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Bearings and Lubricants for On-Highway Vehicle Electrification


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An introduction of bearing concepts will be discussed as a lead-in to the application and use of bearings in electric vehicles. Market trends and key influences such as social, regulatory, and commercial factors are driving the consumer market toward the adoption of electric vehicles. Electric vehicle drivetrain designs vary significantly from one manufacturer to another and the impact of the electrification strategy on a vehicle’s architecture highly depends on where an electric motor is integrated into the drivetrain. Consequently, design architecture, integration points, and challenging application drivers will impact bearing selection and the corresponding performance. Timken can offer valuable solutions to this emerging market leveraging technologies in the form of power dense, fuel efficient bearing solutions. Further details will be discussed on this bearing solution and the advantage it offers.

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Bearings and Lubricants for On-Highway Vehicle Electrification

  1. 1. 1 Christopher Marks | March 13, 2019 STLE Canton Section 2019 Education Seminar Bearings and Lubricants for On-Highway Vehicle Electrification
  2. 2. 2 • Introduction to The Timken Company • Bearings 101 • EV market drivers, forecast and technology • Timken electric vehicle (EV) bearing solutions Agenda
  3. 3. 3At a Glance 14,000+ employees operating from 28 countries Founded in 1899 NYSE listed since 1922 (TKR) Headquarters in North Canton, Ohio, U.S. $3.0 billion in sales (2017)
  4. 4. 4Global Footprint 28 countries 57 sales offices 14K associates 7% Latin America Sales by Geography 60% North America 17% Europe, Middle East, Africa 16% Asia Pacific 75 plants and service centers 24 logistics centers
  5. 5. 52018 Sales: $3.6 Billion 76% 24% Distribution/Services OEM Process Industries 29% 25% 18% 14% 14% Automotive Off-Highway Rail Aerospace/Defense Heavy Truck Mobile Industries
  6. 6. 66 Bearings 101 — Basics
  7. 7. 7Bearing Objectives • Rotate • Carry a load • Reduce friction
  8. 8. 84 Main Types of Anti-Friction Bearings
  9. 9. 9Application Parameters — Loading Loading parameters can dictate the type of bearing
  10. 10. 10Application Parameters — Speed Speed parameters also can dictate the type of bearing
  11. 11. 1111 Bearings 101 — Tapered Roller Bearings
  12. 12. 12History of the Tapered Roller Bearing 1898 H. Timken and R. Heinzelman obtained patent #606,635 for tapered roller bearing wheel applications
  13. 13. 13Anti-Friction Bearings — Tapered Roller Bearings • Typically 1-, 2- or 4-row configurations • Support high radial loads and high axial loads • Moderate speed capabilities • Only axially adjustable bearing • High stiffness capabilities due to adjustability Cage Cone Cup Roller
  14. 14. 14 The space (axial clearance) between the rollers and raceways can be changed, customizing bearing performance to the application Adjustable Setting Axial Internal Clearance
  15. 15. 15K-Factor K-Factor = Radial Rating Thrust Rating K-Factor < 1K-Factor = 1K-Factor >1 Wind Turbine MainshaftVehicle Axle Center Transmission Can control bearing spread and the ratio of radial to axial capacity
  16. 16. 1616 On-Highway Vehicle Electrification
  17. 17. 17OEM Light Vehicle EV Guidance References available in backup slides 2 New All- Electric Vehicles Launched2 Released EV Guidance in June 20181 Release All- Electric CUV with 300- Mile Range3 Release of Hybrid Wrangler4 All New Models will Be Full Electric or Hybrid5 10 New Full-Electric Vehicles in Lineup6 50% of Lineup to be Full Electric7 Release First 2 EVs in US and China8 2 New All- Electric Vehicles Launched9 Targeting 16 All- Electric and 24 Hybrids in Lineup3 8 All-Electric Cars in China9 18 New All- Electric Vehicles on New Platforms2 Will Offer Hybrid Version of All Cars6 50 All-New EVs in NA, Europe, and China across All Brands8 Lineup to Meet India Government Targets10 Will Offer 16 New Vehicles with Hybrid, EV and FCEV11
  18. 18. 18 Forecast — Passenger EV Electric vehicles take majority share of new car sales • EVs will account for 54% of new car sales by 2040 Tumbling battery prices to drive EV growth • Take-off expected in second half of the 2020s due to plunging lithium- ion battery prices, which are set to fall by more than 70% by 2030
