Wcd1 300


Published on

Frames are tipical only innovatives makes a leap frog from anonymous

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wcd1 300

  1. 1. AmericanWoodCouncilDETAILS FORCONVENTIONAL WOODFRAME CONSTRUCTIONAmericanForest &PaperAssociation
  2. 2. Copyright © 2001American Forest & Paper Association
  3. 3. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION1WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Introduction ............................................. 3General Scope ......................................... 3Grade Marking ........................................ 3Lumber Seasoning ................................. 4TYPES OF FRAME CONSTRUCTIONPlatform Frame ....................................... 4Balloon Frame ......................................... 5Fastenings ............................................... 5Plank and Beam Construction ............ 5Truss-Framed Construction ................. 5Foundations ............................................. 5Protection Against Termites andDecay .................................................. 6Floor Framing .......................................... 7Firestopping ............................................ 8Draftstopping .......................................... 8Exterior Wall Framing ........................... 8Interior Partition Framing.................... 9Framing Around Chimneys andFireplaces .......................................... 9Roof and Ceiling Framing ................. 10Insulation and Vapor Retarders ....... 11Exterior Siding and Coverings ........ 11Flooring ................................................. 12Wood Decks ......................................... 13Conclusion ............................................ 14Appendix .................................................52TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF TABLESChapter/Title Page Chapter/Title PageI. Nominal and Minimum-Dressed Sizes ofBoards, Dimension and Timbers.............. 15II. Wood Shingle and Shake WeatherExposures ................................................. 16Table PageTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  4. 4. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL2 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSFigure Page Figure Page1. Platform Frame Construction ...................... 172. Balloon Frame Construction ....................... 183. Methods of Loading Nails ............................ 184. Sizes of Common Wire Nails ....................... 195. Masonry Foundation Wall and Footing ...... 206a. Permanent Wood Foundation - Crawlspace .............................................................. 206b. Permanent Wood Foundation -Basement ....................................................... 217a. Sump for Poorly Drained Soils .................... 227b. Sump for Medium to Well Drained Soils .... 228. Pier Foundation and Anchorage ................. 239. Clearance Between Earth and FloorFraming .......................................................... 2310. Support for Basement Post ......................... 2311. Floor Framing at Exterior Wall .................... 2412. Girder Framing in Exterior Wall................... 2413. Termite Shields.............................................. 2414. Anchorage of Sill to Foundation Wall ......... 2515. Nailing Built-up Beams and Girders ........... 2516. Joist End Bearing ......................................... 2517. Joist Supported on Ledger .......................... 2618. Joist Supported by Metal FramingAnchors.......................................................... 2619. Joists Resting on Girder .............................. 2620. Joists Resting on Steel Beam ..................... 2621. Diagonal Bridging of Floor Joists ............... 2722. Solid Bridging of Floor Joists ..................... 2723. Framing of Tail Joists on Ledger Strip ....... 2824. Framing of Tail Joists by FramingAnchors.......................................................... 2825. Framing of Header to Trimmer by JoistHangers .......................................................... 2826. Notching and Boring of Joists .................... 2827. Framing Over Bearing Partition,Platform Construction .................................. 2928. Framing Over Bearing Partition, BalloonConstruction.................................................. 2929. Framing Under Non-Bearing Partition........ 3030. Attachment of Non-Bearing Partition toCeiling Framing ............................................. 3031. Interior Stairway Framing ............................ 3132. Stairway With a Landing .............................. 3233. Framing Supporting Bathtub....................... 3234. Second Floor Framing, Exterior Wall ......... 3335. Second Floor Overhang of Exterior Wall,Joists at Right Angles to SupportingWalls ............................................................... 3336. Second Floor Overhang of Exterior Wall,Joists Parallel to Supporting Walls............. 3337. Firestopping Around Pipes.......................... 3438. Firestopping of Dropped Ceilings............... 3439a. Firestoppingof Masonry Walls - Floor ........ 3539b.Firestopping of Masonry Walls - Ceiling .... 3540. Draftstopping of Trussed Floors ................. 3641. Multiple Studs at Corners ............................ 3642. Wall Framing at Intersecting Partitions ...... 3643. Exterior Wall Openings, Header Detailswith Cripple Studs ........................................ 3744. Exterior Wall Openings, Header Detailswith Joist Hangers ........................................ 3745. Framing of Bay Window ............................... 3846. Wall Framing at Gable Ends ........................ 3847a. Wall and Floor Framing at Fireplace ........... 3947b.Hearth Centering Detail ................................ 3948a. Clearance of Fireplace Trim ......................... 4048b.Section Through Mantle ............................... 4049. Building Paper and Siding Application ...... 4150. Application of Wood Shingles ..................... 4151. Roof Framing Ceiling Joists Parallel toRafters ............................................................ 4252. Roof Framing, Ceiling JoistsPerpendicular to Rafters .............................. 4253. Roof Framing Gable Overhang.................... 4354. Flat Roof Framing ......................................... 4355. Valley Rafter Roof Framing .......................... 4456. Hip Rafter Roof Framing .............................. 4457. Roof Framing at Eave ................................... 4458. Shed Dormer Roof Framing ......................... 4559. Gable Dormer Framing ................................. 4660. Roof Framing Around Chimney .................. 4661. Roof Ventilation Requirements ................... 4762. Ventilating Eave Overhangs ........................ 4763. Wood Siding Patterns and Nailing .............. 4864. Corner Treatments for Wood Siding ........... 4865. Application of Masonry Veneer to WoodFraming .......................................................... 4966. Wood Strip Flooring ..................................... 4967. Wood Deck..................................................... 5068. Ceiling-Floor Partition Separation .............. 51Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  5. 5. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION3WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONThe first approach to achieving a strong, durable struc-ture, involving economical use of materials, is to follow abasic modular plan for layout and attachment of framingmembers. Such methods use a 4-foot design module,which governs a 16-inch spacing of joists, studs, raftersand panel sheathing products. This module also providesfor alternate 24-inch spacing of floor, wall and roof fram-ing where floor and roof trusses are used, andaccommodates 24-inch spacing of studs where wind loadspermit, or where larger studs are required for thicker in-sulation or heavier floor and roof loads.TerminologyPrevious versions of this document have followed thepractice of using “shall” and “should” to emphasize thosemandatory instructions covering fire and life safety asseparate from general good practices cover durability, re-duced maintenance costs and best performance ofproducts. Recognizing that the term “should,” in practice,can be considered as optional and that failure to followsuch provisions can result in serious damage or excessivemaintenance costs to the home owner, this publicationstates the procedure as it is to be illustrated in the houseplan, followed by the job foreman and subcontractors, andenforced by the building inspector.Wherever possible, the provisions described are in-tended to conform to current code provisions; however, itis recommended that the local