Catching the Internet of Things (IoT) Wave

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A Presentation at the July 2014 IEEE Palouse section meeting by Christian Légaré VP & CTO at Micrium and VP at the IPSO Alliance. From the announcement: "The Internet of Things is being assembled from a galaxy of different embedded devices. These devices range from wireless sensor nodes, edge nodes, gateways, and more. Christian Légaré's talk will describe the differences between these devices, and outline the technology choices available to you today."

Video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bf_-astmdWQ

Meeting notice here: https://meetings.vtools.ieee.org/meeting_view/list_meeting/27089

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  • M2M does not have to be IoT.
    Many commercial products communicate only between themselves. There is no need to go to the cloud.
  • 5
  • Catching the Internet of Things (IoT) Wave

    1. 1. Catching the IoT Wave
    2. 2. CONFIDENTIAL 2© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com A Connected Device System My Definition of IoT
    3. 3. CONFIDENTIAL 3© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com The Connected Devices Connected = Communication stack Application = Programming language Requirements = Hardware resources
    4. 4. CONFIDENTIAL 4© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Connectivity Source: HarborResearch.com
    5. 5. Mission About IPSO • The IPSO Alliance serves as a resource center and thought leader for the various communities seeking to establish IP as the foundation for connecting objects, and addressing application needs to turn the objects into Smart Objects. • The IPSO Alliance is a global collaborative forum, including many Fortune 500 high tech companies, each a leading player in their industry segment. The IPSO Alliance provides a foundation for industry growth by providing education, promoting the industry, generating research, and creating a better understanding of IP and its role in the Internet of Things. Vision “Building a Smarter World through the Internet of Things”TM Connecting people, businesses and environments securely and efficiently Goals • Promote IP • Invest in Innovation • Uphold Standards • Interoperability www.ipso-alliance.org
    6. 6. CONFIDENTIAL 6© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com IEEE steps in to sort out Internet of Things confusion The IEEE standards association has authorized both IEEE P2413’s Project Authorization Request (PAR) and the inaugural meeting of the project’s WG, allowing development efforts to begin. The first meeting of the IEEE P2413 Working Group (WG) will take place July 10 – 11, 2014, in Munich, Germany. http://www.embedded.com/electronics-news/4431506/IEEE- steps-in-to-sort-out-Internet-of-Things- confusion?_mc=NL_EMB_EDT_EMB_weekly_20140626&cid=NL _EMB_EDT_EMB_weekly_20140626&elq=ef78919dbe434d4f94 edd1650b718147&elqCampaignId=17756 IEEE
    7. 7. CONFIDENTIAL 7© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com IoT Systems Even though this industry is very young, we are starting to see the emergence of two types of IoT systems. Patrick Morehead makes an attempt at such a definition. He differentiates between Human IoT and Industrial IoT. Source: Patrick Morehead, Forbes, “Who Wins In The Industrial Internet Of Things (IIoT)?”, October 29 2013 Attribute Industrial IoT Human IoT Market Opportunity Brownfield (known environment) Greenfield (unchartered domain) Product Lifecycle Until dead or obsolete Whims of style and/or budget Solution Integration Heterogeneous APIs Vertically integrated Security Access Identity & privacy Interaction Autonomous Reactive Availability 0.9999 to 0.99999 (4–5 ‘9’s) 0.99 to 0.999 (2–3 ‘9’s) Access to Internet Intermittent to independent Persistent to interrupted Response to Failure Resilient, fail-in-place Retry, replace Network Topology Federations of peer-to-peer Constellations of peripherals Physical Connectivity Legacy & purpose-built Evolving broadband & wireless
    8. 8. CONFIDENTIAL 8© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com In addition to the table in the previous slide, to plan for the software and hardware requirements, the Thing design must take into consideration the environment:  The variables to measure or control (analog interface)  The frequency at which these variables processing needs to be done (processor performance)  The transport technology of these variables value and variable control (wired or wireless)  Sensing, processing and networking software memory requirement  The availability for a device firmware upgrade (DFU) – Bootloader RAM and Flash requirement – DFU can be remote (networking capabilities required) The Thing
    9. 9. CONFIDENTIAL 9© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com What is a Thing? Types of Things  Sensor/Actuator nodes – With Wireless or Wired communication – Real-world environmental parameters  Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, PH, speed, color…  Edge nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) & Gateways – Interface between one networking technology and another one  For example: WSN to Internet  Consumer – TVs, smartphones, sound systems, PVRs, BluRay players… Is the NEST thermostat Industrial IoT or Consumer IoT?
