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Gap between MOOC designers' and
learners' perspectives on inter-
action and experiences in MOOCs:
Findings from the Global MOOC
Quality Survey (GMQS)
Christian M. Stracke & Esther Tan
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Open University of the Netherlands
Global cooperation: ECNU & KNOU
Global initiative ICORE for OR & OE
International WLS / LINQ Conference
eLC European Institute
ICDE Chair in OER
Dr. Christian M. Stracke:
Open Learning & Education, Innovations,
Policies, Quality & Competences, Impact
Open University of the Netherlands
The Quality of MOOCs
Let’s Learn to Learn
Seamless Learning
Dr. Esther Tan
Technology-Enhanced Learning,
Innovations in & out Classroom
Selected Projects:
Quality Management and EvaluationTechnology-Enhanced Learning at Large Scale
Open Education and ResearchCompetence and Skills Modelling
Selected Projects:
www.mooc-quality.euwww.isecure-edu.euwww.wacom-project.euwww.ecompetence.eu
www.PBL-project.eu www.inspiringscience.eu www.opendiscoveryspace.euwww.inclusive-education.net
www.MEDLIT.visionwww.digifem.euwww.voa3r.eu
www.agriculture-
competences.eu
www.learn-STEM.orghttp://lelle.gtk.uni-pannon.huwww.learning-standards.euwww.aristotele-ip.eu
Presentation Outline
1. The Quality of MOOCs: What is the problem?
2. A Conceptual Framework towards MOOC QRF:
Theoretical & Methodological Approach
3. Findings from MOOC surveys:
Learners, Designers & Facilitators
4. Findings from MOOC OEQ:
Learners, Designers & Facilitators
Goal 4:
Inclusive and quality education
Sustainable dev goals
www.sustainabledevelopmentgoals.org
Goal 4:
Inclusive and quality education
Sustainable dev goals
What is
Quality
Education?
What is
Quality?
A simple
experiment ...
A simple
experiment ...
Quality
cannot be defined
... except through adaptation
to your situation and context!
Any discussion on the quality of MOOCs should consider the goals
of both, the MOOC learner and the provider. (Hayes, 2015)
Critical questions to be addressed:
 Who are the MOOC users, and why?
 What makes a good MOOC from the learners’ experiences
with MOOCs?
 What are the best design principles and best practices
as indicators of quality?
 Are these quality indicators also MOOC domain specific and/ or
MOOC type specific?
Problem Statement
A Research Framework for MOOQ
“When one designs any course, one has to have some learner
cohort in mind.” (Macleod et al., 2015, p. 9)
Main research goals:
1. Establish a research framework for the subsequent analysis of
MOOC design patterns and best practices
2. Develop a Quality Reference Framework (QRF) for MOOCs
Theoretical Framework
Global MOOC
Quality Survey
Quality Reference Framework with
criteria & checklist for MOOC design
Our main goal is the collaboration with all
to improve Open Education & MOOCs
www.MOOC-quality.eu
 Subjects of Investigation:
MOOC Learners, Designers, Facilitators & Providers
 Mixed Methods Approach:
Quantitative & qualitative data
Combining the results from:
1. Global MOOC Quality Survey (GMQS)
2. Open-Ended questions (OEQ) from the GMQS
3. Semi-structured interviews
4. Many workshops at international conferences
Methodological Framework
Instruments of Measure
MOOC
Learners
MOOC
Designers
MOOC
Facilitators
MOOC
Providers
TOTAL
Global
MOOC
Quality
Survey
166
(69 qns.)
68
(89 qns.)
33
(58 qns.)
- 267
Open-
ended
Questions
118
(4 qns.)
42
(4 qns.)
27
(4 qns.)
- 185
Semi-
structured
interviews
-
15
(15 qns.)
15
(10 qns.)
15
(13 qns.)
