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Introduction to Azure SQL DB


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RDX takes a deeper look at some of the most popular and interesting features within Azure SQL DB in addition to how the DBaaS platform differs from its on-premises and IaaS counterparts.

The presentation covers a wide range of topics from purchasing and provisioning to geo-replication, sharding and advanced automations. The demo presented by Azure SQL DB Specialist, Jim Donahoe, will provide best practices and educate participants in Azure SQL DB features and the Azure Portal's administration and monitoring interfaces.

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Introduction to Azure SQL DB

  1. 1. INSIGHTS Presentation Series SQL Azure Introduction to Azure SQL DB Environments James Donahoe Azure SQL DBA Chris Foot VP Tech Strategies Webinar Video Inside
  2. 2. Who We Are The Largest Pure Play Provider of Managed Data Infrastructure Services 20 YEARS OF SERVICE DELIVERY EXPERIENCE Database Platforms SQL Server Oracle PostgreSQL* DB2 MongoDB* MySQL* Operating Systems Unix/Linux*Windows Edge Technologies SQL Server BI Oracle EBS SharePoint Exchange Environment 450+ Customers 10,000 Servers 200+ DBAs Fortune 100s Startups All Verticals Cloud Systems Amazon AWS/RDS Oracle Cloud DB DBaaS Msoft Azure IaaS (dozens) Hybrid Cloud * All distributions
  3. 3. Including Cloud Database Management Systems Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Database as a Service (DBaaS) Supported Technologies
  4. 4. January RDX Insights Series Presentation Strategies Tools Techniques Best Practices Heterogeneous and homogeneous on- premises DBMS Migrating On-Premises DBs to the Cloud
  5. 5. Features and Benefits Azure SQL DB BenefitsInherent Cloud Benefits • Microsoft is stating that new features will be released for cloud systems before on- premises • Tuning advisors and automation • Advanced threat detection and security including encryption, data masking and row-level security • Elastic pools reduce costs and multi- database management activities • Robust monitoring and administration interfaces • In-Memory processing available • Automatic backups/self-service restore • Active geo-replication for DR • AD integration • JSON document support • Elasticity • Scalability • Pay-as-you-go rental fees • CapEx to OpEx • Reduce datacenter costs • Reduce administration costs • High availability SLAs • Ease of implementing HA • Ease of implementing DR • Faster application time-to-market
  6. 6. Different Types of Cloud Platforms On-premises vs IaaS and PaaS On-Premises • Server is onsite at your physical plant • You buy it and provide server room, power, air, connectivity • YOU support all hardware • YOU support all software from OS up, including database IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service • Server is hosted by a provider • You rent their hardware • They provide server room, power, air, connectivity…. • PROVIDER supports hardware • YOU provide and support all software from OS up, including database PaaS – Platform as a Service • Server is hosted by a provider • You rent their hardware • They provide server room, air, connectivity…. • PROVIDER supports hardware • YOU RENT the OS and database • PROVIDER supports OS and database software Cloud Azure SQL DB is a PaaS Platform
  7. 7. IaaS vs DBaaS The buzzword for PaaS offerings for databases is…. DBaaS Which is PaaS for databases! Infrastructure-as-a-Service Database-as-a-Service • Have to purchase DB and OS licenses • Able to install any software you choose – databases, applications, third-party tools • Easy to integrate your on-premises toolsets – monitoring, security, application development… • Allows you to maintain tight control of OS and DB configuration • Tight control over database utility execution – backups, index maintenance • Able to leverage cloud benefits that include elasticity, scalability and flexibility • Able to leverage features to reduce administrative time (varies according to vendor and particular offering selected) • Database products are limited by vendor offering • Rental fees include DB and OS licenses • Provider assumes greater administrative control over your environment (software installation, DB and OS configuration, patching, DB upgrades) • WATCH VENDOR SCHEDULING WINDOWS • Complex systems (HA, DR) are more easily configured • Data geo-redundancy is often inherent to offering • Provides backup and maintenance utility interfaces • Pricing can be complex and is configured by selecting tiers based on CPU, memory, disk utilization and performance • If you are renting the software, when relationship is over, you don’t own anything
  8. 8. Data Factory Azure for MySQL Microsoft Azure Cloud DB Offerings Azure for PostgreSQL SQL Data Warehouse SQL Server Stretch DB Cosmos DB Redis Cache Table Storage
