Reading and writing

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A workshop about teaching reading and writing strategies, based on Carole Booth Olson's Reading and Writing Connection.

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  • [Film Time about 12:00] Jimmy is a bit of a Dublin hustler and has put an advertisement in the paper looking to start a soul band. He opens his front door to a succession of hopeful applicants. The ad says 'rednecks and southsiders need not apply'.Jimmy: Who are your influences?Skinhead with earrings and scars: Barry Manilow. [Door slams.]Jimmy: Who are your influences?Hippy-chick with floppy hat: Joan Baez, Joni Mitchell...Skinny guy with long hair in leather jacket: Wings. [Door slams. With his face pressed against door window he adds:] Bachman Turner Overdrive.Shy girl: Spandau Ballet. Soft Cell.Morrissey-looking guy: Sinead O'Connor. [Door slams.]Tap-dancing woman singing: ...pop. It's a nice trip to a candy shop, where....[Door slams.]Boy George lookalike: Hi, I've come about the audition....[Door slams.]Big-haired guy with bandana on head: Led Zeppelin. [Door slams.]Back to hippy-chick: Uh...[Door Slams.]Leather jacket guy with huge pink mohawk: Billy and the Bullocks. [Door slams.]Curly red haired serious girl: U2. [Door slams.]Sid Vicious looking guy at door says nothing. [Door slams.]
  • In You Gotta BE the Book (1997), Jeff Wilhelm describes an exchangebetweentwomiddleschool students. Onecould offer ”Absolutelynothing” abouthisexperience in the ”world” of a book; the otherwashighlyarticulateabouthisreading process. Wilhelm writes, ”After Ron shared… withhisreading partner Jon, Jon said, ’I can’tbelieveyou do all that stuff whenyou read! Holycrap, I’m not doing… like nothing… comparedtoyou!’ Ron respondedthat ’I can’tbelieveyoudon’t do something. If youdon’tyou’re not reading, man… It’s gotta be like wrestling, or watching a movie, or playing a video… you’ve got to… like… be there.’
  • In You Gotta BE the Book (1997), Jeff Wilhelm describes an exchangebetweentwomiddleschool students. Onecould offer ”Absolutelynothing” abouthisexperience in the ”world” of a book; the otherwashighlyarticulateabouthisreading process. Wilhelm writes, ”After Ron shared… withhisreading partner Jon, Jon said, ’I can’tbelieveyou do all that stuff whenyou read! Holycrap, I’m not doing… like nothing… comparedtoyou!’ Ron respondedthat ’I can’tbelieveyoudon’t do something. If youdon’tyou’re not reading, man… It’s gotta be like wrestling, or watching a movie, or playing a video… you’ve got to… like… be there.’
  • Interactingwithlanguage, makingmovies in theirheads, shaping, twisting, experimenting, constantly in dialogueActivatingknowledge. Reading is a productive, not a receptive activity.Inexperiencedreaders and writers get ”bogged down” in theirattempttoproduce a ”perfect fit” on theirfirst draft.
  • is not silent, it is a speaking-out-loud voice in your head; it is *spoken*,a voice is *saying* itas you read. It's the writer's words,of course, in a literary sensehis or her "voice" but the soundof that voice is the sound of *your* voice.Not the sound your friends knowor the sound of a tape played backbut your voicecaught in the dark cathedralof your skull, your voice heardby an internal ear informed by internal abstractsand what you know by feeling,having felt. It is your voicesaying, for example, the word "barn"that the writer wrotebut the "barn" you sayis a barn you know or knew. The voicein your head, speaking as you read,never says anything neutrally- some peoplehated the barn they knew,some people love the barn they knowso you hear the word loadedand a sensory constellationis lit: horse-gnawed stalls,hayloft, black heat tape wrappinga water pipe, a slipperyspilled *chirr* of oats from a split sack,the bony, filthy haunches of cows...And "barn" is only a noun- no verbor subject has entered into the sentence yet!The voice you hear when you read to yourselfis the clearest voice: you speak itspeaking to you.  ~~-Thomas Lux (Source: ”The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently” from New and Selected Poems, 1975-1995 by Thomas Lux. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997)
  • BioChemreadingassignment
  • As soon as I assign my students a piece of reading, they begin searching for Web-based shortcuts. They read biographies on authors, commentaries on style and context, explanations of themes and conflicts. Just the sort of thing I want to be doing with them, but they beat me to it.They don’t know it, but this has enriched in-class discussions and layered their writing. Students may be reading only part of the text, but by nature they are driven to read around it, too.