45
MOOC Survey Constructs
Constructs Learners Designers Facilitators
Experience with MOOC X X X
Learning Objectives X X X
Duration and Structure X X
Learning Resources X X X
Accessibility and Inclusion X X
Learning Progress X
Learning Environment X X
Learning Assessment X X X
Learning Certification X X
Design Process X
Pedagogical Decisions X
Learning Support
 Feedback & Facilitation
 Interaction & Collaboration
X X X
Global MOOC
Quality Survey
(GMQS)
Global MOOC Quality Survey
Demographic Profile
Age range of all survey participants (learners, designers & facilitators) by gender
Demographic Profile
Educational level of all survey participants (learners, designers & facilitators) by gender
n VB B N G VG
Learning
experience
166 4 4 13 75 70
Learning Experience (Learners)
n VB B N G VG
Design
experience
68 1 2 13 33 19
Design Experience (Designers)
Interaction from Learners‘ Perspective
n N/A SD D N A SA
LF 146 20 5 13 48 37 23
LL 146 15 3 17 34 51 26
LR 146 9 2 8 25 61 41
GG 146 37 4 15 50 24 16
Note:
LF: Interaction between learners and facilitators
LL: Interaction among learners
LR: Interaction between learners and learning resources
GG: Interaction among teams and groups
n R2 M2 p
LF by
learners
125 .094 9.382 .000***
LL by
learners
130 .101 10.818 .000***
LR by
learners
136 .112 12.286 .000***
GG by
learners
108 .045 4.131 .026*
Bivariate Correlations between LLR4 and LLE4
Interaction from Designers‘ Perspective
n N/A SD D N A SA
LF 52 2 1 5 11 24 9
LL 52 1 1 3 11 19 17
LR 52 3 1 0 4 22 22
GG 52 8 2 10 14 13 5
Note:
LF: Interaction between learners and facilitators
LL: Interaction among learners
LR: Interaction between learners and learning resources
GG: Interaction among teams and groups
n R2 M2 p
LF by
designers
49 .003 0.109 .703
LL by
designers
50 .043 1.595 .143
LR by
designers
48 .046 1.537 .138
GG by
designers
43 .001 0.038 .821
Bivariate Correlations between DLR4 and DDE4
Open-ended
Questions
(OEQ)
MOOC Open-ended Questions (OEQ)
MOOC Learners
Q1. What were the three main strengths of the MOOC?
Q2. What were the three main weaknesses of the MOOC?
Q3. What was missing in the MOOC?
Q4. Looking ahead into the development of this type of learning
experiences, what could be improved in future MOOCs?
MOOC Designers
Q1. Which were the main design decisions that you made during
the development of the MOOC that later proved to be successful?
Q2. Which were the three biggest difficulties that you faced when
designing the MOOC?
Q3. Which design decisions did not pay off as you expected?
Q4. Looking ahead into the development of this type of learning
design experiences, what methods and tools could be helpful to
improve the design of future MOOCs?
No of respondents across the six domains
Domain Learners Designers
Social Sciences, Humanities and Law 24 9
Education and Lifelong Learning 19 12
Computing and Informatics 18 5
Science, Math and Engineering 16 5
Nature, Environment and Health 21 6
Business, Management and Economics 20 5
Total 118 42
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners)
Q1. What were the three main strengths of the MOOC? 217 units of analysis
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Curriculum
Design &
Delivery
Instructional
Design &
Technology
Assessment &
Evaluation
Facilitation &
Feedback
Interaction &
Collaboration
NumberofComments
Social Sciences, Humanities and Law
Education and Lifelong Learning
Computing and Informatics
Science, Maths and Engineering
Nature, Environment and Health
Business, Management and
Economics
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners)
Q2. What were the three main weaknesses of the MOOC? 123 units of analysis
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Curriculum Design Instructional
Design &
Technology
Assessment &
Evaluation
Faciliation &
Feedback
Interaction &
Collaboration
NumberofComments
Social Sciences, Humanities and Law
Education and Lifelong Learning
Computing and Informatics
Science, Maths and Engineering
Nature, Environment and Health
Business, Management and Economics
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners)
Three main strengths and weaknesses of the MOOC
Strengths Weaknesses
Curriculum Design & Delivery
• Good choice & quality of content
• Good teachers, presenters & tutors
• LO aligns with content
• Weak choice & quality of content
• Short duration
Instructional Design & Technology
• Good integration of IT & media
• Support self-regulation & individual
learning paths
• Poor use of IT technological tools
• Resources lack variety & quality
Interaction & Collaboration
• Encourage local group discussion &
activities
• Foster interaction with field experts
• Lack interaction: learner-tutor
• No support for community building
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers)
Q1. Which were the main design decisions that you made during the
development of the MOOC that later proved to be successful?