    10. 10. CONFIDENTIAL 10© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Local Networking Technologies
    11. 11. CONFIDENTIAL 11© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com In a WSN node, the networking technology is usually a short-range access link. There are other IoT end devices that do not use a WSN but other types of networking technology. Wired  Ethernet, EtherCAT, EtherIP  Modbus, Profinet  DASH7  HART  HomePlug, GreenPhy, G.hnn (HomeGrid)  And more… Wireless  Bluetooth  Wi-Fi  Zigbee, Zigbee IP and other 802.15.4 capable protocols such as 6LoWPAN  ANT, Z-Wave  DASH7  ISA100: Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation, Process Control and Related Applications  Wireless HART  EnOcean  Wireless M-Bus  And more… Local Networking Technologies
    12. 12. CONFIDENTIAL 12© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com IoT Device / WSN Node Two-Processor Solution ProcessorSensor/Actuator Processor Communication HW - 8/16 bit processor SW - Foreground/Background Application HW - 32 bit processor SW - Real-Time Kernel LAN or WAN
    13. 13. CONFIDENTIAL 13© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com IoT Device / Sensor Node One-Processor Solution Processor Communication HW- 32 bit processor SW - Real-Time Kernel Application LAN or WAN Sensor/Actuator
    14. 14. CONFIDENTIAL 14© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Coordinator/Router - 116 kB flash 7 kB RAM End Device - 99 kB flash 3.8 kB RAM Memory Requirements A Few Examples 6LoWPAN stacks range in code sizes of 50-100 kB typically. RAM size depends on the buffer approach used, but it is typically a few kB of RAM.
    15. 15. CONFIDENTIAL 15© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Processor Selection Power vs Performance • 8/16-bit processors are still very popular for sensor devices because of their low power consumption • 32 bit devices are required to integrate networking capabilities • MCUs with integrated wireless radio are making their appearance • ARM is designing a compatible Cortex-M0 with close to threshold voltage of CMOS transistors, and at clock frequencies of the order of tens of kilohertz.
    16. 16. CONFIDENTIAL 16© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Typical sensor processor Without any consideration to packaging and peripheral selection Part ROM RAM Atmel AVR From ATtiny13 1 kB 64 To AT94S405AL 20-32 kB 4-16kB Atmel 8051 From 89C1051 1K 64 To 89C55 20K 256 SiLabs 8051 From C8051T60x 1.5K 128 To C8051F96x 128kB 8 kB maxim 8051 From DS89C430 16 kB 1 kB To C8051F96x - kB 4 kB Renesas RL78 From R5F100AAASP 16 kB 2 kB To R5F101FLAFP 512 kB 32 kB MSP43030 (16 bit) From MSP430F1101A 1 kB 128 To MSP430F6659 512 kB 66 kB Microchip (12, 14 and 16 bit) From PIC10F200 384 16 To PIC18F87K90 128 kB 4 kB PIC24 24 bit instructions, 16 bit address. PIC24EP512GU814 52 kB 512
    17. 17. CONFIDENTIAL 17© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Explosion in 32-bit MCU  12 billon installed internet embedded devices by 2020  50% growth in MCUs with 32-bit driving majority of revenue growth  32-Bit MCU market forecasted to grow to $19.2bn by 2017 MCU Hardware is No Longer a Differentiator
    18. 18. CONFIDENTIAL 18© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com  A sensor node can be written as a foreground/background (single thread/single loop) system  When networking is involve, the use of a real-time kernel is highly recommended – Best usage of the processor time – Better software architecture – Simplified development – Simplified maintenance  Code mainly written in C  Java is also an option, but not from Oracle – The Oracle JVM is too large for an IOT device End Node Software architecture
    19. 19. CONFIDENTIAL 19© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Low Power (or not) IoT Device / WSN Node One-Processor Solution Bluetooth radio Low Power Wi-Fi Sensors Actuators Application Real-Time Kernel Power Management Remote Device Firmware Upgrade 6LowPAN Typical: Cortex M0/M0+ Cortex M3/M4 Low Power IoT Device/ WSN Node Icon Bluetooth TCP/IP Ethernet / Wi-Fi Ethernet LAN One or Multiple LAN LAN protocol
    20. 20. CONFIDENTIAL 20© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Consumer IoT Device Bluetooth Radio / Wi-Fi Radio Application Real-Time Kernel Power Management Remote Device Firmware Upgrade Bluetooth Typical: Cortex-M3/M4 Cortex-A Ethernet TCP/IP Ethernet/Wi-Fi Java Virtual Machine HTTP Client MQTT Client CoAP Client Sensors Actuators Vertical Market-Specific Protocol 3G/4G radio Vertical Market-Specific Protocol AllSeen HomePlug/HomeGrid Continua Alliance 2net Industrial Internet One of the Possible Protocols Optional Consumer IoT Device Icon One of the Possible Networks