building code be checkedfor additional requirements. Other methods of buildingmay provide equal, or possibly, improved performance.These, however, must provide performance assurance ac-ceptable to the owner and the building inspector.DimensioningIn general, dimensions for framing lumber, wood sid-ing and trim referenced in this document are nominaldimensions; i.e., 2x4, 2x6, etc., for simplicity. Actual sur-faced dimensions conform with those in Product StandardPS 20, published by theAmerican Lumber Standards Com-mittee (Appendix, Item 2). A summary of thesedimensions is set forth in Table I.GRADE MARKINGFraming lumber, also referred to as “dimension” lum-ber, must be properly grade marked to be acceptable underthe major building codes. Such grade marks identify thegrade, species or species group, seasoning condition atINTRODUCTIONWood frame construction is the predominant methodof building homes and apartments in the United States,enabling this nation to have the world’s best housed popu-lation.Increasingly, wood framing is also being used in com-mercial and industrial buildings. Wood frame buildings areeconomical to build, heat and cool, and provide maximumcomfort to occupants. Wood construction is readily adapt-able to traditional, contemporary and the most futuristicbuilding styles. Its architectural possibilities are limitless.History has demonstrated the inherent strength anddurability of wood frame buildings. The purpose of thisdocument is to summarize and illustrate conventional con-struction rules as a guide for builders, carpentry foremen,building inspectors and students in the building trades.The application of conventional construction rules maybe limited by building code requirements in use wherethe building is being constructed. Conventional construc-tion provisions, as found in this publication, representtechniques with a history of satisfactory performance.Today, some building codes may require a more rigor-ous structural design methodology than is associated withconventionalconstruction.Thisrequirementmayresultfroma need for better building performance when the structure isexposed to moderate-to-high wind, seismic, and snow loads.AF&PA publishes the Wood Frame Construction Manualfor One- and Two-Family Dwellings (Appendix, Item 1) toprovide solutions based on engineering analysis, in accor-dance with recognized national codes and standards. Likeconventional construction, the engineered solutions are pro-vided in a prescriptive format.GENERAL SCOPEWith any building material or product, sound construc-tion and installation practices must be followed to assuredurability and trouble-free performance. Areas foreconomy in basic design and house construction are cov-ered in numerous publications. However, skimping onmaterials or using poor building practices in constructingthe house frame saves little. Such practices may reducethe strength and rigidity of the structure and cause diffi-culty in attachment of cladding materials and trim.Therefore, the details in this document are not intended tobe bare minimums; rather, they reflect requirements forproducing sound, low maintenance wood frame buildings.List of IllustrationsTable of Contents
  6. 6. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL4 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONtime of manufacture, producing mill number and the grad-ing rules writing agency.The bending strength, Fb, and the stiffness or modulusof elasticity, E, may be determined from the grade mark forlumber used as joists, rafters, and decking. These valuesenable determination of allowable spans for the lumber.Grading rules for various softwood and certain hard-wood species are written by regional rules writingagencies, which operate within the system, established bythe American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) un-der the authority of the U.S. Department of Commerce.This system provides for on-going inspection of lumberproduced to the applicable rules and for monitoring of theinspection agencies by the Board of Review of theALSC.Engineering values and tables of allowable spans forframing lumber are available from the American Forest& Paper Association (Appendix, Items 3 and 4), and theregional rules writing agencies.LUMBER SEASONINGWood loses moisture from the time it is cut and manu-factured into lumber until it reaches equilibrium in service.Best performance of wood frame buildings is obtained whenthe moisture content of framing lumber at the time the build-ing is enclosed with sheathing and interior finish, is as closeas possible to the condition it will reach in service.Grading rules which conform with American Soft-wood Lumber Standard, PS 20, provide for framing lumbersurfaced to standard sizes at the unseasoned condition (S-Grn), at 19 percent maximum moisture content (S-Dry)and at 15 percent maximum moisture content (KD) or(MC-15). Standard sizes apply to S-Dry (19% max), withslightly larger sizes provided for S-Grn so that both prod-ucts reach approximately the same size after seasoning inservice. MC-15 lumber is produced to the same standardsize as S-Dry. In some cases engineering stress values as-signed to lumber produced to different seasoningconditions are adjusted to reflect the effects of seasoning.Lumber should be protected from weather at the jobsite. Buildings should be roofed and enclosed with sheath-ing without delay to maintain the original dryness of thelumber or to help unseasoned lumber reach equilibriumduring construction.Final moisture content of lumber in the building varieswith the geographic region and with location in the struc-ture. Floor joists over a crawl space may reach seasonalmoisture contents in excess of 14 percent. Roof trusses andrafters, on the other hand, may dry below 6 percent. Squeak-ing floors and loose nails in wallboard or siding can bereduced by allowing framing to season to a moisture con-tent which is as close as possible to moisture levels it willreach in service and by utilizing modern framing techniquesand products, including glued-nailed floor systems, groovedor ring-shanked nails, and drywall screws.Protection of MaterialsLumber, panel products and millwork (windows, doorsand trim) should be protected from the weather when de-livered at the building site. Preparation of a constructionschedule will assure that lumber and millwork are deliv-ered as needed. Follow these simple rules:(1) Support framing lumber, plywood and panel prod-ucts at least six inches above ground and protectthem below and above with a waterproof cover suchas plastic film. Finish lumber and flooring, particu-larly, are to be protected from ground or concreteslab moisture and kept under cover – preferably in-doors – until installation.(2) Store door and window assemblies, siding and ex-terior trim inside. Where this is not practical, thesematerials are to be elevated from the ground andprotected above and below with a weatherproofcover.Millwork items are often pre-treated with a water-repellent preservative as received. Whether treatedor not, such materials are to be stored under cover.Untreated exterior millwork should receive a wa-ter-repellent preservative treatment beforeinstallation.(3) Store interior doors, trim, flooring and cabinetworkin the building. Where wet plaster is used it must bepermitted to dry before interior woodwork, cabinetryand flooring are installed.TYPES OF FRAME CONSTRUCTIONPLATFORM FRAMEIn platform-frame construction, first floor joists arecompletely covered with sub-flooring to form a platformupon which exterior walls and interior partitions areerected. This is the type of construction most generallyused in home building, Figure 1.Platform construction is easy to erect. It provides awork surface at each floor level and is readily adapted tovarious methods of prefabrication. In platform systems itTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  7. 7. