What does BIM mean for Civil Engineers?

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BIM is a norm for the building industry. How about for infrastructures? Some countries are over confident on the implementation of BIM in both building and civil engineering industries. Is the BIM technology for infrastructures mature and easily available? Are the professionals ready for BIM?

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What does BIM mean for Civil Engineers?

  1. 1. What does BIM mean for Civil Engineers? Prepared by Ir C K Ng 27 Nov 2013 The Institution of Civil Engineers Hong Kong
  2. 2. Building Professionals Civil Engineer What does BIM mean for Civil Engineers?
  3. 3.  BIM Consultant of Build.IT  Graduated from HKU in Civil Engineering  Member of The Institute of Civil Engineers  Worked for 10 years in HKG engineering departments  Emigrated to Canada in 1992, working as AutoCAD 3rd party developer – Floor/Rack/Panel/Device/Port FM system  Returned to HK in 1995, working as Resident Site Staff until 2013  30 years in civil and structural engineering experience  Received MSc in Geo-information Systems, HKPU, 1998  Chairman of BIM for Infrastructure Discipline, HKIUS  MHKIE in CIVIL and INFORMATION Disciplines Speaker
  4. 4. Topics • Definition of BIM • Essential Elements of a BIM software • Terms to know • BIM includes Civil Engineering - CIM? • CE - plant, structure, utilities, earthwork • BIM Strategy • Lessons learnt from New Civil Engineer • BIM Contractual Issues • Considerations and Actions • (Optional) Summary of CIC BIM Roadmap Paper
  5. 5. Definition of BIM (Wiki) Recent (2nd Generation): Building information modeling (BIM) is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The resulting building information models become shared knowledge resources to support decision-making about a facility from earliest conceptual stages, through design and construction, through its operational life and eventual demolition.
  6. 6. Definition of BIM (original) Description by Jerry Laiserin (Father of BIM) : 3D object-oriented AEC-specific CAD • 3 Dimensional solid model (Singapore Spec) • Model-based (Parametric) • AEC (Building) specific 3 Essential Elements of BIM Software
  7. 7. More elements of a BIM authoring software • Information Embedded or Linked • Data Richness is a measurement of Min. BIM Req. • Automatic Versioning • Unique model while allowing simultaneous access by different team/disciplines BIM - "a model-based technology linked with a database of project information" i.e. it relies on database technology as the foundation Formal judgment by Minimum BIM Requirements in line with the Capability Maturity Model.
  8. 8. • Data Richness. • Lifecycle Views. • Change Management or ITIL Maturity Assessment. • Roles or Disciplines. • Business Process. • Timeliness/ Response. • Delivery Method. • Graphical Information. • Spatial Capability. • Information Accuracy. • Interoperability/IFC Support. Minimum BIM (CMM)
  9. 9. 3D object-oriented AEC-specific Architect‟s Plan View 3D View 3D View Engineer‟s Plan View
  10. 10. Difference between CAD and BIM Traditional CAD 2D->3D Point, line, text (Singapore – not accepted as BIM submissions) BIM 3D->2D, dim. details reduced Grids, levels, wall, door, window, column, slab, stair, water pipe, ventilation duct, cable tray Each component in the model is unique spatially – this forces the change of construction industry mindset on collaboration.
  11. 11. History of BIM 1975 2002 2005 2009 2013 Shanghai Tower CrossRail Island East One Water Cube Bird‟s Nest Stadium Penn Water Plant C Eastman Jerry Laserin Gehry Revit ArchiCAD Bentley Arch Revit ArchiCAD AECOsim 2002 – Software development 2005 – First batch of BIM software 2009 – Mature BIM software 2013 – Landmark BIM projects almost complete and being reviewed Vectorwork
  12. 12. Terms to know 1. O-O : Object-oriented Analysis and Design (Booch) – it is a common computer programming technique. Object has attributes and actions. (Object=Model=Class) 2. IFC - Industry Foundation Class created by buildingSMART for data exchange of building components like DXF (Drawing eXchange Format) for CAD graphics 3. Level of Detail (UK) – LOD1/2/3/4/5. Details may be shown in 2D. 4. Level of Development (US) – LOD100/../500
  13. 13. 3DVisualization Clash Analysis 4DConstruction sequencing Virtual Construction (3D plus time element) 5DEstimating (3D plus cost element) 6D?Forensic analysis (3D plus analysis element) 7D?Facility Management (3D plus O&M element) 5. BIM nD Terminology
  14. 14. 3D Modelling
  15. 15. 3D Visualization
  16. 16. 3D Co-ordination
  17. 17. 3D Clash Analysis
  18. 18. Common Clashes
  19. 19. Underground Utilities
  20. 20. 4D Walk Through
  21. 21. 4D Virtual Construction
  22. 22. 4D Scheduling
  23. 23. BIM Applications
  24. 24. BIM Applications
  25. 25. BIM Applications
  26. 26. BIM Applications
  27. 27. BIM Applications
  28. 28. BIM Applications
  29. 29. BIM Applications
  30. 30. BIM Applications
  31. 31. 6. BIM Maturity Level (UK) CAD, AssetIM, SIM, FIM, BSIM, BRIM, IDM, IFC, IFD, iBIM
  32. 32. 6. Level 3 (True BIM)  Imagine the BIM model is part of the tender documents  Specifications are attached to components  All participants can have access to view the model easily  BIM model is no difference to 2D CAD Drawings.  Contractually, BIM (Level 3) = Drawings  Challenge - BIM must be very accurate, can avoid many discrepancies.
  33. 33. 6. BIM Maturity Level 2, 2016
  34. 34. BIM includes Civil Engineering? Civil BIM or CIM?  Many people argue that „Building‟ in BIM is a verb, not a structure for occupation, so BIM can apply to Civil Engineering.  Civil engineers have used 2.5D (MOSS) for 20 years. Command-based 3D representation existed long time ago, although not popular due to the use of powerful Mini computers.  Use of BIM since 2005  Some are BIM applicable. Some remains as 2.5D CADD.
  35. 35. 0 SECTION 2 ENTITIES 0 CIRCLE 100 AcDbCircle 10 10.0 20 10.0 30 0.0 40 5.0 0 ENDSEC DXF
  36. 36. #35695= IFCWALLSTANDARDCASE('3m7gqoql5CwOxOjcfPCj8n',#41,' Basic Wall:Generic - 100mm:225326',$,'Basic Wall:Generic - 100mm:207419',#35675,#35693,'225326'); #36094= IFCMATERIALLAYERSETUSAGE(#32453,.AXIS2.,.NEGATIV E.,100.); #108019= IFCDOOR('2xAZkx1e14wgJwc653S37v',#41,'M_Single-Panel 1:0762 x 2032mm:280578',$,'0762 x 2032mm',#108017,#108010,'280578',2032.,761.99999999999 9); IFC
  37. 37. CIM Deviations from BIM Definition BIM Deviations Building IFC for Building only No Infra IFC (LandXML) or Min. BIM Requirements Industry specific objects – beam, column, door, wall Generic graphics – line, text, point. Contour? Information Emphasis equally on Spatial and Database Information Strength in Spatial Information Unique Model by Version Control Less control on editing Modelling 3D 2.5D e.g. contour lines Parametric Model Irregular, cannot be represented parametrically Solid Modelling Surface Modelling/Mesh Software Object-based Command-based
  38. 38. IFC - Utilities
  39. 39. IFC - Utilities
  40. 40. Underground Utilities - Plan View
  41. 41. Underground Utilities - 3D View
  42. 42. One Drainage Network Model for All Lollipop Model by C K Ng, 1998
  43. 43. Station/Process Plant
  44. 44. Road/Bridge
  45. 45. IFC - Infrastructure IFC for bridge proposed by Sang-ho Lee, Yonsei U.