59 units of analysis
1
3
3
42
1
1
3
3
6
5
4
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Assessibility&
Inclusion
Assessment &
Evaluation
Interaction &
Collaboration
Certification&
Accreditation
Curriculum
Design& Delivery
Expertise &
Manpower
Feedback &
Facilitation
Instructional
Design&
Technology
No.ofComments
Social Sciences, Humanities and Law
Education and Lifelong Learning
Computer and Informatics
Science, Maths and Engineering
Nature, Environment and Health
Business, Management and Economics
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers)
Q2. Which were the three biggest difficulties that you faced when designing the
MOOC? 74 units of analysis
3 3
1
3
3
2
8
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
5
4
4
2
5
3
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Assessment &
Evaluation
Curriculum
Design&
Delivery
Expertise &
Manpower
Feedback &
Facilitation
Institutional
Support &
Funding
Instructional
Design&
Technology
Interaction &
Collaboration
Open Access,
Copyrights &
Licensing
No.ofComments
Social Sciences, Humanities and Law
Education and Lifelong Learning
Computer and Informatics
Science, Maths and Engineering
Nature, Environment and Health
Business, Management and
Economics
Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers)
Successful Decisions Biggest Challenges
Curriculum Design & Delivery
• Content delivery format
• Content structure & LOs
• Weak choice & quality of content
• Short duration
Instructional Design & Technology
• Choice of learning activities
• Integration of IT & media
• Platform, software & production
decisions
Interaction & Collaboration Expertise & Manpower
• Creating community of learners
• Foster interaction between learner
& tutor/ facilitator
• Gap in content & instructional
design knowledge
• Coordination & collaboration, e.g.,
different experts & teaching staff
Three main successful decisions and three biggest challenges
Overview of QRF (work-in-progress)
Dimension 1: Phases Analysis, Design, Implementation, Realization, Evaluation
Dimension 2: Perspectives Pedagogical, Technological, and Strategic
Dimension 3: Roles Designer, Facilitator, and Provider
Kind Invitation: MOOQ Conference
on 13th of July 2018 in Athens, Greece
The Quality Reference Framework (QRF) to be
discussed & improved in interactive sessions:
Registration is open and free!
www.conference.MOOC-quality.eu
First References for GMQS
Stracke, C. M., et al. (2018). Gap between MOOC designers' and MOOC
learners' perspectives on interaction and experiences in MOOCs: Findings
from the Global MOOC Quality Survey. In M. Chang, N.-S. Chen, R. Huang,
Kinshuk, K. Moudgalya, S. Murthy, & D. G. Sampson (Eds.), Proceedings
18th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies
(ICALT) (pp. 1-5). IEEE: Computer Society. DOI 10.1109/ICALT.2018.0000
Stracke, C. M., & Tan, E. (2018). The Quality of Open Online Learning and
Education: Towards a Quality Reference Framework for MOOCs. In J. Kay, &
R. Luckin (Eds.), Rethinking learning in the digital age. Making the Learning
Sciences Count: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences
(ICLS) 2018 (pp. 1029-1032). London: ISLS.
Stracke, C. M. et al. (2017). The Quality of Open Online Education: Towards
a Reference Framework for MOOCs. In Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Global
Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 1712-1715).
