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  1. 1. Football Full back returning to play - post ACL injury Introduction Subject area: Amateur football player playing in the full back position Sports analysis: Football is an 11- a-side team game which last 90 minutes overall with 45 minutes played in each half with a 15 minute break in-between. Each team is allowed 3 substitutions during the game. Individual and team skills are essential in order for success. Underlying theory: The fitness tests will be specific to football help indicate wither the athlete is able to return to football without the risks of re-injury and help improve performance levels. Aims & reasons for study: Designing a training program to enable the athlete to return to football at pre injured level and help reduce the risks of future injury especially to the ACL. Athlete is looking to return to sport in time for the start of pre-season. Training goals: Return to pre injured level: Specifically looking to improve flexibility and balance and develop strength and speed Athlete Profile : Age: 20 Height: 186 cm Weight: 72 kg Sport: Football Position: Full back Level of sport: Amateur Football Position requirements: Cardiovascular and muscular endurance, strength, speed, stamina, work rate, marking, tackling, dribbling, jump ability, balance, awareness, concentration. Current training status: Good level of fitness. Building back up to football movements by completing short sharp sprints, changes of direction and jumping. Phase of training: Off-season - In final stages of rehabilitation which includes 2 individual gym sessions per week – 3 hours; team training once a week – 2 hours, individual skills-based training once a week – 1 hour Previous injuries: Grade 3 ACL rupture to right knee (September 2012) requiring surgical repair using hamstring graft in April 2013; follow up operation in 2014 to remove screws and fluid. Methods Subject is to fill in consent form that will inform them that they have the right to withdraw from testing at any point and for any reason. Subject’s height and weight are to be recorded prior to the commencement of testing. The testing will be split into several sessions to allow adequate recovery time. Cardiovascular: • Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (Svensson and Drust, 2005) This football-specific test will examine the subject’s capability to perform repetitive interval runs over an extended time period. 2 x 20m shuttle run, 5 seconds of active rest. Participant must reach end point in time with predetermined beeps. • Equipment: Markers, Measuring tape, Audio device, beep test audio Strength/Power: • Upper body – Bench press • Lower body – Squat, Deadlift Subject’s 1RM to be recorded for each lift (Hoff and Helgerud, 2004) Appropriate weight training programme will be calculated based on the results of subject’s 1Repetition Maximum. Power and Strength training (75% - 95% of 1RM) Endurance training (<60% of 1RM), (Brown, 2007) • Vertical jump test (Wisloff, 2004) 3 attempts measuring jump height using the Vertical jump meter, arms crossed across body – pushing solely from the legs • Equipment: Olympic male bar, plates, bench, Vertical jump meter (Probotics, Just Jump System, USA) Flexibility: • Sit and reach test Subject seated, straight legs and feet vertically up against sit and reach bench. Subject stretches forwards and slides fingertips up the scale, as far as possible. Point of furthest reach is recorded. (Plowman and Smith, 2007) • Lower limb flexibility assessment Goniometric measurements of Hamstring, Quads, Calves, Groin, Hip flexors (as found in the Witvrouw et al., (2003) study) • Equipment: Sit and Reach Bench (Cranlea, United Kingdom), Goniometer Balance: • Balance board test Single legged stance on balance board, crossed arms across chest. Unsupported limb not be in contact with balance board. Time balancing on the board will be assessed and timer stopped when edge of board contacts the ground. 3 trial runs given before completing 3 full tests. Best result being carried forward. (Gioftsidou et al., 2012) • Equipment: Balance board, Stopwatch SAQ: • 40 yard dash (Static start) Straight line maximal 40 yard sprint in order to assess subject acceleration and speed. Also valuable for testing subject’s reaction time. 1:3 work to rest ratio. (Jeffreys, 2013) • Illinois agility test Agility course marked out by cones which combines acceleration, cutting, slaloming and several changes of direction. (Dawes and Roozen, 2012) • Equipment: Timing gates (Fusion Sport, Smart Speed, Australia), markers, tape measure 40058723 40086040 40059162 Needs Analysis Movement analysis • Football is an intermittent sport that requires aerobic endurance, speed, power, agility and flexibility (Bangsbo et al., 2006) • Defenders will spend 5.68% standing, 56.68% walking, 27.67% jogging, 6.16% running, 1.49% high speed running and 0.32% sprinting (Wehbe et al., 2014) • Full backs cover a total of 220m while in possession of the ball, in comparison to other positions only wide midfielders cover significantly more distance (Di Salvo et al., 2007) • Defenders perform 41.9% of a game performing purposeful movements, higher than other position. Of the purposeful movements defenders perform significantly more turns and swerves than other positions (Bloomfield et