Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

APA 2014 Ex-Offender Education Presentation

Prison and reentry education presentation.

  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

APA 2014 Ex-Offender Education Presentation

  1. 1. Addressing Disparities & Institutionalization through College Education Programs Christopher R. Beasley, Ph.D Department of Psychology Washington College APA 2014 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  2. 2. engagementresearch.org/presentations Slides COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  3. 3. • Incarceration • Education • Employment • Reentry Challenges • Prison Education • Reentry Education • Integrated Programming • Future Directions Overview COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  4. 4. US Incarceration Prevalence1 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  5. 5. Incarceration Trend2 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  6. 6. Ethnic Disparities3 4.8%0.7% 1.9% COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  7. 7. Felons & Ex-Felons4 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  8. 8. • Psychological – Trauma & Clinical Illness5 – Institutionalization6 • Dependence on structure and contingencies • Hyper vigilance, distrust, and suspicion • Emotional over-control, alienation, psychological distancing • Social withdrawal and isolation • Incorporation of exploitive norms of prison culture • Diminished self-worth • Post-traumatic stress reactions Incarceration Consequences COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  9. 9. • Collateral7 – Legal restrictions – Stigma & discrimination – Careers – Housing – Education – Public benefits – Financial credit – Immigration – Parental rights – Travel – Volunteer opportunities Incarceration Consequences COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  10. 10. • Unemployment – National figures notoriously absent – Incarceration reduces employment 10-20%8 – 10-30% lesser earnings9 Incarceration Consequences COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  11. 11. • Employers not very willing to hire ex-offenders – 40% would probably or definitely11 – Small Lower in smaller, financial, service, & customer contact10 – Persists in tight labor markets11 • Employer Concerns12 – Lack of skills & experience – Untrustworthiness – Fear of negligent hiring – Sympathetic but protective Employment Barriers COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  12. 12. • Factors in Marketability12 – Post prison experiences taken into account11 • Work experience11 • Training and hard skills help • College education – Willingness to hire ex-offenders increased 3x13 – Desire for soft skills • Communication skills • Interpersonal skills • Work ethic Employment Barriers COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  13. 13. • Education Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 General Formerly Incarcerated White Black Hispanic Postsecondary Educational Attainment14 Some College No College 8.411.411.448.4 5.5
  14. 14. • Recidivism Reentry Challenges COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Any Multiple 5-Year Recidivism Rates15 Yes No 76.6 42.3
  15. 15. • Recidivism Reentry Challenges COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 White Hispanic Black Other 3-Year Recidivism Disparity15 Arrests No Arrests 68.8 70.7 74.0 76.6
  16. 16. • Immediate Needs16 – Employment – Substance Abuse Treatment – Mental Health – Housing – Transportation • Challenges – Institutionalization – Identity – Self-Concept – Environmental Adaptation • Built • Technical • Cultural Reentry COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  17. 17. • Programs – Community Colleges – Bard Prison Initiative17 – Education Justice Project18 • Outcomes – 51% lower odds of recidivating19 Prison Postsecondary Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  18. 18. • Challenges – Security – Administrative Resources – Prison policies and shifting priorities – Qualified educators • Limitations – Often do not address transition – Institutionalization still present – Federal funding not available Prison Postsecondary Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  19. 19. • Programs – College & Community Fellowship20 – College Initiative21 – Post Prison Education Program22 – Project Rebound23 – Returning Student Support Group24 Reentry Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  20. 20. • Outcomes – College Initiative25 • 20x less likely to go back to prison compared to national average • 5x more likely to graduate than CUNY GED students – Post Prison Education Program26 • 0% 1-year recidivism for clients • 35% for overflow controls Reentry Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  21. 21. • Challenges – Student Preparation • Educational attainment • Recent educational experience • Familiarity with systems and technology – Criminal background checks – Continuance of contacts with prison programs • Limitations – Often little coordination with prison programs • Recruitment • Student transition Reentry Education COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  22. 22. • Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education27 – 5-year Demonstration Project • Michigan • New Jersey • North Carolina – Funding and Technical Assistance • Ford Foundation • Sunshine Lady Foundation • Open Society Foundations • W.K. Kellogg Foundation • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Prison & Reentry Integration COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  23. 23. • Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education27 – Postsecondary education and supportive reentry • Links to local employment • 2 Years prerelease • 2 Years postrelease • RAND Corporation evaluation Prison & Reentry Integration COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  24. 24. • Housing considerations – Living & learning communities • Stigma – College recovery communities • Alumni components – Faces of hope • Hope is related to lesser odds of reincarceration28 Future Directions COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  25. 25. • Communicating alternative narratives to prisoners and greater society – Written stories – Video stories – Spoken stories – Policy briefs and statements Future Directions COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  26. 26. • Research – Outcomes – Processes • Deinstitutionalization – Incarceration conditions, policies, & procedures » Rehabilitation » Replication of outside structure and routine » Opportunities for autonomy » Psychologically and safe settings » Contact with outside world » Alternatives to prison culture and norms – Preparation for community release – Services to facilitate reintegration Future Directions COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  27. 27. • Incarceration • Education • Employment • Reentry Challenges • Prison Education • Reentry Education • Integrated Programming • Future Directions Conclusion COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  28. 28. 1. International Cenre for Prison Studies. (2010). World Prison Population List 2. USDOJ (2011). Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010 3. U.S. Census. (2010). Correctional Population in the United States 4. Shannon, S.K.S., Uggen, C., Schnittker, J.,Thompson, M.,Wakefield, S., & Massoglia, M.. (In Progress). Growth in the U.S. Ex-Felon and Ex- Prisoner Population, 1948-2010. 5. Haney, C. (1997). Psychology and the limits to prison pain: Confronting the coming crisis in Eighth Amendment law. 6. Haney, C. (2001). The Psychological Impact of Incarceration: Implications for Post-Prison Adjustment 7. NACDL (2014). Collateral Damage: America’s Failure to Forgive or Forget in the War on Crime 8. CEPR (2010). Ex-Offenders and the Labor Market 9. Kling, J. Weiman, D., & Western, B. (2000). “The Effects of Mass Incarceration on the Labor Market 10. Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., Stoll, M. A. (2002). Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their Determinants 11. Holzer, H. J. (2007). Collateral costs: The effects of Incarceration on the employment and earnings of young workers 12. Fahey, J., Roberts, C., & Engel, L. (2006). Employment of Ex-Offenders: Employer Perspectives 13. Albright, S. & Denq, F. (1996). Employer Attitudes Toward Hiring Ex-Offenders 14. Harlow, C. (2003). Education and Correctional Populations 15. Cooper, A. D., Durose, M. R., & Snyder, H. (2014). Recidivism Of Prisoners Released In 30 States In 2005: Patterns From 2005 To 2010 16. James, N. (2014). Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism 17. www.bpi.bard.edu 18. www.educationjustice.net 19. Davis, L. M., Bozick, R., Steele, J. L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J. N. V. (2013). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Eduction: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults. 20. www.collegeandcommunity.org 21. www.collegeinitiative.org 22. www.postprisonedu.org 23. www. asi.sfsu.edu/asi/.../proj_rebound 24. www.rssgchicago.org 25. College Initiative (2013). Fact Sheet. 26. Lovell, D., Walch, J., & Rhodes, L. A. (n.d.). Preliminary Evaluation: Post-Prison Education Program 27. VERA (n.d.). Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education Project 28. Dekhtyar, M., Beasley, C. R., Jason, L. A., Ferrari, J. R. (2012). Hope as a Predictor of Reincarceration Among Mutual-Help References COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM
  29. 29. engagementresearch.org/presentations Slides COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM

×