SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
Culture
Culture refers to the beliefs, values, behavior and
material objects that, together, form a people's
way of life.

Culture determines how we view the world
around us
Culture includes the traditions we inherit and pass
on to the next generation
Culture: totality of our shared language,
knowledge, material objects, and behavior

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

1
Culture and Society
• Society: the structure of relationships within which
culture is created and shared through regularized
patterns of social interaction
– Society provides the context within which our
relationships with the external world develop
– How we structure society constrains the kind of
culture we construct
– Cultural preferences vary across societies

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

2
Human Culture
Only humans depend on culture rather than instincts to
ensure the survival of their kind.
Culture is very recent and was a long time in the making.

What sets primates apart from other animals is their
intelligence. Human achievements during the Stone
Age set humans off on a distinct evolutionary course,
making culture their primary survival strategy.

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

3
Culture and Society
The concept of culture (a shared way of life) must be
distinguished from those of nation (a political entity)
or society (the organized interaction of people in a
nation or within some other boundary).
Many modern societies are multicultural---their people
follow various ways of life that blend and sometimes
clash.
On this planet our race, homo sapiens evolved 250,000
years ago give or take a few thousand. But the first
cities appeared about 12,00 years ago. Think about
that. For 95% of human life there were no cities.
What kind of culture was there then?
© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

4
Components of Culture
All cultures have five common components:
symbols,
language,
values and beliefs,
norms, and
material culture, including technology.
Symbols are defined as anything that carries a particular meaning
recognized by people who share culture. The meaning of the same
symbols varies from society to society, within a single society, and
over time.

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

5
Components of Culture
Language is a system of symbols that allows
people to communicate with one another. It
can be either written or spoken or both
Language is the key to cultural transmission,
the process by which one generation passes
.
culture to the next.
Through most of human history, cultural
transmission has been accomplished through
oral tradition
Don’t ignore the non-verbal aspects
© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

6
Language and Values
The Sapir-Whorf thesis holds that people perceive
the world through the cultural lens of language.
A. For example what sport is football where?
B. How does anyone translate a concept for which
there is no equivalent?
C. How About chimps?
D. What is the effect of having English as the dominant
language on the Internet?

Values are culturally defined standards by which
people judge desirability, goodness and beauty,
and which serve as broad guidelines for social
living. Values are broad principles that underlie
beliefs, specific statements that people hold to be
true.

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

7
Characteristics of American Culture
● The values of American Culture, according to Williams
are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Equal opportunity
Achievement and success
Material comfort
Activity and work
Practicality and efficiency
Progress
Science
Democracy and free enterprise
Freedom
Racism and group superiority

● Other Theorists add education, religiosity and romantic
love
Values within one society are frequently inconsistent and even
opposed to one another.
1. Conflict: the more central the value the more intense the8
© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger
conflict. Look at political issues
Characteristics of American Culture
● Other theorists add education, religiosity and romantic
love
- Economists add “the free market”
●

Values within one society are frequently inconsistent
and even opposed to one another.

● When central values of different cultures are in conflict,
the conflict is more intense.
- Look at political issues

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

9
Social and Cultural Norms
• Cultures and societies set up norms which are the rules and
expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its
members.
– Norms can be either proscriptive or prescriptive.
- Formal norms express values as laws and regulations whose
violation is strictly punished
- Informal norms are those norms which are generally understood
but which may loosely defined
- Mores are widely observed and have great moral/social
significance.
- Folkways are norms that govern everyday behaviors

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

10
Social and Cultural Norms
Sanctions are a central mechanism of social control
Sanctions are the means by which society encourages
conformity to norms
Sociologists distinguish between cultural ideals, social patterns
mandated by cultural values and norms, and real culture, actual
social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

11
Material and Non Material Culture
Material culture reflects a society’s values and a society’s technology,
the knowledge that people apply to the task of living in their
surroundings.
Examples include books, buildings, physical objects that future
generations can use to try and understand us.
Non Material Culture reflects beliefs, values, concepts, customs
Examples include Beliefs, values, Religions, ethics and
philosophies

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

12
Types of Cultures
● High culture refers to cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s
elite.
● Popular culture designates cultural patterns that are widespread
among a society’s population.
- High culture is not inherently superior to popular culture.
What’ll You Have? Popular Beverages Across the United
States. What people consume is one mark of their status as a
“highbrow” or “lowbrow.
The New “Culture of Victimization.” Americans may be
becoming increasingly unwilling to accept personal
responsibility for their failings and misfortunes
● Subcultures are cultural patterns that distinguish some segment of a
society’s population. They involve not only difference but also
hierarchy
● Counterculture refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those
widely accepted within a society. Countercultures reject many of
the standards of a dominant culture

