Facilitating Mobility: Parking, Public and Alternative Transportation


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  • Empower the driver
  • Talk about different tiers of information:Geocode each entrance location, with pictures, safety rating, # handicap spaces, motorcycle spaces, Electric car charging stationsLet people search by what is important to them
  • Signal Park Example
  • Circling equals 5 VMT per day – Donald Shoup9 billion VMT Year450 million gallons gas /year searchingVMT = Vehicle Miles traveled
  • 135 million VMT EE gain/year/city6.5 million gallons gas $20 million in fuel spent differently152 million pounds CO2 reduced Year/City15,000 homes “off the grid”23,000 cars “off the road”
  • $3K a year just in gasThe average household spends nearly 19 % of its income on transportation, which is second only to housing.The poorest families spend 40% of income on transportation
  • Improper on-street vs. off-street pricingPoor way-finding and information
  • 38% vacancy rate vs. 17% In a study where pre-trip parking information was available in MilwaulkiIn the Rockridge Pilot.BART increased actual utilization to 100%
  • In February 2004 a study was performed in the downtown areaServed by 42 parking garages – 17 of which are in the St. Paul city advanced parking management systemIndividual vehicle delay reduced by 10% as volume increased 15%Also saved money on repairs enforcement, and created a better “more accessible” image for downtownGood for merchants
  • Endless circlingRoad rageLate for Meetings and appts.High StressLocal residents unhappy due to illegal parking on side streets
  • Not having proper changeConfusing ordinancesOnly have a $20 bill to park, but need a quarter
  • Confusing rates vary wildly by date/time/special event
  • Advanced Parking Options can be used as a viable alternative to getting people to take alternative transportation
  • Static – Good for casual drivers. Usually show them where to driveStatic/Dynamic – Highest Aesthetic appealTemporary – good for location testing and pilot programs
  • FreewaysRequire working with CaltransPermits and impact studies requiredArterials Best for in-city way findingCan guide people to least traffic routes to parkingExterior FacilityIn- facilityReduce driver frustrationDoes not heavily impact congestion mitigation
  • Some of the newer parking control gates can be integrated into full Advanced Parking Management SystemsUtilize existing capital expenditure
  • Smart Parking systems tend to use contactless sensor technology such as ultrasonic, magnometers, etc. for vehicle detection as opposed to the old rubber hoses and loops.The sensors can be wired or wireless, and can be run from batteries or standard 100v power. Some sensors need to be cored or mounted with brackets and some are surface mounted with 3m epoxy. They look like road reflectors
  • Similar to congestion based pricing zones in LondonLondon average 65$/day, $1200/month
  • Time and day Can be used to increase or decrease occupancyIncreasing cost for duration3/hour first 3 hours, 6/hour after, etc.
  • The area under the supply and demand curves indicates the aggregate supply and demand respectively for a good or service. In a competitive, freely functioning market, a quantity Qm of the good or service is traded at the market price Pm, which is the price at which demand matches supply. If quantities less than Qm are traded, consumers are willing to pay more than the market price (the demand curve is higher than Pm), suggesting that market price alone is only a minimum estimate of the economic value or benefit derived. The area between the market price and the demand curve (triangle A) is the consumer surplus, or the additional utility gained by consumers above the price paid. Therefore, total social benefits or TEV are the expenditure (areas B + C, or price multiplied by quantity) plus the consumer surplus (area A). The total cost of producing quantity Qm is the area below the supply curve (area C). The area above the supply curve and below the market price the producer surplus; this occurs because producers are willing to sell for less than the market price if the quantity traded is less than Qm (the supply curve is less than Pm). The net social benefit is the consumer surplus (area A) plus the producer surplus (area B).www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5582e/y5582e06.htmThe price of the product gives the amount paid in the marketplace. Some individuals are willing to pay more than this price and so receive an additional benefit over and above the amount paid. This additional benefit the consumer surplus or net willingness to pay. Figure 8 illustrates this for the ordinary Marshallian formulation of welfare measures. Freeman (1993) presents a more precise Hicksian formulation. Economic value to society of a good or service is determined as the aggregate of all individuals’ willingness to pay. Therefore, the price of a good or service and its economic value are distinct and can differ greatly: water can have a very high value, but a very low price or no price at all.
  • Call out GPS and RFID rates
  • Advanced Parking Options can be used as a viable alternative to getting people to take alternative transportation
  • Reduction in VMT was offset by increase in driving to this particular station over others that did not offer a smart parking program.
  • Also have signs on the airport approach with the availability at the different parking garagesThis was very successful in decreasing people parking illegally and in firelanesIt also surveyed very well
  • Quick setup and turnaround time
  • Facilitating Mobility: Parking, Public and Alternative Transportation

    1. 1. Facilitating Mobility: Parking, Public and Alternative Transportation
    2. 2. In 1947, [New York City] Police CommissionerArthur Wallander stated that it "constitutesone of the gravest problems facing the city";“the public streets being used as garages.”
    3. 3. Parking Challenges Today1. Public space available, but travelers do not know location, rates, or hours2. Public parking is in short supply, and private parking is underutilized3. Severe shortage of parking facilities, but travelers unaware until arriving
    4. 4. Enter Smart Parking
    5. 5. SmartParkingrefers to the use of information technology to make parking less painful, more convenient and more efficient.