    21. 21. CONFIDENTIAL 21© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com WSN Edge Node or Gateway LAN 6LoWPAN Bluetooth Wi-Fi Ethernet and more… Communication HW 32 bit processor SW Real-Time Kernel WAN Access to Internet Service Provider: Wi-Fi Ethernet Cellular Processor Communication
    22. 22. CONFIDENTIAL 22© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com  With LAN and WAN present in an edge node/gateway, it is even mandatory to use of a real-time kernel – Best usage of the processor time – Better software architecture – Simplified development – Simplified maintenance  Code mainly written in C  Java is also an option – With a Cortex-A class processor, Oracle JVM is possible – With a Cortex-M class processor, the Oracle JVM is too large. Another solution is required and exist. Edge Node/Gateway Software architecture
    23. 23. CONFIDENTIAL 23© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com  There are around 450,000 embedded software engineers using C/C++  There are 9 million Java developers in the world  ARM, Oracle and Freescale believe Java is the solution to the creation of an IoT ecosystem Java ME Memory footprint (approximate) From: 350KB ROM, 130 KB RAM (for a minimal, customized configuration) To: 2000 KB ROM, 700 KB RAM (for the full, standard configuration)  It is too large for the typical IoT device processor  Java virtual machines for smaller processor exist, but not from Oracle Java Usage in IoT
    24. 24. CONFIDENTIAL 24© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com TCP/IP in an Embedded System Implementing TCP/IP Understanding TCP/IP OSI Seven-Layer Model
    25. 25. CONFIDENTIAL 25© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com TCP/IP Options IPv4 Only IPv6 Only IPv4 & IPv6 TCP Enabled 66.5 kB 75.4 kB 93.8 kB TCP Disabled 44.4 kB 53.2 kB 70.0 kB Configuration IPv4 Only IPv6 Only IPv4 & IPv6 Minimum 16.7 kB 17.8 kB 18.5 kB Typical 42.0 kB 44.2 kB 45.5 kB ROM RAM Fully RFC compliant Interrupt driven
    26. 26. CONFIDENTIAL 26© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com TCP/IP Typical Configuration 5 TCP connection 1 UDP connection 1 IPv4 Address 2 IPv6 Address No Loopback No Debug feature Typical Buffer configuration (good performance): 10 RX buffer 6 Large TX buffer 2 Small TX buffer Minimum Configuration 1 TCP connection 1 UDP connection 1 IPv4 Address 2 IPv6 Address No Loopback No Debug feature Minimum Buffer configuration (low performance): 4 RX buffer 1 Large TX buffer 1 Small TX buffer
    27. 27. CONFIDENTIAL 27© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Wireless LAN  WLAN Selection Criteria  Protocol Efficiency  Power Efficiency – How long will my battery last?  Peak Power Consumption  Performance  Range  Robustness  Throughput  Latency  Coexistence
    28. 28. CONFIDENTIAL 28© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com There are multiple ways to use Wi-Fi:  Wi-Fi station  Wi-Fi Access Point (AP, needs a DHCP server)  Wi-Fi Direct (WD, needs a DHCP server)  Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)  Wi-Fi stack typical footprint is about 200 KB for AP, STA and WD Wi-Fi Wi-Fi radio SDIO/SPI/UART driver Wi-Fi driver Wi-Fi stack Station Wi-Fi API AP WD WPS Telnet, FTP, TFTP, HTTP, BOOTP, DHCP, SNMP Socket API TCP, UDP IP, ARP, ICMP Network Interface
    29. 29. CONFIDENTIAL 29© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Radio On-Board Wi-Fi Module Off-Board Running the Wi-Fi on-board or off-board?  On-board requires the manufacturer to FCC certify the product  Using an off-board radio module is more expensive but is certified  A similar approach is applicable to Bluetooth and other wireless interfaces or Solution 1 – Low volume  Run the TCP/IP stack and Wi-Fi stack off board Solution 2 – Med volume  Run the TCP/IP stack on the host target and the Wi-Fi supplicant on the Wi-Fi module Solution 3 – High volume  Run the TCP/IP stack and Wi-Fi stack on the target board
    30. 30. CONFIDENTIAL 30© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Bluetooth Classic Bluetooth radio Baseband Link Manager / Link Controller Host Controller Interface L2CAP RFCOM BNEP AVDTP AVCTP SDP Audio OBEX Application Programming Interface Applications SDAP GAP Medical Group HDP SPP Group FTP,SYNC, OPP, PBAP, SPP, MAP Telephony Group HSP, HFP, SAP, DUN PAN Group PAN Audio Video Group A2DP, AVRCP, VDP MCAP 300 to 400 KB is an average footprint (influenced by the number of profiles included, and required feature set)