  9. 9. SQL Server Platforms VMs On-Premises Infrastructure-as-a-Service Database-as-a-Service Most control Moderate Control Less Control Higher administration costs Lower administration costs Lowest administration costs Hardware and software costs Software costs Software costs Purchase licenses Rent OS, DB BYOL or rental Rent No system SLAs 99.95% on VM only 99.99% for entire environment Fewest system provided automations Some system provided automations Most system provided automations No changes to existing support procedures Minimal changes to existing support procedures Most changes to existing support procedures Build your own HA and DR (hardware and software) Design, install and configure your own HA and DR (software) System provided HA and DR (design and configure only) No changes to migrate DB Minimal to no changes to migrate on- premises DB Changes often required to migrate on- premises DB Slowest application time-to-market Moderate application time-to-market Fastest application time-to-market
  10. 10. • New Staffing Roles and Responsibilities • Policies and Procedures • Impact on Existing Tools and Technologies • Change Management Cloud DBs Will Change the Way Your Organization Provides Support • Costing Models • Security • Training and Education • Become More Reliant on 3rd Parties Cloud Impact on Support • Storage • Compute • Provisioning • Monitoring Tools • Admin Tools • Backup • Security • Data Access • Performance • Vendor Lock In • DB Features • Elasticity • Scalability • Server Redundancy • Disaster Recovery Greater Impact DBaaS Less Impact IaaS
  11. 11. When Migrating On-Premises SQL Server To Azure SQL DB – KNOW the Feature Differences RDX Recommendation • Always On Avail Groups • Attach a database • BACKUP command • Change data capture • Database mail • Database mirroring • Database snapshots • Event notifications • Distributed transactions • Extended stored procedures • Filestream • Linked servers • Log shipping • Polybase • Policy based management • RESTORE command • Semantic search • Service broker • SQL Server Agent • SSIS/SSAS/SSRS • SQL Server profiler • Windows Server Failover Clustering
  12. 12. Azure SQL Managed Instances • GA in 2018 • SQL Server “Instance as a Service” • Same architecture as PaaS • All PaaS features • Near 100% compatibility with on- premises • Easy migration with DMS  Native backup/restore  Log Shipping • SQL Agent, 3-part names, DBMail, CDC… • Native support for virtual networks (injected into your VNET) • Allows private IP addresses • SSIS/SSAS/SSRS – Not available  Azure Data Factory (SSIS PaaS)  Azure Analysis Services  Virtual machines  Migrate to Power BI Platform as a Service Benefits On-Premises Compatibility + Azure DBaaS Managed Instance Managed Instance Elastic Pool Single DB More control compared to traditional Azure DBaaS Lower costs when compared to SQL Server on VMs
  13. 13. Azure SQL DB Pricing • 36 Worldwide Regions • Single DB vs Elastic Pool • Tiers • Basic • Standard • Premium RS • Premium • Performance Level • DTU and eDTU • Storage • DBs per Elastic Pool • Number of DBs or Pools • Time Period • Hours • Months • Days
  14. 14. Azure Regions
  15. 15. Database Transaction Units CPU MEMORY WRITESREADS HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGHLOW Microsoft measures database workloads by combining CPU, Memory and I/O into a unit of measurement called a DTU for single databases and eDTU’s for elastic pools
  16. 16. DB Elastic Pools • Multiple databases • Share resources and costs amongst group • Good for DBs that have spikey workloads • Performance levels control sizing of other resources • Disk storage • In-Memory allocations • #DBs in pools • Max requests, logins, sessions • Min and Max eDTUs • Single database • No resource/cost sharing • Performance Levels control sizing of other resources • Disk storage • In-Memory allocations • Max requests, logins, sessions • Min and Max DTUs Databases vs Elastic Pools Azure Portal provides pool recommendations
  17. 17. DB Elastic Pools Databases vs Elastic Pools Leverage Azure Portal Advisor elastic pool recommendations to reduce costs Jim Recommends
  18. 18. UNDERSTAND Azure SQL DB’s pricing models – they can be complex MEASURE your current and estimate future workloads (Microsoft provides tools) TAKE YOUR TIME during configuration MONITOR consumption regularly BE PREPARED to adjust your configuration SET UP billing alerts Cloud DBMS Charges Don’t Get Surprised! RDX Recommends
  19. 19. Availability Features Geo-Replication • Choose a region that will store secondary database • Secondary must have same name and service level as primary • Uses asynchronous replication (changes committed on primary before being sent to secondary) for duplication • Manual failover from 1 of 4 readable secondaries in same or different region. Need to update connection strings to point to new primary • The secondary switches to become primary during failover process • Other secondaries are auto-linked to new primary • Azure SQL DB Failover Groups are in preview • Readable secondaries • One failover secondary in a different region is used for automatic failover • Configure auto-failover polices that trigger activation • Configure one address that does not need to be updated during failover. Like a Windows Cluster Name… Currently, PowerShell works better than the Portal GUI for administration Jim Recommends