  46. 46. IFC – Road
  47. 47. Tunnel Image extracted from PAS 1192:2-2013
  48. 48. IFC - Tunnel
  49. 49. Earthwork – XML/GML
  50. 50. 3D BIM and 2.5D CADD Applications - CE 3D BIM 2.5D CADD Utilities and related Process Plant, Station e.g. power station, treatment plant Transportation e.g. Road surface, Tunnel bore (spatial information) Structure itself, Earth Retaining, Marine, Bridge and Tunnel Structures (What is the purpose – spatial or non-spatial, construction or FM?) Earthwork related - Slope, GI, Site Formation (spatial information) Solid Modelling Surface Modelling Vertical (Multi-level) Horizontal (Single level) Database Information Spatial Information Parametric Model Difficult to represent in parametric model
  51. 51. BIM Strategy Scandinavian Countries, US (Army, Wisconsin, NYC) Mandate BIM in public sector starting 2011 UK, Europe (not Southern Europe) Mandate BIM in public sector before 2016 - Level 2 Singapore Mandate BIM in both public and private sectors in 2015 Hong Kong HA Hong Kong Civil Engg Hong Kong CIC All BIM in 2014 ? Roadmap, Sep 2013 China 2011-2015 5-Year Plan BIM/PLM/… Korea, Germany (and China) Create own BIM software Other Asian Countries Private sector initiation
  52. 52. 2011-2015年建筑业信息化发展纲要 关于印发《2011-2015年建筑业信息化发展纲要》的通知 建质[2011]67号 各省、自治区住房和城乡建设厅,直辖市建委(建交委),新疆生产建设兵团建设局,中央管理的有关企业: 现将《2011-2015年建筑业信息化发展纲要》印发给你们,请结合实际贯彻执行。执行中有何问题和建议,请及时告我部工程 质量安全监管司。 中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部 二〇一一年五月十日 “十二五”期间,基本实现建筑企业信息系统的普及应用,加快建筑信息模型(BIM)、基于网络的协同工作等新技术在 工程中的应用,推动信息化标准建设,促进具有自主知识产权软件的产业化,形成一批信息技术应用达到国际先进水平的建 筑企业。 (2)应用系统 ①设计与施工集成系统 (Integrated Design and Construction System) 。 ②工程项目管理系统 (Engineering Project Management System) 。 ③项目文档管理系统 (Project Document Management System) 。 ④材料与采购管理系统 (Material Order Management System) 。 ⑤企业运营管理系统 (Enterprise Operation Management System) 。 ⑥ 综合管理系统 (Integrated Management System) 。 ⑦辅助决策系统 (Decision Support System) 。 ⑧知识管理系统与智能企业门户 (Knowledge Management System)
  53. 53. What is the common element? Database/IT Systems
  54. 54. PDF DOC XLS JPG MPG Data Database Apps Hydraulic/ Structure / Road Alignment DMSBIM Site Records System Material order, delivery Sys BIM Deliverables Supervision Plan Design CAD File Submittal Register Specification Product Data Installation Manual Warranty Spare Test Certification Design Build Operate PC/Notebook Tablet Smartphone Devices Phases
  55. 55. Lessons Learnt from New Civil Engineer • UK Strategic Paper - 03.2011 • BIM is the word – 12.2011(UK) • Crossrail Case Study – 03.2012 • BIM Special – 03.2012 • BIM for Contractor – 04.2013 • Port Mann Highway, Canada – 06.2013
  56. 56. • Essentially the UK Government has embarked with industry on a four year programme for sector modernisation with the key objective of: reducing capital cost and the carbon burden from the construction and operation of the built environment by 20%. • 'It was found that whilst major clients such as BAA and HA (Highways Authority) expect a comprehensive handover, in general Civils/Infrastructure (C/I) handover is done to a far lower standard, if at all. Evidence for this weakness is provided by the high amount of re-surveying and re- inspection that is undertaken after handover. … Ironically once data is collected infrastructure owners often tend to make far more effective use of the information than building operators.' UK Strategic Paper 3.2011
  57. 57. Bim is the word 12.2011 • Revit, Bentley Architecture (AECOsim), ArchiCAD • Inroads/Openroad, Autodesk Civil 3D • Object based, Laser point cloud • 'Level 3 – no longer 3d design but a set of fully parametric self-aware data objects.' • 'Handing over an electronic user-manual - a massive saving at commissioning stage.' • 'To pull in a roundabout from a pallet'
  58. 58. CrossRail 03.2012 • Crossrail CEO 'We are looking for a single BIM model that connects the data set from start to end. As an industry we are not very good at this – we break that line up in many parts. The as-designed versus the as-built versus the as- maintained tends to be on different platforms and I am going to ask our technology partners …„ • … The second priority was to ensure that BIM is adopted right through the project all the way to operation and maintenance.
  59. 59. BIM Special – 03.2012 • BIM is not a silver bullet to cure the world's ills, but it does bring about key characteristics that will make us think and behave in different ways. • From the availability to reuse rather than waste data throughout the asset lifecycle, from designers, manufacturers, contractors, … bringing the industry around the single BIM model and its rich data set.
