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Professionalization of Teaching.PUNZALAN.2015


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An Instructional Material utilized in professional Education Subject, The Teaching Profession. Prepared by;
Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education
Technological University of the Philippines- Cavite

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Professionalization of Teaching.PUNZALAN.2015

  1. 1. Chapter IV The Professionalization of Teaching Christopher H. Punzalan 2015 BTTE 4 The Teaching Profession
  2. 2. “The policy goals should be to ensure that all children have access to skillful teachers to make the teaching profession more attractive to talented young adults, and to produce humane and intellectually lively learning communities for both students and teachers.” Linda Darling - Hammond
  3. 3. OVERVIEW January 1977, Presidential Decree No. 1006, Providing for the Professionalization for Teachers, Regulating Their Practice in the Philippines, Decree Professionalizing Teaching; • Teacher education be of the highest quality • Strongly oriented to Philippine conditions • And to the needs of and aspirations of the Filipino People CSC and DEC: Professional Teacher Certificate
  4. 4. 1991, Congressional Commission to Review and Access Philippine Education (EDCOM): “quality of Philippine education is declining”, “teachers are at the heart of the problem” • Teachers are poorly trained • There is a low quality of students enrolled in teacher training • Teaching is perceived as a poorly esteemed profession so it does not attract the best as mandated in the Philippine Constitution that “teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.” (Article XIV, Section 4)
  5. 5. 1994, Republic Act No. 7836, Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 Board for Professional Teachers Professional Regulation Commission (PRC)
  6. 6. Inside this Chapter Historical Perspective of Philippine Education The 1987 Constitution Basic Laws on Education UN Educational Programs Academic Community Rights and Obligations Governance of the Educational System
  7. 7. Lesson 1 Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System
  8. 8. Pre-Spanish or Pre-Magellanic Times • Education was informal, unstructured and devoid of methods • More vocational training and less in academics (3Rs) • Tribal tutors
  9. 9. Spanish Colonization • Spanish missionaries • Religion oriented, for elite • Educational Decree of 1863, one primary school for boys and girls under each municipal governments • Normal school for male teachers, Jesuits • Primary instruction was free, teaching of Spanish was compulsory • Inadequate, suppressed and controlled education
  10. 10. Revolutionary Government • Under the Aguinaldo’s Republic • Spanish schools were closed but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior • Burgos Institute in Malolos, Bulacan • Military Academy of Malolos • Literary University of the Philippines • Free and compulsory primary education by the Malolos Constitution
  11. 11. American Regime • Free public school system by Schurman Commission • Free primary instruction by Taft Commission under President McKinley • Chaplains and non-commissioned officers assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction • Highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission
  12. 12. Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74 • 1901 - A highly centralized public school system was installed. • The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines about 600 teachers from the U.S.A. They were the Thomasites. • Bureau of Public Instruction become Bureau of Education under Act No. 477 which was passed on November 1, 1902
  13. 13. Thomasites • On August 21, 1901, five hundred forty American Teachers from all over the US, with varying educational backgrounds, arrived in the Philippines on board the US Army Transport Thomas, from which ship the teachers derived their name Thomasites • Another number of teachers had already arrived on the Sheridan and other ships • Sense of mission, sense of adventure, seek employment • Changes in educational, social, religious and political systems and most of all the American sense of humor • Thomasites buried bodies are located in Manila North Cemetery Reference: The Thomasites Remembered,, 2001
  14. 14. • The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission • 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines • The Reorganization Act of 1916, the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction. • Manila Trade School was established in 1901, former identity of Technological University of the Philippines
  15. 15. The TUP History • MTS (1901-1910), The Technological University of the Philip pines was first established as the Manila Trade School in 19 01 upon the enactment of Act No. 74 by the United States P hilippine Commission for the instruction of the Filipinos on useful trades. Originally housed near Ateneo de Manila in In tramuros. • PSAT (1910-1959), In 1910, the MTS was renamed as the Ph ilippine School of Arts and Trades (PSAT). It started to offer i ntermediate grade courses. With the growing student popul ation at that time, PSAT relocated in 1916 to a 36,000 squar e meter property as its new campus site under Lot 1 Block 1 485 Cad. 13, Manila Cadastre, located in Ermita, Manila bou nded on northeast by Calle San Marcelino; on southeast by Estero Balete; and on northwest by Ayala Boulevard. Since t hen, this became the site of the TUP Main campus.
  16. 16. • In 1941, the school closed because of the Pacific War of World War II. After the war in 1945, PSAT reopened and accommodated (1949) Dr. Frederick Leasure, the first Fulbright exchange professor and a professor of industrial education. In 1951, PSAT was granted authority to offer a four-year degree leading to BS in Industrial Education. This was a first among schools. • PCAT (1959-1978), On June 17, 1959, PSAT was converted into th e Philippine College of Arts and Trades (PCAT) pursuant to RA No. 2237 -- the PCAT Charter. Under the said Charter, PCAT was mand ated to offer courses in arts, industrial education and technology l eading to baccalaureate and graduate degrees. During this period , the tatak "PCAT" became well known throughout the country du e to the quality and excellent training and education. • TUP (1978 TO PRESENT), After 19 years, PCAT was elevated and c onverted into what is now known as the Technological University of the Philippines (TUP) by virtue of President Decree No. 1518 on June 11, 1978.