  19. 19. 19 Forecast — Passenger EV Bearing selection varies by eDrive architecture and power/speed strategy VS.
  20. 20. 20 Medium Duty • 80-85% of market drives fewer than 120 miles/day • Longer ownership cycles • School bus and refuse operate short, daily routes out of central hubs • Local “green” initiatives Heavy Duty • For-hire drive > 400 miles/day • 42-45 kip payload capacity • Recharging times • Secondary market? Market Drivers — Commercial EV Source: ACT Research and Vertical Research Partners
  21. 21. 21 • MPGe is valuable to estimate fuel savings • 1.0 US gallon of gasoline energy equivalent to electrical output – 115,000 BTU = 33.7 kWh • Example vehicle (BEV) • Example vehicle range is limited to 73 miles: Electric Vehicle Window Sticker Basics MPGe kWh miles kWhGallonUS 99 34 100 7.331  97.2$ 12.0$ 100 34 73 1  kWhmiles kWh miles 1US national average electricity costs (range 8.6-37 cents/KWh) per Edmunds (
  22. 22. 22Electric Machine Configurations P0 The electric machine is connected with the ICE through a belt P1 The electric machine is connected directly with the crankshaft of the ICE P2 The electric machine is side-attached (belt) or integrated between the ICE and the transmission; the electric machine is decoupled from the ICE and has the same speed as the ICE (or a multiple of it) P3 The electric machine is connected through a gear mesh with the transmission; the electric machine is decoupled from the ICE and its speed is a multiple of the wheel speed P4 The electric machine is connected through a gear mesh on the rear axle of the vehicle; the electric machine is decoupled form the ICE and it’s located in the rear axle drive or in the wheel’s hub P0P1P3P4 P2
  23. 23. 23 Electric Axle Bearing Summary Brg Nos. Shaft Position Speed Bearing Type Efficiency 01/02 Motor High ACBB, DGBB High/Super Precision 03/04 Input High ACBB, DGBB, TRB* High/Super Precision 05/06 Intermediate Medium TRB, DGBB, CRB Std., Enh., FE, ePDFE 07/08 Output Low TRB, DGBB Std., Enh. *Feasible bearing solution in the proper rib speed range Given the application conditions, the Timken fuel- efficient (FE) TRB solution reduces power loss compared to DGBB at estimated operating temperatures Additionally, the TRB advantage is attributed to the following: 1. Power density 2. Axial setting sensitivity 3. Load-carrying capacity at reduced operating settings 4. Enhanced non-conformal contact of a roller on a raceway 5. Stiffness
  24. 24. 24 Driver Conventional Electric (P3,P4) Mechanical Loading Hypoid Helical ~Maximum Speed (rpm) 5k 15-20K Lubricant Type 75W80,85 ATF Lubricant Method Splash Splash, Grease Operating Temperature (°C) 65-100 85-120 Typical Housing Material Cast Iron Aluminum Drivers impact bearing selection and bearing setting sensitivity eAxle Key Application Drivers
  25. 25. 25Market Trends — Lower-Viscosity Fluids for High Efficiency Conventional: • 1970s to 2000s — 140W gear oil • 1990s to 2010s — 90W gear oil • 2010s to 2020s — 85W gear oil • Today — 85W gear oil and lower e-Axle: Today — similar to ATF
  26. 26. 26Low-Viscosity Lubricant-Bearing Interaction Tapered Bearing Roller-Cup Contact Rib-Roller Large EndRoller-Cage Contact Roller-Cone Contact Film thickness = f(velocity, load, contact patch, viscosity, curvature radius) 1 Ball Outer Contact Ball Inner Contact 2 Ball-Cage Contact 33 Ball Bearing 2 1 3 4 What will happen in thin film operating conditions?
  27. 27. 27Bearing Design — Impact on Bearing Fatigue Life RelativeBearingFatigueLife 140W 90W 85W Material Bearing Geometry Surface Topography
  28. 28. 28 • The market trend has moved to lower-viscosity oil over the years as OEMs look for improvements in fuel economy (same trend in eSpace) • Lower-viscosity fluids reduce the film thickness in the application • Reduced film thickness increases the operating temperature and reduces the calculated fatigue life of the bearings • Bearing knowledge and fundamentals will be even more critical as OEMs move to low-viscosity lubricants • Premium bearing suppliers leverage materials, bearing geometries and surface topography to combat the impact of low-viscosity lubricants In Closing…
  29. 29. 29 Thank You Christopher Marks The Timken Company 4500 Mt. Pleasant Rd., NW North Canton, OH 44720 (234) 262-2701 Bearings, Lubricants and On-Highway Vehicle Electrification
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31 1 ceo-says-electric-cars-are-bad-bet/109467370/ 2 3 4 cars-will-be-electric-and-commoditized 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Light Vehicle OEM EV Guidance References