  20. 20. Configuring Geo-Replication
  21. 21. Performance Features • Able to easily increase or decrease resource allocations • Scale out using Elastic Database features (sharding) • In-memory capabilities • Robust array of performance monitoring dashboards, drilldowns, metrics and visuals • Azure Intelligent Insights • Automatic index management (not maintenance) • Plan regression • Robust monitoring alert configurations
  22. 22. Performance Monitoring • Traditional tuning strategy of starting with high-level information and drilling down into specific details • Robust array of performance monitoring dashboards, drilldowns, metrics and visuals • Query Performance Insights accesses the Query Store to provide individual query performance data and recommendations • Create monitoring metric threshold alerts (DTU, CPU, I/O, failed connections, storage) • Metrics can be logged to Azure Event Hubs, Azure Log Analytics and Azure Storage
  23. 23. Monitoring Alerts • Configure using portal, PowerShell, CLI, REST API • Alerts are configured at the database level • Able to create both performance and availability alerts
  24. 24. In-Memory OLTP • Azure SQL DB shares same in-memory implementation with SQL Server on-premises • Uses less resources to process workloads • Can be used with single DBs and databases in elastic pools • Azure Portal provides recommendations on tables that may benefit from in-memory In-Memory ConfigurationStandard DB Configuration
  25. 25. Intelligent Performance Analysis Intelligence Insights • Continuous monitoring • Creates baselines for SQL workload • Detects poor performance events • Sophisticated displays and drill-down features • Provides root cause analysis
  26. 26. • Azure’s monitoring process continuously analyzes performance • Learns about the databases’ workload characteristics • Tuning activities include: • Index creation • Index deletion • Plan regression • Actions that don’t improve performance are rolled back • Can be set to perform all steps automatically Monitor Learn Adjust Verify Index/Plan Management Automatic Management • Understand how it works • Implement in test • Monitor closely Jim Recommends
  27. 27. Configuring Automatic Tuning
  28. 28. Tuning Microsoft’s Production Databases
  29. 29. Sharding • Data is distributed to shards based on a shard key (individual key, range, hash) • The shard map manager contains global mapping information about all shards (DBs) in a shard set • Shard databases have identical structures • Elastic queries, transactions and jobs are used to access the shards in the shard set • Split-Merge utility and Elastic Database client libraries used to manage data and sharded environment • Good for: • Large amounts of data • High transaction throughput • SAS multi-tenant applications • Split data to different geographic areas Shard 1 Horizontally Scalable Horizontal Scalability Shard 3 Shard 2 Shard X Shard Key 1-100 Shard Key 101-200 Shard Key 101-200 Elastic Query Elastic Transactions Elastic Jobs
  30. 30. Allows you to scan, review, analyze and resolve issues. Can then set baseline. Subsequent reports show baseline exceptions Vulnerability Scanning Capture, retain, report and analyze selected events Auditing Detects suspicious activities that may be potential threats. Alerts can be configured for notification Threat Detection Protects data at rest, during transfer and in use. Encryption keys can be stored in Azure Key Vault Always Encrypted Allows cloud and on-premises access to Active Directory information Azure Active Directory Integration Policy-based security feature that hides data in the result set without changing data stored in DB Data Masking Security
  31. 31. Six Ways RDX is Better for Business Vulnerability Assessments
  32. 32. Six Ways RDX is Better for Business Automatic Threat Detection • $15/Month per server • Able to configure email alerts for a wide range of security events • Notifications include all of the information you need to begin your analysis • The alerts provide recommendations to help investigation and mitigate impact • Links to SQL audit records during time of the event
  33. 33. Database Backups Weekly Full Backups Hourly Differentials T-Logs Every 5 Minutes Database Backups Azure Performs
  34. 34. Azure SQL DB Demo View Azure Demo on YouTube
  35. 35. Questions and Additional Information January’s Presentation – Migrating On-Premises Databases to the Cloud The RDX Report Microsoft Power BI Overview and Demo, MySQL in the Cloud, Microsoft’s Big Data Cloud Solutions, Top Security Threats – Mobile, Website, Network LinkedIn Selecting Cloud DBMS, NoSQL Architectures, Database Security Series, Improving Customer Service 20YEARS OF SERVICE DELIVERY EXPERIENCE Video recording of this presentation can be found on RDX’s YouTube Channel: