Social NetworksWeb-based services that allow individuals to:• construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system• articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection• view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system
Participation• Active users of social media produce large amounts of content every day.• Creative commons agreements expand the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
Social media theorist, Clay Shirky"Participants are different. Toparticipate is to act as if yourpresence matters, as if, when yousee something or hear something,your response is part of the event."
Virtual Community• Each platform offers different functionality and has its own culture, which is largely the product of its most active participants.• Cultures grow and change in response to how participants use the service (Facebook is social, Twitter informational, LinkedIn professional, etc.).
Social Media Benefits• Build global networks of professionals with similar interests—unbounded by time, place or funding— for learning, feedback, collaboration and publication• Tools to filter, share, learn, recommend, review and comment on quality• public and private spaces for themed discussions• Create and maintain your online identity & reputation• virtual community/support system
Risks• Moving findings into the public domain before they are ready• Identity deception• Privacy controls
Social Media Services: CommunicationBlogging: Blogger, LiveJournal, TypePad,WordPress, TumblrMicroblogging: Twitter, Yammer, Google BuzzLocation: Foursquare, Gowalla, Facebook PlacesSocial networking : Facebook, LinkedIn, PathAggregators: Google Reader, Netvibes,Pageflakes, iGoogle
Blogs & microblogs• Weblogs are sites containing the writers or group of writers own experiences, observations and opinions, often having images and links to other sites.• Informal spaces where new ideas and research can be reviewed and discussed in a way similar to conventional academic conferences, but unbounded by time and place.
Influence of Blogs• Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Trent Lott to step down as majority leader.• ―Rathergate‖ scandal: the advent of blogs acceptance by the mass media, both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure.
Social BookmarkingTools to search, organize, store, tagand share vast amounts of informationand aggregate the collectiverecommendations of a disciplinarycommunity.
Folksonomies• collection of tags distinguished from the conventionally ordered, official and hierarchical taxonomies of information• dynamic and highly flexible, created ‗as you go‘ in a way that suits a particular purpose• users can define tags specific to their needs and see how other users cross-file information under multiple tags leading to serendipitous discovery of links they would not otherwise have seen
The Gift EconomyCollaborative consumption represents a shift inbehavior brought about by the emergence of socialnetworks and real identity online.• the idea of accessing rather than owning• based on trust, value and spreading resources
The Trust FactorStartup TrustCloud aims to empower thesocial economy by developing a portablereputation system for the Internet. Thecompany calculates a user‘s reliability,consistency and responsiveness bymeasuring social presence across othersites, including Twitter, Facebook andLinkedIn.
Renting vs. BorrowingWhile it‘s called the ―sharing economy,‖not everything is free. Some peer-to-peer marketplaces are transaction-based, while others encourage sharingfree-of-charge. It seems the exchangeof money has an effect on the culturethat forms around a site.
It‘s all about Value―Collaborative consumption is commonsense. The majority of car owners don‘t drivetheir car every day. WhipCar enables them toearn money during this idletime — it‘s evenpossible to totally offset the cost of owning acar by renting it to neighbors when it‘s notbeing used.‖ –marketing director of WhipCar,Jonathan Clark
Funding Servicesleverage the power of social media tocrowdfund creative projects or help teachersfund urgent classroom needs• Kickstarter is a funding platform for creative projects• DonorsChoose is an online charity connecting you to classrooms in need
MisinformationInvestigators from the University of EastLondon Cass School of Educationdetermined that social networking websitessuch as Facebook and Twitter can correctmisinformation about natural disasters andother catastrophes as the events unfold.
Social Media & ActivismGoogle executive, Wael Ghonim, anonymouslylaunched a Facebook page commemorating KhaledSaid, a 28-year-old businessman in Alexandria whowas beaten to death by two policemen in June. Thepage became a rallying point for a campaign againstpolice brutality, with hundreds of thousands joining.For many Egyptians, it was the first time to learndetails of the extent of widespread torture in theirown country.
Wael Ghonim―I want to meet Mark Zuckerberg one day and thankhim on behalf of Egypt. This revolution started onFacebook in June 2010 when hundreds ofthousands of Egyptians started collaboratingcontent. We would post a video on Facebook thatwould be shared by 60,000 people on their wallswithin a few hours. Ive always said that if you wantto liberate a society just give them the Internet.‖
Social Media MarketingThe emphasis that social media puts onthe creation of communities and theability to collectively communicate, hassome leaders in the field talking aboutthe need to change the definition ofROI when it comes to social media.