  60. 60. BIM for Contractor 04.2013 • A BIM steering committee of a contractor was set up to identify the information flows and processes that go on in the company. • BIM means empowering speedy, accurate and informed decision making and then delivering efficiencies by virtually verifying the buildability and functionality. • There is a culture change that has to go on. (The first BIM project in HK was initiated by contractor in 2005)
  61. 61. Port Mann Hwy, Canada 06.2013 • The consultant created a single integrated model of the entire 37km transport corridor, incorporating grading, layout, geometry and alignment. • Existing infrastructure such as drainage culverts, power lines and sewers were also modelled, and later on, junction box, street lamps and minor drainage elements. • Some judgment is required on what level of detail is appropriate for each element.
  62. 62. The Culture is Changing 12.2013 by Topcon Positioning Group • If you went to US or Germany, there is no manor earthmoving project going on without machine control. • In US, contractors are very aggressive. If they see a technology that allows them to do a job faster they will go to the local government and try to get the rules changed to allow them to use that technology • The inherent reluctance of UK contractors to share their ideas for fear of being copied. Europe is more conservative, and Asia also.
  63. 63. Advantages of Using BIM • Less dimension details • Complex geometry • Easy to understand the scope of works • Models have intelligence – drainage / watermain networks have connectivity info • Good for presentation • Less VO
  64. 64. BIM – Less Variation Orders
  65. 65. Some Statistics  7% reduction of project time  Eliminate 40% unbudgeted changes  Save 10% cost due to clashes  Estimate accuracy 3% closer  Estimation 80% faster
  66. 66. Contract Documents Earliest contract doucments 2008 by • ConsensusDOCS LLC • AIA • AEC(UK) Recent (2013) : • Singapore Particular Conditions • UK CIC BIM Protocol (well accepted by Insurance Industry)
  67. 67. Coverage: •Risk Allocation •Intellectual Property Definition: •Model, LOD •BIM/Information Manager •BIM Execution Plan Contractual Issue
  68. 68. Contract Documents Singapore ConsensusDOCS 301 UK CIC Particular Conditions ConsensusDOCS 301 - Addendum BIM Protocol Role of Information Management BIM Execution Plan BIM Guides Affiliated Contract PAS 1192:2
  69. 69. Definitions Singapore ConsensusDOCS 301 UK CIC BIM Protocol Model Full Design Model Model Elements Design Model Construction Model Federated Model Project Team Model Federated Model Level of Details Level of Development Level of Details
  70. 70. Content in Doc Singapore ConsensusDOCS 301 UK CIC BIM Protocol Definition Principles BIM Management BIM Execution Plan Risk Allocation Intellectual Property Principles Definition Info Management BIM Execution Plan Risk Allocation Intellectual Property Introduction Principles Objective Incorporation into contracts Permitted purposes Treatment of IP Electronic Data Exchange Def. Of Model Change Management Liability of Model Info Management Model Production and Delivery Table
  71. 71. Intellectual Property Singapore ConsensusDOCS 301 UK CIC BIM Protocol Model Author Contributor concept Permitted purpose concept
  72. 72. Roles and Responsibility of BIM/Information Staff Singapore ConsensusDOCS 301 UK CIC BIM Protocol BIM Manager BIM Co-ordinator Information Management Information Manager Employer's Information Requirement Sample BEP provided No specific BEP Model Production and Delivery Table
  73. 73. HK Contractual Arrangements Client H Client M Design Model No Design Model, Ctr create model Provided to ctr, no liability (Singapore – for reference only) Not provided to ctr, no liability Not contractually binding Not contractually binding 3D Clash detection and resolution Clash detection and resolution 4D shows sequencing and constructability Some activities 4D shows safety Some activities
  74. 74. HK Contractual Arrangements (Cont‟d) Client H Client M 4D shows scheduling Some activities Encourage collaboration and treat as a deliverable As a deliverable As-built model requires approval, catalog, testing, maintenance manual and warranty for everything Requires brand, model, power and capacity of equipment BIM Standards, User Guides, Library Component Supplement to CADD Manual
  75. 75. Considerations • Maturity of Software – Rebar • QTO is another headache • Cost of Software (SME) • Human Resources of BIM – BIM Manager – BIM Leader/Co-ordinator • Are counterparts using BIM?
