TASK - change it and ways of group will change. Redefinition changes other things. Transformational leader key – sees the possibilities. E.g. Building projects in local churchSTRUCTURES Reorganize – too often boxing the problem – identify it and give someone the responsibility to solve it , its just been put in a box. Doesn’t do a lot – people go on doing what they always did whatever you call them.SYSTEMS communications, numbers, participation etc. Agents of change, e.g. McCormick and instalment payment for farm machinery, hospital system in 19th century, Borsig (locomotives) and factory system in Germany – floor supervisor and apprenticeship schemes, 16th century Czech Comenius invented textbook revolutionised teaching.Take away food, sponsored runs, garden centres, hospice movement – social inventions of systems, not technologies.PEOPLE assumption ne people will bring the missing ingredient – but very costly in many ways. Better to change to change skills, capacities and attitudes – personal development and learning.
Change and conflict presentation
Leadership in church congregations: conflict and change Christopher Burkett
This session:1. Change in organizations - difficulties, blocks, and levers2. Change and conflict3. Conflict in congregations4. Dealing with conflict Case study
Case study1.What do you imagine the causes of conflict are?2.What’s gone wrong?3.How are possibilities for positives outcomes to be found?
‘Why can’t the status quo be the way forward in this matter?’ Speaker in General Synod quoted by Charles HandySlow changes in the environment can inoculate us all Charles Handy
Change trainTraditionalists Conservatives Progressives Radicals Brake van Engine drivers Passengers Track layers 14% want to18% Resisting 66% Passive 2% lead get there Rational motivation Emotional motivation
3 change blockers• Blinkers and filters. We filter the world through familiarity spectacles. Group-think.• The predictability imperative. The unexpected often the unwanted. Carry the present into the future.• The grip of coalitions. Alliances to block change – we like what we’ve got. Charles Handy
Levers of change Harold Leavatt TaskSystems Structures People
Change and Conflict• Goal mission, aims, values, objectives• Role changes, differences, position• Cognition ideas, opinions, judgements, ways of thinking• Affections feelings, intuitive responses, emotions• Relations other people, communication, alliances• Behaviours words, actions, values, behaviour• Spiritual faith, spirituality, religion• Self inner struggles, tensions, illness Adapted from Skills for Collaborative Ministry, SPCK
Conflicts in congregations in relation to different congregational modelsHouse of Family Community Leader MixedWorshipMoney, staff Minister, Money, staff, Money, staff, Minister, building worship, worship, money, staff, outreach, outreach, worship, gender, sexual gender, sexual outreach, orientation orientation gender, sexual orientation, governanceAdministrative Personal Moral Moral Multiple kindsarguments arguments arguments arguments of argumentConfined to Widespread Widespread Widespread Widespreadboard or and emotional and emotionalcommittee
House of Family Community Leader MixedWorshipProcess viewed Unremarked Viewed as Viewed Viewed withpositively moral positively suspicionNo factions Minister v lay Older v newer No factions Many groups leaders members each with a preferenceNo obvious Prompted by Prompted by Prompted by By newtrigger minister members minister or minister or by proposing proposing new members minister admin/finance policies/ proposing new proposing new change programmes policies/ polices/ programmes programmesResolved by By vote and/or ½ by ¼ by Unresolved orvote exit of some compromise compromise large groups and by vote and by vote exit
Why conflict in Church?• Voluntary organization • Part of ‘leisure time’• Emotions near surface • Nero syndrome – small• Ideological commitment place in which imperial to peace power can be exercised• Avoidance mechanisms • Natural territory for the• Tendency to spiritualize fragile and needy issues • And ...• Inevitable lack of clarity carried over into inappropriate areas
Sources of conflict in the Local Church• Maintenance versus • Clergy versus lay people mission Again roles hard to be Both require complex precise about. Clergy use organizational responses charismatic authority to and are hard to be precise defend priorities because about role poorly defined. Sub-• Conservative versus groups make competing liberal traditions demands. Finance Between congregations problems blamed on and denominations, but clergy. Close-knit lay also within congregations communities likely to dominate the clergy
5 styles of conflict management from Morgan, G. Images of Organization• Avoiding Ignoring conflicts in hope they’ll go away Putting problems on hold Invoking slow procedures to resolve conflict Using secrecy to avoid confrontation Appealing to rules to resolve conflect
continued• Compromise negotiating looking for deals and trade-offs finding satisfactory solutions• Competition creating win-lose situations using power plays to get one’s way forcing submission
continued• Accommodation giving way submitting and complying• Collaboration problem solving confronting differences and sharing ideas and information searching for solutions Finding win-win solutions seeing problems and conflicts as challenging
Making conflict count for good Scriptural examples
Active peace-making born of realism• Change attitude to conflict• Conflict can be a wake up call from God• Conflict happens• Conflict can be productive• Conflict can transform things
Conflict transformationis to envision and respondto the ebb and flow of social conflictas life-giving opportunitiesfor creating constructive change processesthat reduce violence,increase justicein direct interaction and social structures,and respond to real-life problemsin human relationships. John Paul Lederach
Digging deepFoundations of a transformational approach1. Recognize conflict is a continuous and normal dynamic in human relationships2. Envision conflict positively as a potential for constructive growth3. Respond willingly in ways that maximize that potential for positive change
Don’t be part of the problem by• Trying to subdue things by force of personality• Letting dominant people set the agenda• Wearing two hats at once• Not declaring your intentions• Using the pulpit for personal remarks• Denying your own anger
Do work at• Proactive intervention• Active listening and mirroring• Validating others’ opinions and empathizing• Centred speaking – yourself and what you feel, not conjecture about others and their opinions• Being assertive but not aggressive• Consensus rather than idealized unanimity Adapted from Colin Patterson
References• Becker Penny Edgwell. (1999) Congregations in Conflict. Cambridge: CUP.• Carroll, Jackson W. (2006) God’s Potters: Pastoral Leadership and the Shaping of Congregations. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.• Handy, Charles. (1990) Understanding Voluntary Organizations. London: Penguin.• Nash, Sally and Paul Nash and Jo Pimlott. (2011) Skills for Collaborative Ministry. London:SPCK.• Lederach, John Paul. (2003) The Little Book of Conflict Transformation. Intercourse (PA):Good Books• Morgan, Gordon. (2006) Images of Organization. London: Sage.• Patterson, Colin. (2003 ) How to Learn Through Conflict. Cambridge:Grove Books.• Starkey, Mike. (2011) Ministry Rediscovered. Abingdon:BRF.• Steinke, Peter. (1996) Healthy Congregations: A Systems Approach. New York: Alban Institute.