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

13
Multiple Cultures –One Society
•
•

When a society is made up of multiple cultures that society has to
deal with and somehow reconcile cultural differences and conflicts.
In addition to the types of cultural variations we’ve talked about,
there are other sources of cultural variations.
– Most notable are differences based on
• Race
• National/Ethnic Origin
• Religion

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

14
Cultural Relativity
● Counterculture refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those
widely accepted within a society. Countercultures reject many of the
standards of a dominant culture.
● Cultural relativism views the behavior of a people from the
perspective of their own culture. There are distinctive subcultures
within cultures and even organizations within a culture
● Earlier, Anthropological studies differentiated cultures on a different
basis
A. Margaret Mead’s study of Asiatic islanders.
B. Repressed vs expressive
C. Dyonesian

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

15
Characterizing Cultures
● Currently we tend to consider societies and cultures as :
- Preindustrial (aka 3rd world)
- Industrial (aka 2nd World)
- Post industrial based on computers and new information
economy (aka 1st world)

● What is the problem with these formulations?

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

16
Cultural Change
● If Cultures goes through these different phases , then they have to
change
● As cultures change, they strive to maintain cultural integration, the
close relationship among various elements of a cultural system.
- William Ogburn’s concept of cultural lag refers to the fact that
cultural elements change at different rates, which may disrupt
a cultural system.
- Three phenomena promote cultural change
-Inventions, the process of creating new cultural elements.
-Discovery, recognizing and understanding an idea not fully
understood before.
-Diffusion, the spread of cultural traits from one cultural system
to another

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

17
Ethnocentrism, Cultural relativity and
Globalization
●Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging another culture by
the standards of one’s own culture.
● Sociologists tend to discourage this practice, instead they
advocate cultural relativism, the practice of judging a
culture by its own standards.
● Some evidence suggests that a global culture may be
emerging.
- Three key factors are promoting this trend:
-Global economy: the flow of goods.
-Global communications: the flow of information.
- Global migration: the flow of people.
© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

18
Limitations of the Global Theory
• Global culture is much more advanced in some parts of
the world than in others
• Many people cannot afford to participate in the material
aspects of a global culture
• Different people attribute different meanings to various
aspects of the global culture

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

19
Is Technology promoting a global culture?
● New and emerging communications, computer, and
other technologies. Don’t forget bio tech
- It provides a set of concepts that both material and
non material culture need to adapt to.
-It can span the globe, but not all cultures will accept
or adopt to these technologies and the changes they
cause/impose at the same rate.
- East and West have different bases and adopt at
different rates

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

20
Virtual Culture
Today’s children are bombarded with
virtual culture, images that spring
from the minds of contemporary
culture-makers and that reach them
via a screen. Some of these cultural
icons embody values that shape our
way of life. But few of them have any
historical reality and almost all have
come into being to make money.

© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger

21

More Related Content

What's hot

Meaning of culture
Meaning of cultureMeaning of culture
Meaning of cultureUmair Aslam
 
Introduction to Cultural Diversity
Introduction to Cultural Diversity Introduction to Cultural Diversity
Introduction to Cultural Diversity Boutkhil Guemide
 
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road Initiative
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road InitiativeConsider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road Initiative
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road InitiativeMuhammad Saud PhD
 
Multiculturalism in the uk
Multiculturalism in the ukMulticulturalism in the uk
Multiculturalism in the ukTommy Lumby
 
Cultural change and diversity
Cultural change and diversityCultural change and diversity
Cultural change and diversityNahin Mahfuz Seam
 
Cultural dynamics in assessing global markets
Cultural dynamics in assessing global marketsCultural dynamics in assessing global markets
Cultural dynamics in assessing global marketsFahmeed Hanif
 
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017Soc 2113 ch 3 2017
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017WendyScott34
 
Integrated Ch02
Integrated Ch02Integrated Ch02
Integrated Ch02bakuravv
 
Issues of identity in a multicultural society
Issues of identity in a multicultural societyIssues of identity in a multicultural society
Issues of identity in a multicultural societyTehreemSajjad3
 
The role of culture in national development
The role of culture in national developmentThe role of culture in national development
The role of culture in national developmentTANKO AHMED fwc
 
Elements of culture josephine manapsal
Elements of culture josephine manapsalElements of culture josephine manapsal
Elements of culture josephine manapsalprinsesamj
 
Ch7 intercultural communication power point
Ch7 intercultural communication power pointCh7 intercultural communication power point
Ch7 intercultural communication power pointms451711
 
Anthro30 6 culture and its elements
Anthro30   6 culture and its elementsAnthro30   6 culture and its elements
Anthro30 6 culture and its elementsYvan Gumbao
 

What's hot (20)

Meaning of culture
Meaning of cultureMeaning of culture
Meaning of culture
 
Introduction to Cultural Diversity
Introduction to Cultural Diversity Introduction to Cultural Diversity
Introduction to Cultural Diversity
 
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road Initiative
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road InitiativeConsider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road Initiative
Consider Culture As A Factor In Belt Road Initiative
 
Consumer culture
Consumer culture Consumer culture
Consumer culture
 
What is culture?
What is culture?What is culture?
What is culture?
 
