINAGE,WHEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE UNITED STATESA REPORT SUBMITTED TO CONGRESS (1790)
• Jefferson was highly influenced by Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and JohnLocke.• The trinity of the world’s greatest men.INFLUENCES
• Power of observation and advantages ofspeaking from observation.• Observation should underlinegeneralizations.• Books are considered to be a necessityof life.• Classification of Jefferson’s libraryunder the heads of History (Memory),Philosophy (Reason), and Fine Arts(Imagination).FRANCIS BACON
• Deification of nature.• System of the world as a modelgovernment: a natural religion thathas mathematical foundations.• Application of mathematicalinterpretation of the physical worldto the non-pshysical world.• Ordered, predictable, law-governedpolitical world.ISAAC NEWTON
• Locke’s influence is obviouslyseen in the Declaration ofIndependence• Basic principle: men have certainnatural rights which belong tothem because they are men.• Governments would be organizedto secure the protection ofownership and property rights.JOHN LOCKE
• Jefferson as the image of individualismand liberty.• Jefferson’s economic and politicalphilosophy has become the standard bywhich American laws are measured.• He is named the father of Americancapitalism and the first American supplyside economist.• Lover of learning and a man of the mind.
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, thatthey are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that amongthese are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure theserights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers fromthe consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Governmentbecomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or toabolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on suchprinciples and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem mostlikely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”DECLARATION OFINDEPENDENCE
• A world famous political manifesto• Jefferson’s revolutionary vision• A political speech• .Describes about the law of natureThomas Jefferson’s principles•All men are created equal•All have the natural rights of life•The right of life, the right ofprotecting life, the right of liberty•Such rights that are given by nature•Unalienable rights of the people
• Agreement among people to form a government• In order to preserve their rights• People have their right to abolish a despotic government• First function of the government: preserve the inalienable human rights• Secondary function of the government: establish diplomatic relationship withother states• Jefferson believes on the supreme power of people and on revolutions• The revolution of the people can abolish the despotic governmentCREATION OF A GOVERNMENT
• This government is criticized by Jefferson• A despotic government• Was not formed by the consent of the people• It did not represent the people• It did not protect or preserve the inalienable rights of the people• The colonial government destroyed the life of the people• It seized the happiness of the people• It caused communal war between black and white AmericansA CRITIC OF THE COLONIALGOVERNMENT
Consequences•Thirteen American states declared independence in1776•The colonial government was abolished•Jefferson has become an independent democraticleader