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CULTURAL CHANGE and
GLOBALIZATION:
• Cultures are always changing.

Because cultures consist of learned
patterns of behavior and belief,
cultural traits can be unlearned and
learned anew as human needs
change.
• Discovery and invention have been

primary sources of culture change.
Yet only when a society accepts an
invention or discovery and uses it
regularly can culture change be
said to have occurred.
• Some inventions are probably the

result of dozens of tiny, perhaps
accidental, initiatives over a period
of many years.
• Other inventions are consciously

intended. Yet why some people
are more innovative than others is
not really understood. A margin
for risk? Or nothing else to lose?
• Diffusion is the process by which

cultural elements are borrowed from
another society and incorporated
into the culture of the recipient
group.
• There are three basic patterns of
diffusion.
• diffusion by direct contact in which
elements of a culture are first
taken up by neighboring societies
and then gradually spread farther
and farther afield
• diffusion by intermediate contact,
in which third parties , frequently
traders, carry a cultural trait from
the originating society to another
group
• stimulus diffusion in which

knowledge of a trait belonging to
another culture stimulates the
invention or development of a
local equivalent
• Diffusion is a selective not

automatic process. A society
accepting a foreign cultural trait is
likely to adapt it in a way that
effectively harmonizes it with the
society’s own traditions.
• When a group or a society is in

contact with a more powerful
society, the weaker group is often
obligated to acquire cultural
elements from the dominant group.
• Acculturation is a process of

extensive borrowing in the context
of superordinate—subordinate
relations between societies.
• Acculturation in contrast to

diffusion comes about as a result of
some sort of external pressure.
• Revolution is the most dramatic and
perhaps rapid way a culture can
change.
• Usually revolutions indicate a

violent replacement of a society’s
rulers.
• Rebellions occur customarily in

state societies where there is a
ruling elite.
• Not all peoples who are

suppressed, conquered or
colonized eventually rebel or
successfully revolt against
established authority.
• Many cultural changes in the

modern world have been generated,
directly or indirectly, by the
dominance and expansion of
Western societies.
• Commercial exchange is a

fundamental change for many
cultures that have had other modes
of exchange or kinds of economies.
• Some examples:
• 1. increased migration for

economic necessity or better
opportunties

• 2. self-sufficient economies change
to trade or cash cropping
• The growing influence of Western

societies has also led to religious
change in many parts of the world.
• In many societies such change has

been brought about intentionally
through the efforts of missionaries.
• Ethnogenesis is the process by

which new cultures are created.
• Globalization is the spread of

cultural features around the world.
• Globalization is minimizing cultural
diversity but not eliminating it.

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Change

  • 2. • Cultures are always changing. Because cultures consist of learned patterns of behavior and belief, cultural traits can be unlearned and learned anew as human needs change.
  • 3. • Discovery and invention have been primary sources of culture change. Yet only when a society accepts an invention or discovery and uses it regularly can culture change be said to have occurred.
  • 4. • Some inventions are probably the result of dozens of tiny, perhaps accidental, initiatives over a period of many years.
  • 5. • Other inventions are consciously intended. Yet why some people are more innovative than others is not really understood. A margin for risk? Or nothing else to lose?
  • 6. • Diffusion is the process by which cultural elements are borrowed from another society and incorporated into the culture of the recipient group.
  • 7. • There are three basic patterns of diffusion.
  • 8. • diffusion by direct contact in which elements of a culture are first taken up by neighboring societies and then gradually spread farther and farther afield
  • 9. • diffusion by intermediate contact, in which third parties , frequently traders, carry a cultural trait from the originating society to another group
  • 10. • stimulus diffusion in which knowledge of a trait belonging to another culture stimulates the invention or development of a local equivalent
  • 11. • Diffusion is a selective not automatic process. A society accepting a foreign cultural trait is likely to adapt it in a way that effectively harmonizes it with the society’s own traditions.
  • 12. • When a group or a society is in contact with a more powerful society, the weaker group is often obligated to acquire cultural elements from the dominant group.
  • 13. • Acculturation is a process of extensive borrowing in the context of superordinate—subordinate relations between societies.
  • 14. • Acculturation in contrast to diffusion comes about as a result of some sort of external pressure.
  • 15. • Revolution is the most dramatic and perhaps rapid way a culture can change.
  • 16. • Usually revolutions indicate a violent replacement of a society’s rulers.
  • 17. • Rebellions occur customarily in state societies where there is a ruling elite.
  • 18. • Not all peoples who are suppressed, conquered or colonized eventually rebel or successfully revolt against established authority.
  • 19. • Many cultural changes in the modern world have been generated, directly or indirectly, by the dominance and expansion of Western societies.
  • 20. • Commercial exchange is a fundamental change for many cultures that have had other modes of exchange or kinds of economies.
  • 21. • Some examples: • 1. increased migration for economic necessity or better opportunties • 2. self-sufficient economies change to trade or cash cropping
  • 22. • The growing influence of Western societies has also led to religious change in many parts of the world.
  • 23. • In many societies such change has been brought about intentionally through the efforts of missionaries.
  • 24. • Ethnogenesis is the process by which new cultures are created.
  • 25. • Globalization is the spread of cultural features around the world.
  • 26. • Globalization is minimizing cultural diversity but not eliminating it.