Culture LearningA process whereby sojournersacquire culturally relevant socialknowledge and skills in order tosurvive and thrive in their newsociety
Elements that regulate interpersonal behavior•Vary between cultural groups and are ‘hidden’ in that people are not fully aware of them.* non-verbal communication(proxemics, touch & gestures)
The social behavior of personsinteracting with each other constitutes amutually organized, skilled performance.* includes expression of attitudes, ritualroutines etc.
Relational CommunicationImplicit messages that vary acrosscultures and define the tenor of therelationship by indirectly conveyingfeelings of liking, friendliness, dominanceand trust*communication style/competence
The socially inadequate individualmay not have mastered the conventionsof their society, ether because they areunaware of the rules of social behaviorthat regulate interpersonal conduct or, ifaware of the rules, are unable orunwilling to abide by them.
Socially Unskilled Persons• Behave like strangers in their own land, a similar position to socially inadequate indigenous individuals• Tend to be highly skilled in the customs of their own society and find their sudden inadequacy in the new culture frustrating
Cross-Cultural differences in Communication•Low Context Cultures: direct; rely on verbal communication•High Context Cultures: indirect & ambiguous; convey limited information in coded messages, more influenced by situational cues
Differences in Cultural Communication•Variability in self-disclosure, face negotiation and proxemics•More difficulty with differing ‘codes,’ particularly when share the same linguistic form (“Would you like to…?” US vs. Australia)
Etiquette•Direct/indirect•Requests•Turn distribution•Voice volume•Linguistic forms such as ‘Thank you’
Resolving Conflict•Reprimands•Affected by power-distance (status inequality) and the I-C dimension
Resolving Conflict• Managers in low power distance cultures rely heavily on their own training and experience and involve subordinates and co-workers.• In high power and collectivist countries formal rules and procedures are given precedence.• Negotiating Styles
Non-Verbal Communication•Communicate attitudes and express emotions (supports speech, provides feedback and synchronizes turn-taking)•Elements studied include face, eyes, spatial behavior, bodily contact and gestures
Mutual Gaze•Levels vary across cultures•Low gaze participant may be seen as impolite while high gaze participant may be seen as disrespectful, threatening or insulting•Spatial behavior
Bodily Contact & Gestures•Contact cultures versus non-contact cultures•Low-touch culture seen as aloof, cold and unfriendly to high-contact cultures•Psychological closeness/immediacy
Rules and Conventions•Approaches to lateness and success•Differences in attitudes towards pace of life Social rules operate beneath the level of consciousness and one becomes aware of a rule only after it’s been broken
Forms of Address•Titles are tied to variations in power- distance across cultures•Rules for exchanging business cards•Forms of address (surname/given name combinations)
Social Relations in Multicultural Societies•Despite policies based on integration, minority groups are expected to assimilate to the dominant ethos•‘code switching’ linguistic styles
Social Situations QuestionnaireCulture learning approachsuggests skills deficits be includedin the study of interculturalcontact.