Strategy• Listening: involves searching for online conversations about your brand or industry using key words and phrases• Engaging: gaining and holding the attention of consumers and prospects• Measuring: virality, repetition, activation, engagement
CriticismSome academics fear that the quality ofpublic and academic discussion anddebate is being undermined, and theubiquitous use of the Internet anddigital technologies like smartphonesare potentially damaging to ourthinking, our culture and our society ingeneral.
Growth of Technology• Encroachment of technology into every aspect of life has potentially damaging implications• Technology moves faster than our educators and policy makers.
Information overload & Multitasking• Social media have dramatically increased the amount of publicly- available information.• Over-complexity is the enemy of efficient communication, leading to noise rather than information.
PersonalizationPersonalization tends to sort peopleinto categories that may limit theiroptions. It is a system that cocoonsusers, diminishing the kind of exposureto opposing viewpoints necessary for ahealthy democracy.
The Echo-Chamber OnlineGroup polarization is the idea thatgroup deliberation with like-mindedpeople and insulation from alternateviews creates increasing extremism.New gate keepers must be sure thatalgorithms are encoded with a sense ofpublic life and civic responsibility
The Filter BubbleA a phenomenon in which websites usealgorithms to selectively guess whatinformation a user would like to see,based on information about the user–such as location, past click behaviorand search history—that tends toexclude contrary information.
Social SearchUnlike traditional search technologiesthat return results based on algorithmsand search history, social tools providealternative approaches to questionsbased on intelligently-filteredinformation that helps to stimulate newquestions, in the same way that aconversation with a colleague might.
Privacy• culture of active personal and professional disclosure changes the interface between public and private spaces and misuse of data• changing and complicated privacy policies, sign-ups and user agreements• employer and government requests for access to personal passwords and activity
PeripheralSome researchers believe that socialmedia are still peripheral in research,and this leads some to argue that it istherefore not worth engaging.
Loss of an Authoritative Perspective?Traditional publishing aims toprovide a filter for quality whereassocial media allow everyone topublish without constraint. Thisinevitably means that it is moredifficult to identify whichcontributions are valuable orauthoritative.
Work/Life BalanceSocial media have the potential toextend your working day and blur thedistinction between work and privatelife. People need to think carefullyabout boundaries, particularly if theyare using mobile devices.
Networks for Researchers• ResearchGate is a social networking service aimed at scientists and other researchers. It offers a range of functionality including a semantic search engine that browses academic databases.• Graduate Junction is a social networking service aimed at postgraduates and postdoctoral researchers.• MethodSpace is a social network service for social scientists run by the publisher Sage.• Nature Network is a science-focused social network service run by Nature Publishing Group.
Elena Golovuskina (PhD student, Education)―I prefer blogging, microblogging, socialbookmarking, social citation like Zotero,writing tools, social & professionalnetworking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn,and aggregators and dashboards likeNetvibes. They are all integral in myeveryday and professional life but fordifferent reasons.‖
Terry Wassall (Principal Teaching Fellow, Sociology)―I think social media made me a better researcherbecause I find information a lot faster and have anetwork of individuals I respect that discover, filterand discuss. I have connected my research to thereal world in a way that would not have been easybefore and maybe not possible. For curriculumdevelopment and teaching, social media connectswith real issues that interest and engage studentsand has helped them become student researchers intheir own right with a broader and more critical takeon issues.‖
The Academic Research Cycle1. Identification of knowledge2. Creation of knowledge3. Quality assurance of knowledge4. Dissemination of knowledge
Identification of Knowledge• enhances research capacity and saves time• harnesses networks to discover and filter knowledge• enables participation in seminars and conferences via podcasts, etc. (literature/peer reviews)
Creation of Knowledge• provides more effective collaboration and immediate feedback• raises the profile of your work more rapidly than conventional academic publishing• encourages research groups to work together across departmental, institutional and national boundaries
Quality Assurance of Knowledge• competitive funding mechanisms• ethical approval• academic line-management• peer review and peer scrutiny at conferences• publication and post-publication review• citation
Dissemination of knowledgeDisseminate your research more widely andeffectively:• consider the tone for publication of scholarly ideas via social media• consider the audience (The Head of Department, your peers, your research subjects and the general public may all read what you write)• consider the intellectual property and copyright implications of making your ideas and results available via social media?
Resources for Healthcare ProvidersInterview with Lee Aase, Social Media Manager atMayo Clinic9 Creative Social Good Campaigns WorthRecognizing [MASHABLE AWARDS]How To Create a Pinteresting Healthcare SocialMedia Strategy
References• Alan Cann of the Department of Biology at the University of Leicester• Konstantia Dimitriou and Tristram Hooley of the International Centre for Guidance Studies