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION5WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1exterior sidings. Details for this method of framing are pro-vided in Plank and Beam Framing for Residential Buildings- Wood Construction Data No. 4, published by the Ameri-can Forest & Paper Association (Appendix, Item 5).TRUSS-FRAMED CONSTRUCTIONThe strength and resilience of wood construction isdue to its framework of structural lumber combined witha covering of subflooring, wall and roof sheathing. Addi-tional engineering of the system through use of floor androof trusses and metal framing anchors provides evengreater rigidity and permits wider spacing of floor androof supporting members.FOUNDATIONSA firm foundation, consisting of properly installedfootings of adequate size to support the structure, is es-sential to the satisfactory performance of all buildings.Such foundations fully utilize the strength and resilienceof wood frame construction.Footings should extend below exterior grade suffi-cientlytobefreeoffrostactionduringwintermonths.Whereroots of trees are removed during excavation or when build-ing on filled ground, the ground should be well compactedbefore footings are installed or concrete is poured.Where poor soil conditions exist, satisfactory foun-dations may be constructed of treated timber piles cappedwith wood or concrete sills. Footing requirements are cov-ered in the local building code. It is good practice,generally, to make the footing thickness equal to the thick-ness of the foundation wall and the footing projection equalto one-half the foundation wall thickness.Two principal foundation types are commonly used.These are concrete and pressure preservative treated wood.Concrete footings with poured concrete or masonry blockfoundation walls are most common. An increasingly popu-lar foundation for houses and other wood frame buildingsis the “Permanent Wood Foundation” which is acceptedby all model building codes and the Department of Hous-ing and Urban Development (HUD).Concrete FoundationsConcrete footings are frequently unreinforced. Whereunstable soil conditions exist, however, reinforced con-crete is used. This requires engineering analysis of thefooting. The foundation wall may be of poured concreteor masonry blocks. Masonry block basement walls typi-cally have a ½-inch coat of Portland cement mortar appliedto the exterior. When set, the mortar parging is coveredwith two coats of asphalt to resist penetration of the wallis common practice to assemble wall framing on the floorand tilt the entire unit into place.BALLOON FRAMEIn balloon-frame construction, exterior wall studs con-tinue through the first and second stories. First floor joists andexterior wall studs both bear on the anchored sill, Figure 2.Second-floor joists bear on a minimum 1x4-inch ribbon strip,whichhasbeenlet-intotheinsideedgesofexteriorwallstuds.In two-story buildings with brick or stone veneer exte-riors, balloon framing reduces variations in settlement offraming and the masonry veneer. Where exterior walls areof solid masonry, balloon framing of interior bearing parti-tions also reduces distortions in door and closet openingsin crosswalls. The requirement for longer studs, and thedifficulty in accommodating current erection practices andfirestopping, has reduced the popularity of this system.FASTENINGSNails, used alone or in combination with metal fram-ing anchors and construction adhesives, are the mostcommon method of fastening 1- and 2-inch framing lum-ber and sheathing panels, Figure 4. Ring or spiral shanknails provide higher load-carrying capacities than com-mon nails of the same diameter, and are particularly usefulwhere greater withdrawal resistance is required.Nailed joints provide best performance where the loadacts at right angles to the nails. Nailed joints with the loadapplied parallel to the nail (in withdrawal) should beavoided wherever possible, since joints are weakest whennailed in this manner, Figure 3.Where tilt-up wall framing is not practical, or wherestronger stud-to-plate attachment is required (as in the useof rigid foam sheathing), toe-nailing is the most practicalmethod of framing studs and plates.In toe-nailing, nails are driven at a 30-degree angle(approximately) to the stud. Studs can be pre-drilled tosimplify this operation and prevent excessive splitting.PLANK AND BEAM CONSTRUCTIONIn the plank and beam framing method, beams of ad-equate size to support floor and roof loads are spaced upto eight feet apart. Floors and roofs are covered with 2-inch planks.These serve as subflooring and roof sheathing,and, where tongue-and-grooved planking is used, providean attractive finished floor and ceiling.Ends of floor and roof beams are supported on postswhich provide the wall framing. Supplementary framingbetween posts permits attachment of wall sheathing andTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  8. 8. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL6 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONby ground water, Figure 5. Masonry block walls arecapped at the top with 4 inches of solid masonry or con-crete. Drain tiles are installed around the entire footingperimeter of concrete foundations. These lead to a stormdrain or sump with pump to a positive drain.Wood FoundationsPermanent wood foundations are engineered systemsconsisting of wood framing and plywood sheathing thathave been pressure treated with heavy concentrations ofpreservative to assure freedom from decay and insect at-tack. The system is used with both basement and crawlspace foundations, Figures 6a and 6b.Permanent wood foundations are particularly suitablefor cold weather construction where the entire foundationsystem can be prefabricated. The footing and basementarea consists of a layer of gravel or crushed stone of 4-inch minimum thickness. Treated wood footing plates ofadequate thickness and width are placed on the stone baseat the wall perimeter. These support foundation stud wallsof treated lumber framing and plywood sheathing whichhave been designed to support vertical and lateral loads.Exterior plywood joints are caulked and basement foun-dation walls are covered with 6-mil polyethylene film todirect ground water to the gravel base. Basement floorsare concrete slab or wood flooring laid on treated woodjoists on sleepers. A 6-mil polyethylene film is placed overthe gravel base beneath the slab or wood floor.Drain tiles are not required with permanent wood foun-dations. Ground water at the wall perimeter drains throughthe gravel footing and the gravel slab base to a sump whichleads to a daylight outlet or is pumped to a storm drain,Figure 7. Such basements have a superior record for main-taining dry interior conditions. Additional information onPermanentWood Foundations is available fromAF&PAandthe Southern Pine Council (Appendix, Items 6 and 7).Other FoundationsOther foundation types include free standing piers,piers with curtain walls, or piers supporting grade beams.Piers and their footings must be of adequate size to carrythe weight of the house, contents and occupants. Pier spac-ing will depend upon arrangement of floor framing andlocation of bearing walls and partitions. Spacing in therange of 8 to 12 feet is common practice, Figure 8.PROTECTION AGAINST TERMITES ANDDECAYGood construction practice prevents conditions thatcould lead to decay or termite attack. Details for termiteand decay prevention are found in Design of Wood Struc-tures for Permanence-Wood Construction Data No. 6(Appendix, Item 8). The following practices are basic:All roots and scraps of lumber are removed from theimmediate vicinity of the house before backfilling.Loose backfill is carefully tamped to reduce settle-ment around the foundation perimeter. Grading at thefoundation and over the building site is sloped to providedrainage away from the structure.Unexcavated SpacesExposed ground in crawl spaces and under porches ordecks is covered with 6-mil polyethylene film. Minimumclearance between the ground and the bottom edge of beamsor girders is at least twelve inches. Clearance between thebottom of wood joists or a structural plank floor and theground is a minimum of 18 inches, Figure 9. Where it isnot possible to maintain these clearances, approved1pres-sure treated or naturally durable wood species are used.Columns and PostsPosts or columns in basements and cellars, or exposedto the weather, are supported by concrete piers or pedestalsprojecting at least 1 inch above concrete floors or decksand 6 inches above exposed earth. Wood posts and col-umns are separated from concrete piers by an imperviousmoisture barrier, except when approved pressure treated ornaturally durable wood species are used, Figures 9 and 10.Wood posts or columns which are closer than 8 inchesto exposed ground in crawl spaces or supporting porchesor decks are of approved pressure treated or naturally du-rable wood species.Exterior wallsWood framing and sheathing used in exterior wallsare installed at least 8 inches above exposed earth (in-cluding finished grade), unless approved pressure treatedor naturally durable wood species are used, Figures 11and 12.Beams and Girders in Masonry WallsOpenings or cavities in masonry walls to support theends of beams, girders, or floor joists are of sufficient size toprovide a minimum of ½-inch clearance at the top, sides andends of such members, unless pressure preservative treatedor naturally durable wood species are used, Figure 12.Wood Supports Embedded in GroundWood supports embedded in the ground to supportpermanent structures shall be treated with approved pres-sure preservative treatments. Wood posts, poles andcolumns which support permanent structures and which1 Approved, as used in this text, means approved by the authority having jurisdiction.Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  9. 9. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION7WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1are embedded in concrete in direct contact with earth orexposed to the weather, shall be treated with approvedpressure preservative treatments.SidingA minimum clearance of 6 inches is maintained be-tween the finished grade and the bottom edge of all typesof siding used with wood frame buildings. Such clear-ance permits ready inspection for termite activity andimproved performance of exterior paint and stain finishes.Crawl Space VentilationCrawl spaces are vented by openings in foundationwalls. The number and size of such vent openings are de-termined to provide a minimum total vent area equal to1/150 of the crawl space ground area. For example, a 1500sq. ft. ground area would require a total of 10 sq. ft. ofvented opening, or 10 vents, each 1 square foot in netopening size. Corrosion resistant mesh with ¼-inch maxi-mum openings is recommended.A 6-mil plastic film ground cover in the crawl spacereduces the required amount of ventilation to 10 percentof the preceding recommendation. With ground coverprotection, vents may have operable louvers. Vent open-ings should be placed to provide cross ventilation andoccur within 3 feet of corners.Termite ControlAfter removal of all scrap wood from the buildingperimeter, treatment of the soil around the foundation withan approved termiticide is the most effective protectionagainst subterranean termites. Properly installed termiteshields also provide protection where the interiors of foun-dation walls are not easily inspected, Figure 13.Additional RequirementsIn geographical areas where experience has demon-strated a need for more protective measures, therequirements of the preceding paragraphs may be modi-fied to the extent required by local conditions.FLOOR FRAMINGFloor framing consists of a system of sills, girders,joists or floor trusses and sub-flooring that provides sup-port for floor loads and gives lateral support to exteriorwalls.Sills on Foundation WallsSills resting on continuous masonry foundation wallsare generally of nominal 2x4 or 2x6 lumber. They are an-chored to masonry walls with ½-inch bolts atapproximately 6-foot intervals. Bolts are embedded at least6 inches in poured concrete walls and at least 15 inches inmasonry block walls, Figure 14. Metal anchor straps,embedded in foundation walls at sufficient intervals topermit adequate nail fastening to sills, may also be used.Sills on PiersSills supported by free-standing piers must be of ad-equate size to carry all imposed loads between piers. Theymay be of solid wood or of built-up construction such asdescribed for beams and girders. Sills are anchored to pierswith ½-inch bolts embedded at least 6 inches in pouredconcrete and at least 15 inches in masonry block, Figure 8.Beams and GirdersBeams and girders are of solid timber or built-up con-struction in which multiple pieces of nominal 2-inch thicklumber are nailed together with the wide faces vertical.Such pieces are nailed with two rows of 20d nails-onerow near the top edge and the other near the bottom edge.Nails in each row are spaced 32 inches apart. End jointsof the nailed lumber should occur over the supportingcolumn or pier. End joints in adjacent pieces should be atleast 16 inches apart, Figure 15. Glued-laminated mem-bers are also used. Beams and girders that are notcontinuous are tied together across supports. Bearing ofat least 4 inches is required at supports.Selection and Placing of JoistsSpan Tables for Joists and Rafters (Appendix, Item 4)published by the American Forest & Paper Association,provides maximum allowable spans for the different spe-cies and grades of lumber depending upon floor and roofdesign loads and spacing of the members.Joist end-bearing should not be less than 1½ incheson wood or metal and 3 inches on masonry. Joists are usu-ally attached to sills by two toe-nails, or by metal framinganchors, Figures 8, 11 and 16. Joists should be placed sothe top edge provides an even plane for the sub-floor andfinished floor. It is preferable to frame joists into the sidesof girders to reduce the cumulative effect of seasoningshrinkage, Figures 17, 18, 19 and 20.BridgingAdequately nailed subflooring will maintain the up-per edges of floor joists in proper alignment. Nailing theends of joists to band joists or headers, Figures 11 and24, provides additional joist support that, under normalconditions, eliminates the need for intermediate bridging.Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of joists ex-ceeds 6, or where builders have encountered problemswith twisting of joists in service, intermediate joist bridg-Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  10. 10. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL8 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONing is installed at 8-foot intervals. Bridging may also beaccomplished with cross braces of nominal 1x4-inch lum-ber or solid 2-inch lumber, Figures 21 and 22.Framing of Floor OpeningsHeaders, trimmers and tail joists form the framing forfloor openings. Trimmers and headers are doubled whenthe header span exceeds 4 feet. Headers more than 6 feetin length are supported at the ends by joist hangers orframing anchors unless they are bearing on a partition,beam or wall. Tail joists which exceed 12 feet in lengthare supported on framing anchors or on ledger strips notless than nominal 2x2 inches, Figures 23, 24 and 25.Notching and Boring of JoistsNotches or holes in joists for plumbing or wiring shallnot be cut in the middle one-third of the joist span. Notchesin the outer-third sections of the span may be no greaterthan one-sixth the joist depth. Where notches are made atthe joist ends for ledger support, they may be no greaterthan one-fourth the joist depth. Holes in the joist areare limited in diameter to one-third the joist depth and arecut with the edge of the hole no closer than 2 inches tothe top or bottom edges, Figure 26.Support of PartitionsBearing partitions are normally placed over girdersor walls which support the floor system. Where floor fram-ing is adequate to support the added load, bearing partitionsmay be offset from supporting members by no more thanthe joist depth, unless floor joists are designed to carrythe increased load, Figures 27 and 28.Where non-bearing partitions run parallel to floorjoists, the joist under the partition is doubled to supportincreased loads which frequently occur adjacent to thepartition, Figures 29 and 30.Overhang of FloorsWhere second-floor joists project over the first storywall at right angles, they are cantilevered to support thesecond story wall, Figure 35. Where the overhanging wallis parallel to the second floor joists, a double joist sup-ports lookout joists which extend at right angles over thefirst story wall, Figure 36. The double joist is locatedinside the supporting wall at a distance equal to twice theoverhang. Lookout joists are framed into the double joistby framing anchors or a ledger strip nailed at the upperedge.FIRESTOPPINGAll concealed spaces in wood framing are firestoppedwith wood blocking or other approved materials. Block-ing must be accurately fitted to fill the opening and toprevent drafts between spaces, Figures 2, 16, 27, 28, 31,and 32.Openings around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys, fire-places and similar fixtures which would allow passage offire are filled with non-combustible material, Figure 37.Other firestopping requires 2-inch lumber or twothicknesses of 1-inch lumber with staggered joints, or onethickness of ¾-inch plywood with joints backed by 1-inchlumber or ¾-inch plywood.Sills and plates normally provide adequatefirestopping in walls and partitions. However, stopping isrequired at all intersections between vertical and horizon-tal spaces such as occur at soffits, dropped ceilings andcoved ceilings, Figure 38.Furred spaces on masonry walls are firestopped at eachfloor level and at the ceiling level by wood blocking or bynon-combustible material of sufficient thickness to fill thespace, Figure 39.DRAFTSTOPPINGIn single family residences, draftstopping is requiredparallel to main framing members in floor/ceiling assem-blies separating usable spaces into two or moreapproximately equal areas with no area greater than 500square feet. Materials for draftstopping may be 3/8-inchplywood or ½-inch gypsum board, Figure 40.EXTERIOR WALL FRAMINGExterior wall framing must be of adequate size andstrength to support floor and roof loads. Walls must alsoresist lateral wind loads and, in some locations, earthquakeforces. Top plates are doubled and lapped at corners andat bearing partition intersections to tie the building into astrong structural unit.Asingle top plate may be used whereroof rafters or trusses bear directly above wall studs. Insuch cases adequate corner ties are required, particularlywhere non-structural sheathing is used.Stud Size and SpacingStuds in exterior walls of one and two-story buildingsare at least nominal 2x4 inches with the 4-inch dimensionforming the basic wall thickness. Stud spacing is normally16 inches in exterior walls, although 24-inch spacing of2x4 studs is acceptable in one-story buildings if wallsheathing or siding is of adequate thickness to bridgeTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  11. 11. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION9WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1across studs. In three-story buildings studs in the bottomstory are at least nominal 3x4 or 2x6 inches and may notexceed 16-inch spacing.Studs are arranged in multiples at corners and parti-tion intersections to provide for rigid attachment ofsheathing, siding and interior wall finish materials. Nail-ing strips or metal clips may be used to back up interiorfinish at corners, Figures 41 and 42.Exterior Wall OpeningsA header of adequate size is required at window anddoor openings to carry vertical loads across the opening.Headers may be supported by doubled studs or, where thespan does not exceed 3 feet, framing anchors may be usedwith single supporting studs, Figures 43 and 44. Wherethe opening width exceeds 6 feet, triple studs are usedwith each end of the header bearing on two studs.Gable End WallsStuds at gable ends bear on the top plate and arenotched and nailed to the end rafter, Figure 46.Wall SheathingThe high resistance of wood frame construction tohurricane, earthquake and other forces of nature is pro-vided when wood sheathing is adequately nailed to theoutside edges of exterior wall studs, plates and headers.Wall sheathing includes plywood, particleboard and otherstructural panels such as wafer-board, oriented-strandboard, structural insulation board and one-inch board lum-ber. Such sheathing is applied in strict accordance withmanufacturer’s nailing requirements to provide a rigid,yet resilient, wood frame system. Some structural panelsfunction as both sheathing and siding.Where the building exterior is to be stuccoed, whereplastic foam sheathing is used, or where bevel or otherlap siding is applied directly to the studs, exterior wallsmust be braced at the corners with 1x4 lumber which hasbeen “let-in” to the outside surfaces of studs, plates andheaders at an angle of 45 degrees, Figures 1 and 2. Metalstrap braces adequately nailed may be used. Plywood orother structural panels applied vertically at each corneralso serve as adequate corner bracing where non-struc-tural sheathing is otherwise used.Building or Sheathing PaperWalls are protected from wind and water infiltrationby covering the wall sheathing with a layer of Type 15asphalt saturated felt paper or with other suitable waterrepellent paper or plastic films. Such coverings must per-mit passage of any moisture vapor which enters the wallsystem from the interior and have a vapor permeabilityrating of five or greater. Six-inch wide strips of sheathingpaper are applied around all wall openings and behind allexterior trim, Figures 49 and 50. Sheathing paper is ap-plied from the bottom of the wall, lapping horizontal joints4 inches and vertical joints 6 inches.INTERIOR PARTITION FRAMINGThere are two types of interior partitions: bearing par-titions which support floors, ceilings or roofs; andnon-bearing partitions which carry only the weight of thematerials in the partition, including attachments in the fin-ished building.Bearing PartitionsStuds in bearing partitions should be at least nominal2x4 inches, with the wide surface of the stud at right anglesto top and bottom plates or headers. Plates are lapped ortied into exterior walls at intersection points.Single top plates are permitted where joists or raftersare supported directly over bearing wall studs. Studs sup-porting floors are spaced a maximum of 16 inches oncenter. Studs supporting ceilings may be spaced 24 incheson center. Headers in bearing walls are used to carry loadsover openings, as required for exterior walls.Non-Bearing PartitionsStuds in non-bearing partitions are nominal 2x3 or2x4 inches and may be installed with the wide face per-pendicular or parallel to the wall surface. Single top platesare used. Stud spacing is 16-or 24-inches on center as re-quired by the wall covering.FRAMING AROUND CHIMNEYS ANDFIREPLACESFramingWood framing must be adequately separated from fire-place and chimney masonry, Figures 47a and 47b. Allheaders, beams, joists and studs must be kept at least twoinches from the outside face of chimney and fireplacemasonry. Prefabricated metal fireplace and chimney as-semblies are to be installed in accordance with themanufacturer’s recommendations and must be approvedby the code authority.TrimWood mantles and similar trim are separated from fire-place openings by at least six inches, Figures 48a and 48b.Where combustible material is within 12 inches of thefireplace opening, the projection shall not exceed ½ inchfor each 1-inch distance from such opening.Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  12. 12. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL10 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONROOF AND CEILING FRAMINGRoof construction must be of adequate strength towithstand anticipated snow and wind loads. Framing mem-bers must be securely fastened to each other, to sheathingand to exterior walls to enable the roof system to serve asa structural unit, Figures 51 through 59.Ceiling Joist and Rafter FramingMaximum allowable spans for ceiling joists and raftersfor various lumber grades and species are provided in SpanTables for Joists and Rafters, (Appendix, Item 4).Ceiling joists must be securely nailed to exterior wallplates, to the ends of rafters and where the joists join overinterior partitions. This provides a structural tie across thebuilding to withstand outward forces exerted by the rafters,Figure 51. Ceiling joists at right angles to rafters are to beavoided, Figure 52.The ridge member is of 1- or 2-inch thick lumber andis 2 inches deeper than the depth of the rafters to permitfull bearing at the angled rafter ends. Rafters are placeddirectly opposite each other across the ridge and arenotched at the lower end to fit the exterior wall top plate,Figures 53 and 57. Rafters are secured to the wall plateby toe-nailing or use of special metal plate fastenings.Collar Beams (collar ties)Collar beams of nominal 1x6 or 2x4 lumber are in-stalled in the upper one-third of the attic space to everythird pair of rafters to secure the ridge framing.Valley and Hip Rafter FramingValley rafters at the intersection of two roof areas aredoubled in thickness and two inches deeper than adjoin-ing rafters, Figure 55.Hip rafters are of single thickness but are two inchesdeeper than common rafters to permit full bearing of jackrafters, Figure 56.Where ridges occur at different elevations, provisionmust be made for vertical support of the interior end ofthe lower ridge board.Roof TrussesRoof framing may be fabricated as light trusses andinstalled as complete units. Such framing is designed ac-cording to accepted engineering practice. The trussmembers are joined together by fasteners such as nails,nails and glue, bolts, metal plates or other framing de-vices.Use of roof trusses eliminates the need for interiorbearing partitions and frequently results in more rapid in-stallation of roof and ceiling framing. Roof trusses aregenerally spaced 24 inches on center.Where roof trusses are used, gable ends are usuallyframed in the conventional manner using a common rafterto which gable end studs are nailed. Eave overhangs areframed by extending the top chords of the trusses beyondthe wall.Where hip and valley construction is required, modi-fied trusses or conventional framing are used to meet thecondition.Ceiling-Floor-Partition SeparationIn some localities truss uplift may be a problem. Thisproblem is characterized by the separation of the floor orceiling from an interior partition.A widely used technique to minimize truss uplift sepa-ration is to allow the gypsum board ceiling to “float” orrest on the partition and remain unattached to the truss oneither side of the partition. In cases where trusses are per-pendicular to partitions, the gypsum board ceiling remainsunattached at least 18 inches from the ceiling/ wall inter-section, Figure 68. Additional solutions to this separationare found in two reports referenced in Appendix, Items12 and 13.Flat RoofsFlat roofs should be avoided if possible because theyare difficult to ventilate and insulate adequately and presentweather proofing problems. Where flat roofs are used,rafters or roof joists serve as ceiling joists for the spacebelow, Figure 54. Maximum allowable spans for ceilingjoists and rafters are contained in Span Tables for Joistsand Rafters, (Appendix, Item 4). Flat roof joists are se-curely nailed to exterior wall plates and to each other wherethey join over interior partitions.Roof SheathingWood structural panels or 1-inch board lumber pro-vides a solid base for roof coverings. Structural panelsare manufactured in various thicknesses and are usually4’x8 in surface dimension. Recommended spans, spac-ing between panel edges and thickness are stamped onthe panel face. Structural panels are installed with the longdimension perpendicular to rafters and with the panel con-tinuous over two or more spans.Spaced SheathingWhere wood shingles or shakes are to be applied asthe finished roof, solid sheathing is used or nominal 1x4lumber is nailed perpendicular to rafters and trusses witheach board spaced a distance from the next board equal tothe weather exposure of the shingles or shakes. (5½ inchesTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  13. 13. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION11WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1is common exposure for shingles. Shakes may be exposed7 to 13 inches depending on their length.) Because shakesare not smooth surfaced, an 18-inch wide underlay of as-phalt felt is used between each course. Where wind drivensnow is encountered, solid sheathing and Type 15 asphaltfelt are used under wood shakes.Ventilation of Attic SpacesVentilation of all attic spaces is required to eliminatemoisture condensation on roof framing in cold weatherand to permit heat to escape in warm weather, Figure 61.For gable roofs, a screened, louvered opening is usedwhich provides a net open area of 1/150 of the area of theceiling below. Where a ¾-inch wide screened slot is alsoprovided in the eave soffits, or where a vapor retarderhaving one perm or less permeability is installed on thewarm side of the ceiling, the total ventilating area may bereduced to 1/300 of the ceiling area.With hip roof construction, a ¾-inch wide screenedslot in the eave soffits, and ventilator at the ridge to pro-vide 1/450 inlet and 1/900 outlet fractions of the ceilingarea below, assures adequate ventilation.For flat roofs, blocking, bridging and insulation arearranged to prevent obstruction of air flow. Such roofsare ventilated at eave soffits to provide net open area equalto 1/250 of the area of the ceiling below. A vapor retarderof one perm or less permeability is applied under the ceil-ing finish below flat roofs.INSULATION AND VAPOR RETARDERSInsulationAdequate insulation in stud spaces of exterior walls,between floor and ceiling joists or rafters and on the in-side of masonry foundations between grade line and firstfloor, make wood frame construction efficient to heat andcool. It also increases occupant comfort and absorbs out-side noises. Roll or batt-type insulation is installed fullthickness in exterior walls or between rafters. Roll or loosefill insulation is used in attics between ceiling joists. Rigidfoam plastic is bonded to the inside of foundation wallswith construction adhesive.Vapor RetardersVapor retardant film prevents moisture vapor frommoving through the insulated wall and condensing on theback side of sheathing and siding. Such condensationgreatly reduces the effectiveness of insulation and causesfailures of exterior paints and finishes.Wall insulation batts usually have vapor retardant pa-per covers facing the room interior. However, the mostcommon method of installing wall insulation batts cre-ates gaps along each stud, which make this type of vaporprotection of little value. Proper vapor protection requiresa 4-mil (.004") minimum thickness of polyethylene filmstapled to wall studs immediately beneath the dry wall orother interior finish. The film is carefully fitted aroundwindow and door openings and behind electric outlets.Crawl spaces and basement concrete slabs are alsosources of moisture vapor, which reduce the effectivenessof insulation and create expansion problems with hard-wood flooring. A 6-mil (.006") polyethylene film placedover the ground in crawl spaces and over the gravel be-fore the basement slab is poured is the most effectivemethod of controlling moisture vapor from the ground.Some plastic foam sheathings and foil-faced sheath-ing may act as vapor retarders on the outside of exteriorwalls. Where such sheathing panels are used, it is essen-tial that a vapor retardant polyethylene film be placed onthe inside wall surface, beneath the interior wall finish.EXTERIOR SIDING AND COVERINGSMany types of wood, hardboard, shingle, structuralpanel, metal and masonry veneer sidings are used overwood framing. Such materials are separated from the fi-nal, finished grade by a minimum of 6 inches, Figure 49.Wood SidingA variety of wood and hardboard siding patterns areavailable. Bevel, shiplap and drop types are generally usedhorizontally. Board-and-batten, board-on-board andtongued and grooved boards are applied vertically,Figure 63. Surfaces are smooth, rough sawn or overlaidwith paper or plastic film. They may be natural or factorypre-primed or pre-finished.Siding and exterior trim are applied over a layer ofType 15 asphalt felt or other water repellent sheathingcover with corrosion-resistant nails. Hot dipped galvanizedsteel, stainless steel or aluminum nails may be used. Naillength varies with the thickness of siding and sheathing.For smooth shank siding nails, required length is deter-mined by adding to the combined siding and sheathingthickness an additional 1½ inches for penetration into solidwood.Where foam sheathing or insulation board sheathingare used, “solid wood” means 1½-inch nail penetrationinto the stud. However, where plywood, waferboard ororiented strand board sheathing are used, the thickness ofthese panels becomes a part of the 1½-inch solid woodnail penetration.Ring-shank or spiral-shank siding nails have additionalholding power. A reduction of 1/8 to 1/4 inch in requirednail penetration into solid wood is permitted for these fas-Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  14. 14. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL12 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONteners. Additional requirements apply to use of rigidfoam plastic sheathing, and are published by AF&PA(Appendix, Item 9).Bevel siding and square edged boards applied hori-zontally are nailed with a single nail at each stud. Theminimum lap is 1 inch, with the nail driven approximately1½ inches above the lap, Figure 63(a).Drop and shiplap type sidings, which lay flush againstthe sheathing paper, are nailed at each stud with a singlenail approximately 1½ inches above the drip edge. Wheresiding width is 8 inches or more or where sheathing isomitted, two nails are used, Figure 63(b).Corner treatment is governed by the house design.Corner boards, mitered corners, metal corner covers oralternately lapped corners are used, Figure 64.Board siding, both square edge and tongue andgrooved, is applied vertically, Figures 63(c) and 63(d).Where wood, plywood or structural panel sheathing of½-inch minimum thickness is used, nails are spaced 16inches vertically. For other types of sheathing, horizontalnominal 1x4-inch furring strips are applied at 24-inch in-tervals as a nail base for vertical siding application. Wherestud spacing exceeds 16 inches, inter-stud blocking with2-inch lumber between studs is required.Protection of SidingEnds of wood siding at corners, butt joints and at jointswith window and door trim are protected by an applica-tion of clear water repellent preservative. Dipping at thetime of siding application or subsequent brush or spraytreatment before caulking and painting are effective.Where wood siding is to be left to weather unfinished, aliberal coat of clear water repellent preservative is appliedto the entire exterior siding surface.Wood Shingles and ShakesShingles and shakes used as exterior wall coveringare applied with the weather exposures in Table II.Shingles and shakes are nailed with corrosion resis-tant nails of sufficient length to penetrate wood sheathing.Two nails are used for widths up to 8 inches. For widershingles and shakes, three nails are used.With single course applications nails are driven oneinch above the butt line of the succeeding course. In doublecoursing the under course is attached to wood sheathingwith three nails or staples. The outer course is appliedwith small-headed nails driven approximately 1 inch abovethe butts and ¾ inch from the edges.Where other than wood, plywood, waferboard or ori-ented-strand