al., 2007). • Defenders accelerate at the same frequency as midfielders and significantly more than attackers as they are required to stop attacks and close down attackers rapidly (Wehbe et al., 2014) • Full backs sprint for a total of 287m during a game which is significantly higher than central defenders, central midfielders and attackers (Bradley et al., 2009) • Defenders will head the ball more times than other positions due to preventing attacks and clearing crosses (Bloomfield et al., 2007) Physiological analysis • Football incorporates periods of high intensity exercise combined with periods of lower intensity exercise (Svensson & Drust, 2005). • Defenders require power within the lower body to improve their ability at defending high balls and crosses (Miller et al., 2011). • Blood lactate concentration values for full backs have been recorded at 9.8 ± 2.7 mmol . L -1 meaning anaerobic glycoloisis is the main system used by the players (Boone et al., 2012). • Mean heart rate values for a defender has been recorded at 141 bpm (Bangsbo et al., 2006) • It has been recorded that full backs will cover 10710 ± 589m during a 90 minute game (Bradley et al., 2009) • Distance covered during the first half is 5239m compared to 4824m being covered in the second half (Wehbe et al., 2014) • Average oxygen uptake for footballers is valued at 70% of VO2max (Bangsbo et al., 2006) Injury analysis • A study by Peterson et al., (2000) has reported that defenders have the highest incidence rate of injuries, with an injury occurring every 9.4 hours per 1000 exposure hours. • A third of all injuries suffered by footballers are muscle injuries with 92% of these occurring in the lower limbs (Ekstrand et al., 2011) • Of the lower limb injuries hamstring is the most frequently muscle injured (37%), adductors (23%), quadriceps (19%) and calf muscles (13%) (Ekstrand et al., 2011) • Injuries are more likely to occur from no contact (65%) compared to contact injuries (35%) (Hagglund et al., 2009) • Only 9% of injuries were classified as severe, and the majority of injuries being of minimal severity (36%) (Hagglund et al., 2009). References Bangsbo, J., Mohr, M. and Krustrup, P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player, Journal of Sports Sciences. 24(7), pp.665-674. Bloomfield, J., Polman, R., O’Donoghue, P., (2007). Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 6, pp.63-70. Boone, J., Vaeyens, R., Steyaert, A., Bossche, L. and Bourgois, J. (2012). Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(8), pp.2051-2057. Bradley, P., Sheldon, W., Wooster, B., Olsen, P., Boanas, P. and Krustrup, P. (2009). High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. Journal of Sports Sciences. 27(2), pp.159-168. Brown, L. (2007). Strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Dawes, J. and Roozen, M. (2012). Developing agility and quickness. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F., Bachl, N. and Pigozzi, F. (2007). Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 28(3), pp.222-227. Ekstrand, J., Hagglund, M. and Walden, M. (2011). Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 39(6), pp.1226-1232. France, R. (2004). Introduction to sports medicine & athletic training. Australia: Thomson/Delmar Learning. Gioftsidou, A., Malliou, P., Pafis, G., Beneka, A., Tsapralis, K., Sofokleous, P., Kouli, O., Rokka, S. and Godolias, G. (2012). Balance training programs for soccer injuries prevention. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 7(3), pp.639-647. Hagglund, M., Walden, M. and Ekstrand, J. (2009). Injuries among male and female elite football players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 19(6), pp.819-827. Hoff, J. and Helgerud, J. (2004). Endurance and strength training for soccer players. Sports Medicine. 34(3), pp.165-180. Jeffreys, I. (2013). Developing Speed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Miller, D., Kieffer, H., Kemp, H. and Torres, S. (2011). Off-season physiological profiles of elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III male soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25(6), pp.1508-1513. Peterson, L., Junge, A., Chomiak, J., Graf-Baumann, T. and Dvorak, J. (2000). Incidence of football injuries and complaints in different age groups and skill-level groups. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 28(S), pp.51-(S)57. Plowman, S. and Smith, D. (2007). Exercise physiology for health, fitness, and performance. 2nd ed. Boston: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Svensson, M. and Drust, B. (2005). Testing soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 23(6), pp.601-618. Wehbe, G., Hartwig, T. and Duncan, C. (2014). Movement analysis of Australian national league soccer players using global positioning system technology. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28(3), pp.834-842. Wells, K. and Dillon, E. (1952). The sit and reach—A test of back and leg flexibility. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 23(1), pp.115-118. Wisloff, U. (2004). Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38(3), pp.285-288. Witvrouw, E., Danneels, L., Asselman, P., D’Have, T. and Cambier, D. (2003). Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), pp.41-46.

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