Culture theory
Culture theoryCulture theory
Culture theory
 
Basics of Cultural Geography
Basics of Cultural Geography Basics of Cultural Geography
Basics of Cultural Geography
 
Characteristics of culture
Characteristics of cultureCharacteristics of culture
Characteristics of culture
 
Multiculturalism in the uk
Multiculturalism in the ukMulticulturalism in the uk
Multiculturalism in the uk
 
Cultural change and diversity
Cultural change and diversityCultural change and diversity
Cultural change and diversity
 
Cultural dynamics in assessing global markets
Cultural dynamics in assessing global marketsCultural dynamics in assessing global markets
Cultural dynamics in assessing global markets
 
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017Soc 2113 ch 3 2017
Soc 2113 ch 3 2017
 
What is culture?
What is culture?What is culture?
What is culture?
 
Integrated Ch02
Integrated Ch02Integrated Ch02
Integrated Ch02
 
Issues of identity in a multicultural society
Issues of identity in a multicultural societyIssues of identity in a multicultural society
Issues of identity in a multicultural society
 
The role of culture in national development
The role of culture in national developmentThe role of culture in national development
The role of culture in national development
 
Cultural pluralism
Cultural pluralismCultural pluralism
Cultural pluralism
 
Elements of culture josephine manapsal
Elements of culture josephine manapsalElements of culture josephine manapsal
Elements of culture josephine manapsal
 
Ch7 intercultural communication power point
Ch7 intercultural communication power pointCh7 intercultural communication power point
Ch7 intercultural communication power point
 
Anthro30 6 culture and its elements
Anthro30   6 culture and its elementsAnthro30   6 culture and its elements
Anthro30 6 culture and its elements
 

Similar to culture (20)

201.05 Culture.ppt
201.05 Culture.ppt201.05 Culture.ppt
201.05 Culture.ppt
 
201.05 Culture.ppt
201.05 Culture.ppt201.05 Culture.ppt
201.05 Culture.ppt
 
cultural beliefs discussion and lecture notes
cultural beliefs discussion and lecture notescultural beliefs discussion and lecture notes
cultural beliefs discussion and lecture notes
 
culture.pptx
culture.pptxculture.pptx
culture.pptx
 
Chapter03
Chapter03Chapter03
Chapter03
 
Culture.pptx
Culture.pptxCulture.pptx
Culture.pptx
 
Introduction to Social Sciences
Introduction to Social SciencesIntroduction to Social Sciences
Introduction to Social Sciences
 
Sociology of culture
Sociology of cultureSociology of culture
Sociology of culture
 
Chapter 2 culture
Chapter 2 cultureChapter 2 culture
Chapter 2 culture
 
week 2 UCSP.pptx
week 2 UCSP.pptxweek 2 UCSP.pptx
week 2 UCSP.pptx
 
US Culture.ppt
US Culture.pptUS Culture.ppt
US Culture.ppt
 
Organization of culture
Organization of cultureOrganization of culture
Organization of culture
 
The Relationship Between Culture And Culture
The Relationship Between Culture And CultureThe Relationship Between Culture And Culture
The Relationship Between Culture And Culture
 
Presentation2 (culture)
Presentation2 (culture)Presentation2 (culture)
Presentation2 (culture)
 
Culture and values
Culture and valuesCulture and values
Culture and values
 
culture as a system of values.pdf
culture as a system of values.pdfculture as a system of values.pdf
culture as a system of values.pdf
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Sociology 3 culture
Sociology 3 cultureSociology 3 culture
Sociology 3 culture
 
Sociology XII: Culture
Sociology XII: CultureSociology XII: Culture
Sociology XII: Culture
 
Ucsp week 2
Ucsp week 2Ucsp week 2
Ucsp week 2
 

More from Christian Villanueva (15)