IEEE Xplore. DOI: 10.1109/EDUCON.2017.7943080
To be continued …
christian.stracke@ou.nl
esther.tan@ou.nl
@ChrMStracke
@Taneste
www.opening-up.education
Let us cooperate!
Thank you!
Your questions?
To be continued…

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2018-07-10 ICALT 2018 in Mumbai Gap between MOOC Designers and Learners on Interaction GMQS Stracke Tan

  • 1. Gap between MOOC designers' and learners' perspectives on inter- action and experiences in MOOCs: Findings from the Global MOOC Quality Survey (GMQS) Christian M. Stracke & Esther Tan
  • 2. Open CC License for sharing & re-using slides This work is free to share under the creative commons licence: "Attribution – Noncommercial – Share Alike 3.0" You can copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions: 1. Attribution – 2. Noncommercial – 3. Share Alike Licence: Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike Some rights reserved, see: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
  • 3. Open University of the Netherlands Global cooperation: ECNU & KNOU Global initiative ICORE for OR & OE International WLS / LINQ Conference eLC European Institute ICDE Chair in OER Dr. Christian M. Stracke: Open Learning & Education, Innovations, Policies, Quality & Competences, Impact
  • 4. Open University of the Netherlands The Quality of MOOCs Let’s Learn to Learn Seamless Learning Dr. Esther Tan Technology-Enhanced Learning, Innovations in & out Classroom
  • 5. Selected Projects: Quality Management and EvaluationTechnology-Enhanced Learning at Large Scale Open Education and ResearchCompetence and Skills Modelling
  • 6. Selected Projects: www.mooc-quality.euwww.isecure-edu.euwww.wacom-project.euwww.ecompetence.eu www.PBL-project.eu www.inspiringscience.eu www.opendiscoveryspace.euwww.inclusive-education.net www.MEDLIT.visionwww.digifem.euwww.voa3r.eu www.agriculture- competences.eu www.learn-STEM.orghttp://lelle.gtk.uni-pannon.huwww.learning-standards.euwww.aristotele-ip.eu
  • 7. Presentation Outline 1. The Quality of MOOCs: What is the problem? 2. A Conceptual Framework towards MOOC QRF: Theoretical & Methodological Approach 3. Findings from MOOC surveys: Learners, Designers & Facilitators 4. Findings from MOOC OEQ: Learners, Designers & Facilitators
  • 8. Goal 4: Inclusive and quality education Sustainable dev goals www.sustainabledevelopmentgoals.org
  • 9. Goal 4: Inclusive and quality education Sustainable dev goals
  • 14. Quality cannot be defined ... except through adaptation to your situation and context!
  • 15. Any discussion on the quality of MOOCs should consider the goals of both, the MOOC learner and the provider. (Hayes, 2015) Critical questions to be addressed:  Who are the MOOC users, and why?  What makes a good MOOC from the learners’ experiences with MOOCs?  What are the best design principles and best practices as indicators of quality?  Are these quality indicators also MOOC domain specific and/ or MOOC type specific? Problem Statement
  • 16. A Research Framework for MOOQ “When one designs any course, one has to have some learner cohort in mind.” (Macleod et al., 2015, p. 9) Main research goals: 1. Establish a research framework for the subsequent analysis of MOOC design patterns and best practices 2. Develop a Quality Reference Framework (QRF) for MOOCs Theoretical Framework