  17. 17. • TUP EXPANSION INTO THE NATIONAL POLYTECHNIC SYSTEM, Wh en the National Government established projects pursuant to Pre sidential Decree No. 6-A, three (3) prototype technician institutes in the Philippines were established funded under Credit Agreeme nt 349 PH with the World Bank, namely: Manila Technician Institu te (MTI) at Taguig, Metro Manila (1977); Visayan Technician Instit ute (VTI) at Talisay, Negros Occidental (1977) and Iligan Institute o f Technology (IIT) at Iligan City, and ten (10) Regional Manpower T raining Centers of the National Manpower and Youth Council (NM YC now TESDA) in various parts of the country. In 1985, the TUP B oard of Regents officially renamed MTI and VTI as TUP Taguig and TUP Visayas, respectively. • In 1981, the University expanded further when the Board of Rege nts established the TUP Cavite Campus in Barangay Salitran IV, Da smarinas City, Cavite and operational since 1982 to present. • Ronald P. Gleason was the first principal (1901-1904) of the trade school; J.J. Eaton was the first superintendent (1905-1906); and G regorio J. Sevilla was the first Filipino Superintendent (1936-1939)
  18. 18. Japanese Era • Military Order No. 2 in 1942, Japanese Educational Policies • Phil. Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942 • October 14, 1943, Japanese Sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education • Teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History and Character Education was reserved. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized • February 27, 1945, Department of Instruction was made part of the Dept. of Public Instruction
  19. 19. Department of Education • 1947, virtue of Executive Order No. 94, Dept. of Instruction was changed to DepEd • Bureau of Public and Private Schools regulated and supervised the public and private schools • 1972- Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 • 1978- Ministry of Education and Culture in virtue of P.D. No. 1397. – 13 regional offices were created – major organizational changes were implemented
  20. 20. • The Education Act of 1982 - Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports • 1987- Department of Education, Culture and Sports in by virtue of Executive Order No. 117. • EO No. 117 -The structure of DECS as embodied has practically remained unchanged until 1994 • Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) – supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively. The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.
  21. 21. The trifocal education system • DECS’ - elementary, secondary and non formal education, including culture and sports. • TESDA- post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development • CHED is responsible for higher education • August 2001, Republic Act 9155, (Governance of Basic Education Act) – (DECS) to (DepEd) – redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools).
  22. 22. RA 9155 • provides the overall framework for – (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles – (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. • goal of basic education: provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self- reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.
  23. 23. Summary of the Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System
  24. 24. Timeline of the Development of the Philippine Educational System from Pre-Spanish Era to the Japanese Era Pre-Spanish Era Spanish Era Revolutionary Government American Regime Japanese Era • Informal, unstructured • Focused on vocational training • Parents and tribal tutors served as teachers • Spanish missionaries served as teachers • Religion oriented • Inadequate, suppressed and controlled • Free and compulsory elementary education • Three century old schools maintained by Spain were closed • Adequate secularized and free public school system • Using of English as the medium of instruction • Teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History and Character Education • Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized
  25. 25. Lesson 2 The 1987 Constitution The Constitution of the Philippines Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas Constitucion de Filipinas The Constitution or the Supreme Law of the Republic of the Philippines
  26. 26. Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports Education Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Section 2. The State shall: (1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; (2) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age;
  27. 27. Section 2. The State shall: (3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged; (4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and (5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of- school youth with training in civics , vocational efficiency, and other skills.
  28. 28. Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. (2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.
  29. 29. Section 4.(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. (2) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions.
  30. 30. Section 4. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
  31. 31. Section 4. (3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions, subject to the limitations provided by law, including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. (4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
  32. 32. Section 5. (1) The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. (2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. (3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.
  33. 33. Section 5. (4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non- teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. (5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.
  34. 34. LANGUAGE • Section 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.
  35. 35. • Section 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
  36. 36. • Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish. • Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other languages.
  37. 37. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY • Section 10. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The State shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive systems and national life.
  38. 38. • Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens.
  39. 39. • Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology.
  40. 40. Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such period as may be provided by law.
  41. 41. ARTS AND CULTURE • Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. • Section 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. The State shall conserve, promote, and popularize the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations.
  42. 42. • Section 16. All the country’s artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition. • Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies.
  43. 43. • Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system, public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers, and other public venues. (2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture.
  44. 44. SPORTS • Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. (2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.
  45. 45. Thank you! PUNZALAN 2015