Interaction
InteractionInteraction
Interaction
 
Socialization
SocializationSocialization
Socialization
 
Change
ChangeChange
Change
 
prior to 1872
prior to 1872prior to 1872
prior to 1872
 
Socio
SocioSocio
Socio
 
Macro gnp
Macro gnpMacro gnp
Macro gnp
 
ancient Egyptian roman greek art
ancient Egyptian roman greek artancient Egyptian roman greek art
ancient Egyptian roman greek art
 
Earth science slides one shot
Earth science slides one shotEarth science slides one shot
Earth science slides one shot
 
Sculpture medieval art renaissance modern
Sculpture medieval art renaissance modernSculpture medieval art renaissance modern
Sculpture medieval art renaissance modern
 
supply demand and equilibrium
supply demand and equilibriumsupply demand and equilibrium
supply demand and equilibrium
 
Macro and micro econ
Macro and micro econMacro and micro econ
Macro and micro econ
 
Humanities ii
Humanities iiHumanities ii
Humanities ii
 
Humanities ii
Humanities iiHumanities ii
Humanities ii
 
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian artPrehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
 
Art app intr
Art app intrArt app intr
Art app intr
 

Recently uploaded

unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptx
unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptxunit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptx
unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptxBkGupta21
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024Stephanie Beckett
 
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????What is Artificial Intelligence?????????
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????blackmambaettijean
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsPixlogix Infotech
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenHervé Boutemy
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfMounikaPolabathina
 
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Commit University
 
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using DashVisualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dashnarutouzumaki53779
 
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii SoldatenkoFwdays
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsNathaniel Shimoni
 
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESSALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESmohitsingh558521
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanDatabarracks
 
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfMoving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfLoriGlavin3
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningLars Bell
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteDianaGray10
 
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdf
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdfGen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdf
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdfAddepto
 

Recently uploaded (20)

unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptx
unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptxunit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptx
unit 4 immunoblotting technique complete.pptx
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024
What's New in Teams Calling, Meetings and Devices March 2024
 
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????What is Artificial Intelligence?????????
What is Artificial Intelligence?????????
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
 
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
Nell’iperspazio con Rocket: il Framework Web di Rust!
 
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using DashVisualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
 
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
"Debugging python applications inside k8s environment", Andrii Soldatenko
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
 
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESSALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
 
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfMoving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
 
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdf
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdfGen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdf
Gen AI in Business - Global Trends Report 2024.pdf
 