  • 18. Quality Reference Framework with criteria & checklist for MOOC design Our main goal is the collaboration with all to improve Open Education & MOOCs www.MOOC-quality.eu
  • 19.  Subjects of Investigation: MOOC Learners, Designers, Facilitators & Providers  Mixed Methods Approach: Quantitative & qualitative data Combining the results from: 1. Global MOOC Quality Survey (GMQS) 2. Open-Ended questions (OEQ) from the GMQS 3. Semi-structured interviews 4. Many workshops at international conferences Methodological Framework
  • 20. Instruments of Measure MOOC Learners MOOC Designers MOOC Facilitators MOOC Providers TOTAL Global MOOC Quality Survey 166 (69 qns.) 68 (89 qns.) 33 (58 qns.) - 267 Open- ended Questions 118 (4 qns.) 42 (4 qns.) 27 (4 qns.) - 185 Semi- structured interviews - 15 (15 qns.) 15 (10 qns.) 15 (13 qns.) 45
  • 21. MOOC Survey Constructs Constructs Learners Designers Facilitators Experience with MOOC X X X Learning Objectives X X X Duration and Structure X X Learning Resources X X X Accessibility and Inclusion X X Learning Progress X Learning Environment X X Learning Assessment X X X Learning Certification X X Design Process X Pedagogical Decisions X Learning Support  Feedback & Facilitation  Interaction & Collaboration X X X
  • 24. Demographic Profile Age range of all survey participants (learners, designers & facilitators) by gender
  • 25. Demographic Profile Educational level of all survey participants (learners, designers & facilitators) by gender
  • 26. n VB B N G VG Learning experience 166 4 4 13 75 70 Learning Experience (Learners)
  • 27. n VB B N G VG Design experience 68 1 2 13 33 19 Design Experience (Designers)
  • 28. Interaction from Learners‘ Perspective n N/A SD D N A SA LF 146 20 5 13 48 37 23 LL 146 15 3 17 34 51 26 LR 146 9 2 8 25 61 41 GG 146 37 4 15 50 24 16 Note: LF: Interaction between learners and facilitators LL: Interaction among learners LR: Interaction between learners and learning resources GG: Interaction among teams and groups
  • 29. n R2 M2 p LF by learners 125 .094 9.382 .000*** LL by learners 130 .101 10.818 .000*** LR by learners 136 .112 12.286 .000*** GG by learners 108 .045 4.131 .026* Bivariate Correlations between LLR4 and LLE4
  • 30. Interaction from Designers‘ Perspective n N/A SD D N A SA LF 52 2 1 5 11 24 9 LL 52 1 1 3 11 19 17 LR 52 3 1 0 4 22 22 GG 52 8 2 10 14 13 5 Note: LF: Interaction between learners and facilitators LL: Interaction among learners LR: Interaction between learners and learning resources GG: Interaction among teams and groups
  • 31. n R2 M2 p LF by designers 49 .003 0.109 .703 LL by designers 50 .043 1.595 .143 LR by designers 48 .046 1.537 .138 GG by designers 43 .001 0.038 .821 Bivariate Correlations between DLR4 and DDE4
  • 33. MOOC Open-ended Questions (OEQ) MOOC Learners Q1. What were the three main strengths of the MOOC? Q2. What were the three main weaknesses of the MOOC? Q3. What was missing in the MOOC? Q4. Looking ahead into the development of this type of learning experiences, what could be improved in future MOOCs? MOOC Designers Q1. Which were the main design decisions that you made during the development of the MOOC that later proved to be successful? Q2. Which were the three biggest difficulties that you faced when designing the MOOC? Q3. Which design decisions did not pay off as you expected? Q4. Looking ahead into the development of this type of learning design experiences, what methods and tools could be helpful to improve the design of future MOOCs?