    6. 6. Information!Information!LocationsRatesAvailabilityHoursAttributes
    7. 7. Pre-Trip Planning•EnhancedInformation•DynamicInformation•Reservations•PremiumReservations
    8. 8. In-Route•Static Signs•Dynamic Signs•GPS Unit•Mobile Web•Voice IVR•SMS
    9. 9. Information when you needit most
    10. 10. In-Facility•Floor by Floorparkingavailability•Guidance tospecific parkingspaces
    11. 11. Parking Problems & Smart Parking Benefits
    12. 12. Environmental
    13. 13. •Circling equals 5 VMT per day – Donald Shoup•9 billion VMT Year•450 million gallons gas /year searchingVMT = Vehicle Miles traveled
    14. 14. Environmental Gains •135 million VMT Energy Efficiency gain/year/city •6.5 million gallons gas savings •$20 million in fuel spent differently •152 million pounds CO2 reduced Year/City •15,000 homes “off the grid” •23,000 cars “off the road”
    15. 15. Financial
    16. 16. •$3K a year just in gas expenditures•The average household spends nearly 19 % of itsincome on transportation, which is second only tohousing
    17. 17. Underutilized Assets •Improper on-street vs. off-street pricing •Poor parking guidance and information
    18. 18. Increased Utilization •38% vacancy rate vs. 17% vacancy rate with an advanced parking trip planning system •BART increased actual utilization to 100% at the Rockridge BART Station
    19. 19. Congestion
    20. 20. •45% of traffic on streets in Brooklynrelated to searching for parking•24% in Soho New York City is related tocircling for parking
    21. 21. •St. Paul Minnesota Study•56 Parking Information signs•10 Dynamic parking signs•Travel times reduced by 9%•Downtown now more “Accessible.”
    22. 22. Quality of Life
    23. 23. Driver Frustration
    24. 24. Hassle & Confusion
    25. 25. Rates & Hours Confusion
    26. 26. •No Easy “apples to apples” comparison•Impossible for drivers to compare rates forgiven date & times•Result = loss of driver empowerment
    27. 27. Quality of Life Gains•Milwaukee, WI – 10 %decrease (year over year) inrespondents who feltparking availabilityprevented them fromvisiting downtown aftersystem deployment•68%, up from 54%responded that downtownwas improving as a place tovisit•BWI Airport – surveysshowed system “saved themaggravation”
    28. 28. Safety
    29. 29. •Significant number of “fender bender” accidentsdue to parking•Amplifies congestion issues•Costs $$
    30. 30. Insurance Rates SmartParkingg Usage
    31. 31. Alternative Transportation
    32. 32. •On average people took 5.5 more trips amonth due to Smart Parking•49% were first time Transit riders
    33. 33. Smart Parking Technology
    34. 34. Signage
    35. 35. Sign Types•Static Signs•Static/DynamicCombinationsigns•Fully DynamicPermanent Signs•Temporary CMSSigns
    36. 36. Sign Locations•Freeways•Arterial Roads•Exterior Facility•In-Facility
    37. 37. Counting Technology
    38. 38. Access Gates•Existing assets•PossibleIntegration
    39. 39. Sensors•Two main Types•Lane Counting•Space Specific
    40. 40. Software
    41. 41. Smart Parking Network
    42. 42. Predictive Analysis
    43. 43. •Predictive analysis by facility or by macro-area(neighborhood)•Use historical counts by day/time/day-of-week/season/current weather/local events
    44. 44. Variable Pricing
    45. 45. Distance from Location Zone 3 $x Zone 2 $3x Zone 1 $4x City Center/POI $5x
    46. 46. Time Based•Time and Day ofWeek•Increasing Costsfor Duration
    47. 47. Value Pricing
    48. 48. Auto Manufacturers Role
    49. 49. In-Vehicle TechnologyRollout Penetration
    50. 50. Case Studies
    51. 51. BART Pilot Program•BART, UCBerkeley, CalTrans, PATH, ParkingCarma•First transit-based smart parking programin the U.S.•Increased transit ridership by ~ 6trips/month
    52. 52. •Reduced amount of drive alone commutes•Average commute time to work decreased•Reduced VMT by 9 miles per user/month•Advanced reservations•Pay-by-phone•Real-time dynamic signs on the freeway
    53. 53. NCTD Coaster Pilot Program•NCTD, SANDAG, UC Berkeley, PATH,ParkingCarma•Parking sensor installation at most CoasterStations – both lane and space specific•Feed data to local 511 organization•Currently in deployment phase
    54. 54. Baltimore-Washington International Airport•BWI Airport, SignalPark•In 2001, 1,100 spaces installed with in-facilityparking guidance system•Expanded to 13,000 spaces•Cost $6 million
    55. 55. American Film Institute 2007 Film Festival•AFI, ParkingCarma, Modern Parking•Sensor-less installation•Offering advanced 11-day as well as dailypremium reservations•Incentive of free movie tickets to use service•http://www.AFI.com
    56. 56. SmartParking.Org Mission: • Educate and engage relevant stakeholders * on the benefits of Smart Parking network solutions • to inspire them to execute * actions that benefit them, their communities, constituents and society, • in a way that grows * the SmartParking parking solutions industry. • Http://www.smartparking.org
    57. 57. ParkingCarma, Inc.• Christian McCarrick, CTO• cmccarrick@parkingcarma.com• 650.281.9864• Offices in SF Bay Area & Flint, MI• http://www.parkingcarma.com• http://blog.parkingcarma.com