  76. 76. Considerations • BIM won‟t be alone – Think electronically – BIM-centred workflow – Other systems : ERP, DMS, PLM, DSS • Collaboration – Think collaboration, NOT confrontation • BIM Professionals vs BIM Technicians – Communication between professionals thro‟ BIM co- ordinators – Direct decision making by professionals with BIM skill – All Arch graduates know BIM – How many Engineers know BIM?
  77. 77. • Resources – BIM operators or professionals • Contract – DB contract common in building and US – DBB contract common for civil engineering • Quantity Take Off – Direct from models not ready • Failure – Legal issues – Design issues – frequent changes Considerations
  78. 78. Actions • Don‟t just watch, start using it. (Shanghai Tower) • Take a hands-on BIM course • Train your staff • 3D CE Software requires longer learning curve • Big Data - the Biggest thing is Data • If you want to implement BIM, • decide what data you need during O&M • design model = as-built model (permanent doc) • If you are using BIM for your project, • hire a system analyst to review your workflow (IDM) • hire good database (and web) programmers • During construction, BIM is active, Data is passive • During maintenance, BIM is passive, Data is active
  79. 79. BIM Education/Training • Add BIM training to the curriculum • Encourage use of BIM for projects (e.g. Singapore on industry incentives) • Develop engineering analysis on a BIM system • Increase funding for research on Civil BIM (e.g. Korea, Japan and Germany on IFC/BIM; Leading countries on BIM Process) • Double degree in CE & Law • Why no double degree in CE & IT? • Top up degree in IT • IT has a wide range, CE wants DB design, web programme
  80. 80. Must Read • Singapore BIM Particular Conditions Version 1 or 2 + BIM Guides • ConcensusDOCS 301 • BIM Protocol, CIC UK • BIM Guide, NYC • HKHA – Design/User Guide, Standards, • AEC(UK) BIM Standard/Protocol • „Issues and Implementation Methods for BIM in the Civil Infrastructure Domain‟ by Nobuyoshi Yabuki, Japan Osaka University. Hong Kong Conference 2010
  81. 81. End
  82. 82. BIM Implementation in Civil Infra Domain by N Yabuki, Osaka U, Japan 2010  No official standards for representing 3D infra models  Lack of IT knowledge among civil engineers  Lack of research (and funds) on BIM for infra  Conservativeness of those in public construction domain  Public owners will not adopt BIM until standard effective  Mindset  Slow development of BIM tools for infra domain  Lack of IT research in civil engineering  Lack of communication bet civil engineers and IT specialists  Shift from DBB to DB  Government support
  83. 83. HK CIC Draft BIM Roadmap What is BIM? BIM - management, not drawing, tools BIM – parametric, intelligent, unique HK – Technical->Business->Market B.I. Modelling or Management BIM model is a permanent document HK – Standard + Promotion + Training 16 recommended initiatives in 9 areas
  84. 84. Current BIM Implementation HK is lagging behind, in fact, extreme Some advanced and innovative Jeopardize competitive edge of HK firms Fast mover, follower and observer All at a sudden – more BIM adoptions Private developer - money justifies itself
  85. 85. Global trend Can we ignore the move to BIM? See global trend – 2002/2005/2009/2013? Uniqueness forces collaboration, mindset changed Loss of competitive edge without BIM skill BD follows Singapore – eSubmissions
  86. 86. Elements of Success in BIM Most important driving force – Clients Second, top management Mindset changed Re-assign roles and responsibility Some posts fear of loss of value BIM model is a permanent document
  87. 87. Leading Practice Countries Characteristics of Leading Practice Countries Establishment of Standards High rate of adoption Increased automation with IT Increased performance
  88. 88. Others Shared BIM Standards Education programmes From Visualization to Automation Set higher target of performance Clear Govt policy > free market approach Localization / customization Roles of BIM Manager
  89. 89. More Slides for IFC
  90. 90. IFC - Tunnel
  91. 91. IFC - Infrastructure IFC for bridge proposed by Sang-ho Lee, Yonsei U.
  92. 92. IFC – Road
  93. 93. Road – XML/GML
  94. 94. More Slides for UU
  95. 95. Example of Underground Utilities (Pressure)
  96. 96. Example of UU (Cable)
  97. 97. Example of Underground Utilities (Drain)

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