  • 34. No of respondents across the six domains Domain Learners Designers Social Sciences, Humanities and Law 24 9 Education and Lifelong Learning 19 12 Computing and Informatics 18 5 Science, Math and Engineering 16 5 Nature, Environment and Health 21 6 Business, Management and Economics 20 5 Total 118 42
  • 35. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners) Q1. What were the three main strengths of the MOOC? 217 units of analysis 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Curriculum Design & Delivery Instructional Design & Technology Assessment & Evaluation Facilitation & Feedback Interaction & Collaboration NumberofComments Social Sciences, Humanities and Law Education and Lifelong Learning Computing and Informatics Science, Maths and Engineering Nature, Environment and Health Business, Management and Economics
  • 36. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners) Q2. What were the three main weaknesses of the MOOC? 123 units of analysis 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Curriculum Design Instructional Design & Technology Assessment & Evaluation Faciliation & Feedback Interaction & Collaboration NumberofComments Social Sciences, Humanities and Law Education and Lifelong Learning Computing and Informatics Science, Maths and Engineering Nature, Environment and Health Business, Management and Economics
  • 37. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Learners) Three main strengths and weaknesses of the MOOC Strengths Weaknesses Curriculum Design & Delivery • Good choice & quality of content • Good teachers, presenters & tutors • LO aligns with content • Weak choice & quality of content • Short duration Instructional Design & Technology • Good integration of IT & media • Support self-regulation & individual learning paths • Poor use of IT technological tools • Resources lack variety & quality Interaction & Collaboration • Encourage local group discussion & activities • Foster interaction with field experts • Lack interaction: learner-tutor • No support for community building
  • 38. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers) Q1. Which were the main design decisions that you made during the development of the MOOC that later proved to be successful? 59 units of analysis 1 3 3 42 1 1 3 3 6 5 4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Assessibility& Inclusion Assessment & Evaluation Interaction & Collaboration Certification& Accreditation Curriculum Design& Delivery Expertise & Manpower Feedback & Facilitation Instructional Design& Technology No.ofComments Social Sciences, Humanities and Law Education and Lifelong Learning Computer and Informatics Science, Maths and Engineering Nature, Environment and Health Business, Management and Economics
  • 39. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers) Q2. Which were the three biggest difficulties that you faced when designing the MOOC? 74 units of analysis 3 3 1 3 3 2 8 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 5 3 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Assessment & Evaluation Curriculum Design& Delivery Expertise & Manpower Feedback & Facilitation Institutional Support & Funding Instructional Design& Technology Interaction & Collaboration Open Access, Copyrights & Licensing No.ofComments Social Sciences, Humanities and Law Education and Lifelong Learning Computer and Informatics Science, Maths and Engineering Nature, Environment and Health Business, Management and Economics
  • 40. Open-ended Questions (MOOC Designers) Successful Decisions Biggest Challenges Curriculum Design & Delivery • Content delivery format • Content structure & LOs • Weak choice & quality of content • Short duration Instructional Design & Technology • Choice of learning activities • Integration of IT & media • Platform, software & production decisions Interaction & Collaboration Expertise & Manpower • Creating community of learners • Foster interaction between learner & tutor/ facilitator • Gap in content & instructional design knowledge • Coordination & collaboration, e.g., different experts & teaching staff Three main successful decisions and three biggest challenges
  • 41. Overview of QRF (work-in-progress) Dimension 1: Phases Analysis, Design, Implementation, Realization, Evaluation Dimension 2: Perspectives Pedagogical, Technological, and Strategic Dimension 3: Roles Designer, Facilitator, and Provider
  • 42. Kind Invitation: MOOQ Conference on 13th of July 2018 in Athens, Greece The Quality Reference Framework (QRF) to be discussed & improved in interactive sessions: Registration is open and free! www.conference.MOOC-quality.eu
  • 43. First References for GMQS Stracke, C. M., et al. (2018). Gap between MOOC designers' and MOOC learners' perspectives on interaction and experiences in MOOCs: Findings from the Global MOOC Quality Survey. In M. Chang, N.-S. Chen, R. Huang, Kinshuk, K. Moudgalya, S. Murthy, & D. G. Sampson (Eds.), Proceedings 18th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (pp. 1-5). IEEE: Computer Society. DOI 10.1109/ICALT.2018.0000 Stracke, C. M., & Tan, E. (2018). The Quality of Open Online Learning and Education: Towards a Quality Reference Framework for MOOCs. In J. Kay, & R. Luckin (Eds.), Rethinking learning in the digital age. Making the Learning Sciences Count: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2018 (pp. 1029-1032). London: ISLS. Stracke, C. M. et al. (2017). The Quality of Open Online Education: Towards a Reference Framework for MOOCs. In Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 1712-1715). IEEE Xplore. DOI: 10.1109/EDUCON.2017.7943080 To be continued …
  • 45. Thank you! Your questions? To be continued…