  • In herroom at the prowof the houseWherelight breaks, and the windowsaretossedwith linden,My daughter is writing a story.I pause in the stairwell, hearingFrom hershut door a commotionoftypewriter-keysLike a chainhauled over a gunwale.Young as she is, the stuffOfherlife is greatcargo, and someof it is heavy:I wisheher a lucky passage.Butnow it is shewhopauses,As iftoreject my thought and itseasyfigure.A stillnessgreatens, in whichThe whole house seemsto be thinking,And thenshe is at it againwithabunchedclamorOf strokes, and again is silent. I remember the dazedstarlingWhichwastrapped in thatveryroom, twoyearsago; Howwestole in, lifted a sashAnd retreated, not toaffright it;And how for a helplesshour, through the crack of the door,Wewatched the sleek, wild, darkAnd iridescentcreatureBatteragainst the brilliance, drop like a gloveTo the hard floor, or the desk-top,And waitthen, humped and bloody,For the witsto try it again; and howourspiritsRose when, suddenly sure,It lifted off from the chair-back, Beating a smoothcourse for the right windowAnd clearing the sill of the world.It is always a matter, my darling,Oflife or death, as I hadforgotten. I wishWhat I wishedyoubefore, butharder.
  • ”I take off thetop of my head and writeoutloud in front of them on an OH. I show themhow I plan, change my mind, confront problems, weigh options, useconventionsto make my writing sound and look the way I want it to and my readerswillneed it to, and generallycompose my life. Nancy Atwell 1998
  • Question`?
  • Reading and writing

    1. 1. Today’s Plan0 Introductions0 Document sharing0 A word about learning theories0 The reading/writing connection0 Making cognitive strategies visible0 Non fiction reading ENC/70 Teaching academic writing skills0 Types of essays0 Differentiating writing skills: 5, 6, 70 Bringing it all together: Literature circles
    2. 2. Document Sharing
    3. 3. Who are your influences?
    4. 4. Theories of LearningLearning is…0 INDIVIDUAL0 SOCIAL0 AFFECTIVE0 PROGRESSIVE0 COGNITIVE CMK’s personal learning web
    5. 5. Be the book?0 How can we help students BE there as readers and writers of English?0 How can we cultivate competence and confidence?
    6. 6. The Reading/Writing Connection0 Reading and writing traditionally thought of as opposites:0 Reading = reception, decoding, deciphering.0 Writing = production, encoding, encrypting.0 In fact, complementary processes: SIMILAR COGNITIVE STRATEGIES
    7. 7. Making Meaning: Cognitive Strategies at WorkWhat do mature, engaged and experienced readers and writers DO when they make meaning?
    8. 8. Active Engagment0 Constructing meaning from and with texts. 0 Active, not passive 0 Productive, not receptive
    9. 9. Recursive0 Go back to go forward 0 ”Mull and stew” 0 Reconnect 0 Clarify 0 Refine
    10. 10. Interaction and Negotiation0 Project themselves into the role of their PERCEIVED COUNTERPART
    11. 11. Strategic 0 Select appropriate strategies0 Learn to internalize and regulate cognitive and metacognitive processes
    12. 12. Make invisible strategies visibleDemonstrate what experienced readersand writers do.
    13. 13. Tool kit0 Planning and goal setting0 Tapping prior knowledge0 Making predictions0 Introducing the author0 Constructing the gist0 Making connections0 Adopting alignment0 Monitoring0 Analysing author’s craft0 Clarifying0 Further reading0 Predicting0 Evaluating
    14. 14. ”The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently”is not silent, it is a speaking- never says anything neutrally- some peopleout-loud voice in your head; it is *spoken*, hated the barn they knew,a voice is *saying* it some people love the barn they knowas you read. Its the writers words, so you hear the word loadedof course, in a literary sense and a sensory constellationhis or her "voice" but the sound is lit: horse-gnawed stalls,of that voice is the sound of *your* voice. hayloft, black heat tape wrappingNot the sound your friends know a water pipe, a slipperyor the sound of a tape played back spilled *chirr* of oats from a split sack,but your voice the bony, filthy haunches of cows...caught in the dark cathedral And "barn" is only a noun- no verbof your skull, your voice heard or subject has entered into the sentence yet!by an internal ear informed by internal abstracts The voice you hear when you read to yourselfand what you know by feeling, is the clearest voice: you speak ithaving felt. It is your voice speaking to you.saying, for example, the word "barn"that the writer wrote ~~-Thomas Luxbut the "barn" you sayis a barn you know or knew. The voice (Source: ”The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently”in your head, speaking as you read, from New and Selected Poems, 1975-1995 by Thomas Lux. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997)
    15. 15. Making cognitive strategies visible 0 Partner 1 “The Sculptor”: Make a playdough figure of your choice. While you are constructing it, try to say EVERYTHING that comes into your head about the process. Don’t just try to explain how to make the figure, but also give voice to your reflections, ideas, decisions, choice s etc. 0 Partner 2 “The Recorder”: Write down as many of the sculptor’s think-aloud statements as you can. 0 Now, switch places. Make one more animal, and record one more set of think-alouds. 0 Be prepared to discuss and analyse your think-alouds back in the larger group.