culture

  • 1. Culture Culture refers to the beliefs, values, behavior and material objects that, together, form a people's way of life. Culture determines how we view the world around us Culture includes the traditions we inherit and pass on to the next generation Culture: totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 1
  • 2. Culture and Society • Society: the structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction – Society provides the context within which our relationships with the external world develop – How we structure society constrains the kind of culture we construct – Cultural preferences vary across societies © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 2
  • 3. Human Culture Only humans depend on culture rather than instincts to ensure the survival of their kind. Culture is very recent and was a long time in the making. What sets primates apart from other animals is their intelligence. Human achievements during the Stone Age set humans off on a distinct evolutionary course, making culture their primary survival strategy. © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 3
  • 4. Culture and Society The concept of culture (a shared way of life) must be distinguished from those of nation (a political entity) or society (the organized interaction of people in a nation or within some other boundary). Many modern societies are multicultural---their people follow various ways of life that blend and sometimes clash. On this planet our race, homo sapiens evolved 250,000 years ago give or take a few thousand. But the first cities appeared about 12,00 years ago. Think about that. For 95% of human life there were no cities. What kind of culture was there then? © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 4
  • 5. Components of Culture All cultures have five common components: symbols, language, values and beliefs, norms, and material culture, including technology. Symbols are defined as anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. The meaning of the same symbols varies from society to society, within a single society, and over time. © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 5
  • 6. Components of Culture Language is a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another. It can be either written or spoken or both Language is the key to cultural transmission, the process by which one generation passes . culture to the next. Through most of human history, cultural transmission has been accomplished through oral tradition Don’t ignore the non-verbal aspects © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 6
  • 7. Language and Values The Sapir-Whorf thesis holds that people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language. A. For example what sport is football where? B. How does anyone translate a concept for which there is no equivalent? C. How About chimps? D. What is the effect of having English as the dominant language on the Internet? Values are culturally defined standards by which people judge desirability, goodness and beauty, and which serve as broad guidelines for social living. Values are broad principles that underlie beliefs, specific statements that people hold to be true. © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 7
  • 8. Characteristics of American Culture ● The values of American Culture, according to Williams are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Equal opportunity Achievement and success Material comfort Activity and work Practicality and efficiency Progress Science Democracy and free enterprise Freedom Racism and group superiority ● Other Theorists add education, religiosity and romantic love Values within one society are frequently inconsistent and even opposed to one another. 1. Conflict: the more central the value the more intense the8 © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger conflict. Look at political issues
  • 9. Characteristics of American Culture ● Other theorists add education, religiosity and romantic love - Economists add “the free market” ● Values within one society are frequently inconsistent and even opposed to one another. ● When central values of different cultures are in conflict, the conflict is more intense. - Look at political issues © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 9
  • 10. Social and Cultural Norms • Cultures and societies set up norms which are the rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. – Norms can be either proscriptive or prescriptive. - Formal norms express values as laws and regulations whose violation is strictly punished - Informal norms are those norms which are generally understood but which may loosely defined - Mores are widely observed and have great moral/social significance. - Folkways are norms that govern everyday behaviors © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 10
  • 11. Social and Cultural Norms Sanctions are a central mechanism of social control Sanctions are the means by which society encourages conformity to norms Sociologists distinguish between cultural ideals, social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms, and real culture, actual social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 11
  • 12. Material and Non Material Culture Material culture reflects a society’s values and a society’s technology, the knowledge that people apply to the task of living in their surroundings. Examples include books, buildings, physical objects that future generations can use to try and understand us. Non Material Culture reflects beliefs, values, concepts, customs Examples include Beliefs, values, Religions, ethics and philosophies © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 12
  • 13. Types of Cultures ● High culture refers to cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite. ● Popular culture designates cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population. - High culture is not inherently superior to popular culture. What’ll You Have? Popular Beverages Across the United States. What people consume is one mark of their status as a “highbrow” or “lowbrow. The New “Culture of Victimization.” Americans may be becoming increasingly unwilling to accept personal responsibility for their failings and misfortunes ● Subcultures are cultural patterns that distinguish some segment of a society’s population. They involve not only difference but also hierarchy ● Counterculture refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society. Countercultures reject many of the standards of a dominant culture © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 13
  • 14. Multiple Cultures –One Society • • When a society is made up of multiple cultures that society has to deal with and somehow reconcile cultural differences and conflicts. In addition to the types of cultural variations we’ve talked about, there are other sources of cultural variations. – Most notable are differences based on • Race • National/Ethnic Origin • Religion © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 14
  • 15. Cultural Relativity ● Counterculture refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society. Countercultures reject many of the standards of a dominant culture. ● Cultural relativism views the behavior of a people from the perspective of their own culture. There are distinctive subcultures within cultures and even organizations within a culture ● Earlier, Anthropological studies differentiated cultures on a different basis A. Margaret Mead’s study of Asiatic islanders. B. Repressed vs expressive C. Dyonesian © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 15
  • 16. Characterizing Cultures ● Currently we tend to consider societies and cultures as : - Preindustrial (aka 3rd world) - Industrial (aka 2nd World) - Post industrial based on computers and new information economy (aka 1st world) ● What is the problem with these formulations? © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 16
  • 17. Cultural Change ● If Cultures goes through these different phases , then they have to change ● As cultures change, they strive to maintain cultural integration, the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system. - William Ogburn’s concept of cultural lag refers to the fact that cultural elements change at different rates, which may disrupt a cultural system. - Three phenomena promote cultural change -Inventions, the process of creating new cultural elements. -Discovery, recognizing and understanding an idea not fully understood before. -Diffusion, the spread of cultural traits from one cultural system to another © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 17
  • 18. Ethnocentrism, Cultural relativity and Globalization ●Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture. ● Sociologists tend to discourage this practice, instead they advocate cultural relativism, the practice of judging a culture by its own standards. ● Some evidence suggests that a global culture may be emerging. - Three key factors are promoting this trend: -Global economy: the flow of goods. -Global communications: the flow of information. - Global migration: the flow of people. © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 18
  • 19. Limitations of the Global Theory • Global culture is much more advanced in some parts of the world than in others • Many people cannot afford to participate in the material aspects of a global culture • Different people attribute different meanings to various aspects of the global culture © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 19
  • 20. Is Technology promoting a global culture? ● New and emerging communications, computer, and other technologies. Don’t forget bio tech - It provides a set of concepts that both material and non material culture need to adapt to. -It can span the globe, but not all cultures will accept or adopt to these technologies and the changes they cause/impose at the same rate. - East and West have different bases and adopt at different rates © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 20
  • 21. Virtual Culture Today’s children are bombarded with virtual culture, images that spring from the minds of contemporary culture-makers and that reach them via a screen. Some of these cultural icons embody values that shape our way of life. But few of them have any historical reality and almost all have come into being to make money. © Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 21