    31. 31. CONFIDENTIAL 31© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Bluetooth Smart (BTLE) Physical Layer Link Manager Host Controller Interface L2CAP Applications HTP/HTS, HRP/HRS, BLP/BLS, GLP/GLS Healthcare CPP/CPS, CSCP/CSCS, RSCP,RSCS, LNP/LNS TIP, ANP/ANS, CTS, IAS, RTUS, NDCS SNP, PASP/PASS, FMP, PXP BAS, HOGP, ScPP/SCPS, DIS, HIDS, LLS, TPS Direct Test Mode Security Manager Protocol Attribute Protocol Generic Access Profile GATT (Generic Attribute Profile) Fitness Time Alert Proximity Auxilary Bluetooth Smart Around 200 KB is an average footprint Dependent on feature set
    32. 32. CONFIDENTIAL 32© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Cellular WAN The Internet Cellular Cloud Web browsers Data analysis Mobile Devices Cellular modem for the WAN TCP/IP stack requires PPP to connect to the cellular modem (small code and RAM add-on) Modem needs to be approved by the cellular carrier Some possible modems: • Telit • Gemalto • Sirerra Wireless • …
    33. 33. CONFIDENTIAL 33© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Wireless LAN Coexistence Bluetooth LE and Wi-Fi spectrum usage Each channel is 2MHz wide with no wasted spectrum Each channel is 2MHz wide with a wasteful 5MHz spacing. In the presence of Wi-Fi, only 4 channels are likely to be available. Zigbee and Wi-Fi spectrum usage Source : CSR application note CS-213199-AN
    34. 34. CONFIDENTIAL 34© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Wireless LAN Low Power Wireless Technology Target Markets Source : CSR application note CS-213199-AN Legend LE (Bluetooth low energy), A (ANT), A+ (ANT+), RF (RF4CE), Zi (ZigBee), Wi (Wi-Fi), Ni (Nike+), Ir (IrDA), NF (NFC). The long term forecast puts Bluetooth LE and WiFi as the predominant WLAN technologies Expect 6LoWPAN to run on Bluetooth radios.
    35. 35. CONFIDENTIAL 35© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com The Internet
    36. 36. CONFIDENTIAL 36© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com  HTTP RESTful  CoAP  MQTT  Websockets  XMPP  STOMP  And more….. Internet Protocols
    37. 37. CONFIDENTIAL 37© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Internet Protocols Protocol CoAP XMPP RESTful HTTP MQTT Transport UDP TCP TCP TCP Messaging Request/Response Publish/Subscribe Request/Response Request/Response Publish/Subscribe Request/Response 2G, 3G, 4G Suitability (1000s nodes) Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent LLN Suitability (1000s nodes) Excellent Fair Fair Fair Compute Resources 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash Success Stories Utility Field Area Networks Remote management of consumer white goods Smart Energy Profile 2 (premise energy management,home services) Extending enterprise messaging into IoT applications Beyond MQTT: A Cisco View on IoT Protocols, Paul Duffy, April 30 2013
    38. 38. CONFIDENTIAL 38© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Gateway / WSN Edge Node BluetoothRadio/Wi-FiRadio Application Real-Time Kernel Power Management Remote Device Firmware Upgrade Bluetooth Typical: Cortex-M3/M4 Cortex-A Ethernet/Wi-Fi/3G-4G TCP/IP Java Virtual Machine HTTP Client MQTT Client CoAP Client 6LowPAN One of the possible protocolsVertical Market Specific Protocol Vertical Market-Specific Protocol • AllSeen • HomePlug/HomeGrid • Continua Alliance • 2net • Industrial Internet Gateway / WSN Edge Node
    39. 39. CONFIDENTIAL 39© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com The Cloud
    40. 40. CONFIDENTIAL 40© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com WSN Industrial IoT Nodes Gateway Cloud Service Web Browsers Data Analysis Cloud Service Capabilities • Mobile device applications • Web browsers views • Data analysis The Internet Mobile Devices Main IoT Protocols • HTTP - RESTful • MQTT • CoAP
    41. 41. CONFIDENTIAL 41© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Consumer IoT … Cloud Service Web Browsers Data Analysis Cloud Service Capabilities • Mobile device applications • Web browsers views • Data analysis The Internet Mobile Devices Wi-FiDirect Ethernet / Wi-Fi Main IoT Protocols • HTTP - RESTful • MQTT • CoAP
    42. 42. CONFIDENTIAL 42© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Cloud implementation Implementation Phase Project Planning Use case definition Firmware / Embedded Development New Protocol Parser if required Enable Dev Kit for Hardware Company Incoming (site installation Beacons/Apps) IOT Demo (trade show, workshop) Integration project (connect various data stores using platform) Web App Dashboard Portal with login, group devices by users, multiple dashboards Mobile application development Analytics / Business Intelligence Smart Digital Signage (installation)
    43. 43. CONFIDENTIAL 43© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Catch the IoT Wave IoT is More Than the Thing
    44. 44. CONFIDENTIAL 44© 2014 Micrium, All Rights Reserved www.micrium.com Thank You christian.legare@micrium.com

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