    16. 16. M PGS TPK C VI think I’m going to make one of those elephants with the big ears like Dumbo. Let’s see, I’ll need PGS RMto break this up into three pieces for the head, body, and tail. Whoops, I forgot the trunk, so four AQ TPKpieces. I wonder why elephants are called pachyderms. Derm means skin. Hmm. Maybe it MP/FI V RMmeans thick skin. Geez. This guy is looking more like Micke Mouse than Dumbo. Better try again
    17. 17. What cognitive strategies did you use?0 Planning and Goal Setting- PGS 0 Adopting an Alignment- AA0 Tapping Prior Knowledge- TPK 0 Forming Interpretations- FI0 Asking Questions- AQ 0 Monitoring- M0 Making Predictions- MP 0 Analysing Author’s Craft- AAC0 Constructing the Gist- CG 0 Clarifying Understanding- CI0 Visualizing- V 0 Revising Meaning- RM0 Making Connections- MC 0 Reflecting and Relating- RR0 Summarizing- S 0 Evaluating- E
    18. 18. Metacognition: Thinking about ThinkingCOGNITIVE PROCESSES0 Reflect on0 Select0 Monitor0 RegulateExample: EN7/C non-fiction reading seminars
    19. 19. So what if students are reading less?0 Kids reading less0 More use of IT0 Is deep, prolonged reading losing its relevance?0 Is it dangerous to simply let them ”browse and sample”?See Costanzo, R. ”So What ifStudents are Reading Less” TheGlobe and Mail 25October, 2012
    20. 20. In her room at the prow of the house I remember the dazed starlingWhere light breaks, and the windows are Which was trapped in that very room, two years ago;tossed with linden, How we stole in, lifted a sashMy daughter is writing a story.I pause in the stairwell, hearing And retreated, not to affright it; And how for a helpless hour, through the crack of theFrom her shut door a commotion of door,typewriter-keys We watched the sleek, wild, darkLike a chain hauled over a gunwale. And iridescent creatureYoung as she is, the stuff Batter against the brilliance, drop like a gloveOf her life is great cargo, and some of it is To the hard floor, or the desk-top,heavy:I wish her a lucky passage. And wait then, humped and bloody, For the wits to try it again; and how our spiritsBut now it is she who pauses, Rose when, suddenly sure,As if to reject my thought and its easyfigure. It lifted off from the chair-back,A stillness greatens, in which Beating a smooth course for the right window And clearing the sill of the world.The whole house seems to be thinking,And then she is at it again with a It is always a matter, my darling,bunched clamor Of life or death, as I had forgotten. I wishOf strokes, and again is silent. What I wished you before, but harder. Source: ”The Writer” by Richard Wilbur.
    21. 21. Make cognitive strategies visibleDemonstrate what experiencedwriters do.
    22. 22. ”Play the whole range”Sensory/ Narrative/ Practical/ Analytical/Descriptive Imagination Informative ExpositoryJournal entry Anecdote Learning log Single-paragraph analysisDescriptions Memoir ”How to” Editorial instructionsCharacter sketch Eyewitness Recipes Speech accountNature writing Historical fiction Class notes Book reviewMonologue Comic Business letter Analytical essayPoems Short story Newspaper article Persuasive essayTravel brochure Play script Application Research essay Reflective essay Observational Expository essay essay Narrative poem Accident report Analytical report
    23. 23. Essential Elements:
    24. 24. Essential Elements: The Outline
    25. 25. Essential Elements:Paragraph Structure
    26. 26. Essential Elements: Essay Structure
    27. 27. Essential elements: Register Informal Formal
    28. 28. Essential elements: Source Criticism and Citation
    29. 29. 0 JOURNALLING 0 (Sentence writing) 0 Paragraph writing (topic, supporting, concluding sentences) 0 Introduce the idea of the essay, examples and typesWriting at VRG: EN5 0 Structure of an academic essay: Introduction, thesis, body, conclusio n ”red thread” 0 Register 0 Plagiarism and citation techniques 0 Literary analysis essay 0 Literature circle writing 0 Formal research essay
    30. 30. 0 Journalling 0 Formal argumentative essay 0 Source criticism 0 RegisterWriting at VRG: EN6 0 Citation techniques 0 More advanced literary analysis (historical criticism) essays 0 Literature circle writing
    31. 31. 0 Journalling 0 Source criticism 0 Register 0 University application essay 0 Citation techniquesWriting at VRG: EN7 0 Report writing 0 Project abstract 0 Non-fiction reading analysis 0 Literature circle writing 0 More advanced literary analysis (20th century literary criticism) essays
    32. 32. Traffic Light Assessment0 Red= STOP! Grammatical/structural error.0 Yellow= CAUTION!You are not makingsense, something is unclear.0 Green= GO!This is great writing! Niceword choice! Goodconnection!
    33. 33. Differentiating Writing 5,6,C0 NOS sector Human Rights essays 0 EN5 0 EN6 0 ENC 0 Rubric ENC
    34. 34. Literature Circles0 Student-centred0 Choice0 Multiple intelligences0 Constructive0 Connective0 Ongoing assessment (portfolios)0 Short, regular reading and writing assignments0 Formative and summative
    35. 35. Literature Circles 0 Groups of 4-5 0 Regular meetings 0 Online portfolio 0 Rotating roles 0 Wordsmith 0 Discussion director 0 Literary luminary 0 Connector 0 Illustrator 0 Character analyst 0 Historian/Journalist
    36. 36. Literature Circle: Final project ideas0 Online multimedia ”ZINE” (magazine) 0 DG Zine 0 DG Zine 20 Critical in-class essay0 Creative group oral presentation0 Statue ”freeze”

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