board sheathing is used, a nail base of1x3-inch wood furring strips is applied horizontally at in-tervals equal to the weather exposure of the shingles orshakes, Figure 50.Masonry VeneerMasonry veneer applied to wood frame constructionis supported on the masonry foundation wall. Where per-manent wood foundations are used, masonry veneer issupported on the preservative treated wood footing plateor on a preservative treated wood knee wall attached tothe wood foundation with corrosion resistant metal ties.Ties are spaced horizontally 24 inches on center, with eachtie supporting no more than two square feet of wall area.Ties are fastened through sheathing directly to founda-tion studs, Figure 65.In masonry veneer applications to permanent woodfoundations, a 1-inch space is left between sheathing andmasonry. Base flashing extends from the outside face ofthe masonry wall over the foundation and up the sheath-ing a minimum distance of 12 inches. Weep holes areprovided by leaving open vertical joints at 4-foot inter-vals in the bottom course of masonry veneer.FLOORINGFlooring consists of the subfloor, underlayment and fin-ish floor. Depending upon the type of finish floor or subfloorused, underlayment may not be required.Where 25/32-inchtongue and grooved wood strip flooring is used, it may belaid directly over the subfloor, Figure 66. Where lesserthicknesses of wood strip flooring are used, the thicknessand grade of subflooring must be adequate to support endjoints at full design load, unless they occur over joists.Underlayment is normally applied over the sub-floorwhere resilient tile, sheet vinyl or carpet is used as thefinish floor surface.Sub-flooringThe sub-floor usually consists of plywood, particle-board or other wood structural panels, or board lumber.Lumber sub-flooring is typically laid diagonally to per-mit wood strip finish flooring to be laid either parallelwith or at right angles to, the floor joists. End-joints insub-flooring are cut to occur over joists.Wood structural panels are typically installed with thelong dimension at right angles to the joists and with thepanel continuous over two or more spans. Spacing be-tween panels should be approximately 1/8 inch.UnderlaymentUnderlayment panels are applied over sub-flooringto provide a smooth surface for application of carpetingand other resilient floor coverings. Plywood underlaymentTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  15. 15. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION13WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1requirements are covered by U.S. Product Standard PS 1-95, which is published by APA-The Engineered WoodAssociation (Appendix, Item 10). Hardboardunderlayment requirements are set forth in ANSI/AHAA135.4 (Appendix, Item 11) published by the AmericanHardboard Association. Application of finish floor cover-ings is generally by specialists who follow themanufacturer’s installation instructions for the carpet, re-silient tile or vinyl products.Wood FlooringHardwood and softwood strip flooring of ¾-inch or25/32-inch thickness provides adequate strength and stiff-ness for direct application over sub-flooring at right anglesto joists. Where parquet (squares) are used or where stripflooring is laid parallel to joists, the grade and thicknessof sub-flooring panels must be adequate to provide sup-port between joists.An additional thickness of subflooringmay be required over the rough subfloor in such applica-tions.Wood strip flooring is normally applied over build-ing paper and is sanded and finished after installation. Anexpansion joint of at least one-half inch must be providedat the edge of flooring strips adjacent to parallel parti-tions and exterior walls. This joint is covered by thebaseplate and toe molding.WOOD DECKSWood decks are a special feature of many new housesand a useful add-on to others. Their capability for provid-ing additional low-cost living and recreational space makesit important to consider them as part of the original housedesign. Use of pressure treated and naturally durable lum-ber has made these outdoor structures as permanent asthe house itself.Supporting joists, posts and decking lumber must beproperly grade marked and identified as naturally durableor pressure preservative treated wood by quality controlagencies approved by the model building codes or thedwelling codes.DesignDeck shape and size should be consistent with thegeneral lines of the house and should be positioned to func-tion as part of the total structure. Orientation for sunexposure and shade is particularly important in locationof the deck.EngineeringCantilevered and other special deck types should beproperly engineered. Forty pounds per square foot is aminimum design live load, considering the concentrationof people frequently supported by decks. The applicablecode will govern this requirement.The initial header joist for the deck is attached to aband or header joist of the house with through bolts or lagscrews, Figure 67. The level of the deck framing, includ-ing the 1½-inch decking thickness is determined so thatthe deck surface is at least one inch below that of the inte-rior floor surface. If deck height is significantly differentfrom that of the band or header joists of the house, thedeck header must be securely fastened to the wall studs.Joists are attached to the header by proper toe-nailing,preferably, by metal hangers to prevent splitting. Corro-sion resistant hangers and hot-dipped galvanized orstainless steel nails are required.Post lengths are determined after deck framing hasbeen supported on temporary 2x4 posts. For posts, pres-sure preservative treated for ground contact, footing holesare dug at required points. Concrete or gravel bases of 4-inch minimum thickness below the frost line are placedover compacted soil in the holes. From the concrete orgravel base required length of post to the deck level canbe determined.Footings for naturally durable wood posts extend 6inches above grade. Pre-cast concrete piers or concreteblock piers with imbedded ½-inch re-enforcing bar pinsor treated wood nailers are used to secure posts againstlateral movement, Figure 67.DeckingThe floor of the deck is normally 2x4-inch or 2x6-inch lumber. It is nailed with the end-grain showing the“bark-side-up.” Where pressure preservative treated lum-ber or unseasoned naturally durable lumber species areused, decking pieces can be nailed in contact or spaced nofarther apart than a nail diameter. Kiln dried decking canbe laid with a maximum spacing of ¼-inch.Decking nails must be good quality hot-dipped gal-vanized, aluminum or stainless steel. Two 16d nails aredriven at slight angles to each other at each joist position,Figure 67. Butt joints in 2x6 decking require three nails.RailingsRailing designs follow the style of the house. Rail-ings must be securely anchored to the deck, preferablyincluding an extension of the posts. Openings in the rail-ing are limited to six inches, or as the code requires.FinishesBoth pressure treated and naturally durable wood areresistant to decay and insects. However, a good water-repellent stain or paint finish will protect against checkingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  16. 16. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL14 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONand maintain the attractiveness of the deck. Applicationof a clear water repellent preservative immediately uponcompletion of the deck is recommended for both pressuretreated and naturally durable lumber.CONCLUSIONThe home is, for many families, the major investmentof a lifetime. While, in a mobile society, many familieswill have lived in several homes, each structure shouldserve as a prized possession, capable of providing com-fortable shelter for a succession of satisfied occupants.Basic house construction follows simple engineeringprinciples. In addition, the workmanship of the home,which involves carpentry and a number of other construc-tion trades, is in many ways a truly American art-form.This publication provides essential requirements for con-struction, and information to assist in the design,construction and inspection of wood structures of provendurability and performance.Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  17. 17. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION15WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Table I. Nominal and Minimum-Dressed Sizes of Boards, Dimension andTimbers.aThe thicknesses apply to all widths and all widths apply to all thicknesses. Sizes are given in inches and millimeters. Metric units are based on dressed size - seeAppendix B, PS 20-99 for rounding rule.Thicknesses Face WidthsMinimum Dressed Minimum DressedNom. DrybGreenbNom. DrybGreenbinch inch mm inch mm inch inch mm inch mm2 1-1/2 38 1-9/16 403 2-1/2 64 2-9/16 654 3-1/2 89 3-9/16 905 4-1/2 114 4-5/8 1173/4 5/8 16 11/16 17 6 5-1/2 140 5-5/8 1431 3/4 19 25/32 20 7 6-1/2 165 6-5/8 168Boards 1-1/4 1 25 1-1/32 26 8 7-1/4 184 7-1/2 1901-1/2 1-1/4 32 1-9/32 33 9 8-1/4 210 8-1/2 21610 9-1/4 235 9-1/2 24111 10-1/4 260 10-1/2 26712 11-1/4 286 11-1/2 29214 13-1/4 337 13-1/2 34316 15-1/4 387 15-1/2 3942 1-1/2 38 1-9/16 402-1/2 2 51 2-1/16 523 2-1/2 64 2-9/16 652 1-1/2 38 1-9/16 40 3-1/2 3 76 3-1/16 782-1/2 2 51 2-1/16 52 4 3-1/2 89 3-9/16 903 2-1/2 64 2-9/16 65 4-1/2 4 102 4-1/16 103Dimension 3-1/2 3 76 3-1/16 78 5 4-1/2 114 4-5/8 1174 3-1/2 89 3-9/16 90 6 5-1/2 140 5-5/8 1434-1/2 4 102 4-1/16 103 8 7-1/4 184 7-1/2 19010 9-1/4 235 9-1/2 24112 11-1/4 286 11-1/2 29214 13-1/4 337 13-1/2 34316 15-1/4 387 15-1/2 394Timbers 5 & ½ off 13 off 5 & ½ off 13 offthicker wideraBased on Voluntary Product Standard DOC PS 20-99, American Softwood Lumber Standard. U.S. Department of Commerce. September 1999.bSee sections 2.7 and 2.11, PS 20-99 for the definitions of dry and green lumber.Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  18. 18. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL16 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONShingle or Shake Maximum Weather ExposuresSingle-Coursing Double-CoursingLength and Type No. 1 No.2 No.1 No.21. 16-inch Shingles 7½” 7½” 12” 10”2. 18-inch Shingles 8½” 8½” 14” 11”3. 24-inch Shingles 11½” 11½” 16” 14”4. 18-inch Resawn Shakes 8½” — 14” —5. 18-inch Straight-Split Shakes 8½” — 16” —6. 24-inch Resawn Shakes 11½” — 20” —Table II. Wood Shingle and Shake Weather ExposuresTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  19. 19. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION17WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 1. Platform Frame ConstructionTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  20. 20. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL18 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 2. Balloon Frame ConstructionFigure 3. Methods of Loading NailsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  21. 21. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION19WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 4. Sizes of Common Wire NailsNote: Print to scale to ensure accurate measurements. Do NOT check “Fit to Page.”Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  22. 22. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL20 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 6a. Permanent Wood Foundation - Crawl spaceFigure 5. Masonry Foundation Wall and FootingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  23. 23. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION21WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 6b. Permanent Wood Foundation - BasementTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  25. 25. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION23WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 8. Pier Foundation andAnchorageFigure 9. Clearance Between Earthand Floor FramingFigure 10. Support for BasementPostTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  26. 26. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL24 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 11. Floor Framing at ExteriorWallFigure 12. Girder Framing in ExteriorWallFigure 13. Termite ShieldsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  27. 27. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION25WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 14. Anchorage of Sill toFoundation WallFigure 16. Joist End BearingFigure 15. Nailing Built-up Beams andGirdersTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  28. 28. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL26 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 17. Joist Supported on LedgerFigure 18. Joist Supported by MetalFraming AnchorsFigure 20. Joists Resting on SteelBeamFigure 19. Joists Resting on GirderTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  29. 29. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION27WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 21. Diagonal Bridging of Floor JoistsFigure 22. Solid Bridging of Floor JoistsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  30. 30. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL28 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 23. Framing of Tail Joists onLedger StripFigure 24. Framing of Tail Joists byFraming AnchorsFigure 26. Notching and Boring ofJoistsFigure 25. Framing of Header toTrimmer by Joist HangersTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  31. 31. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION29WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 27. Framing Over BearingPartition, PlatformConstructionFigure 28. Framing Over BearingPartition, BalloonConstructionTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  32. 32. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL30 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 29. Framing Under Non-Bearing PartitionFigure 30. Attachment of Non-Bearing Partition to Ceiling FramingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  33. 33. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION31WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 31. Interior Stairway FramingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  34. 34. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL32 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 32. Stairway With a LandingFigure 33. Framing SupportingBathtubTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  35. 35. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION33WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 34. Second Floor Framing,Exterior WallFigure 35. Second Floor Overhang ofExterior Wall, Joists atRight Angles toSupporting WallsFigure 36. Second Floor Overhang ofExterior Wall, JoistsParallel to SupportingWallsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  36. 36. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL34 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 37. Firestopping Around PipesFigure 38. Firestopping of Dropped CeilingsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  37. 37. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION35WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 39a. Firestopping of Masonry Walls - FloorFigure 39b. Firestopping of Masonry Walls - CeilingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  38. 38. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL36 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 40. Draftstopping of Trussed FloorsFigure 41. Multiple Studs at CornersFigure 42. Wall Framing atIntersecting PartitionsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  39. 39. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION37WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 43. Exterior Wall Openings,Header Details withCripple StudsFigure 44. Exterior Wall Openings,Header Details with JoistHangersTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  40. 40. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL38 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 45. Framing of Bay WindowFigure 46. Wall Framing at GableEndsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  41. 41. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION39WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 47a. Wall and Floor Framing at FireplaceFigure 47b. Hearth Centering DetailTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  42. 42. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL40 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 48a. Clearance of Fireplace TrimFigure 48b. Section Through MantleTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  43. 43. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION41WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 49. Building Paper and Siding ApplicationFigure 50. Application of Wood ShinglesTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  44. 44. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL42 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 51. Roof Framing Ceiling Joists Parallel to RaftersFigure 52. Roof Framing, CeilingJoists Perpendicular toRaftersTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  45. 45. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION43WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 53. Roof Framing Gable OverhangFigure 54. Flat Roof FramingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  46. 46. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL44 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 55. Valley Rafter RoofFramingFigure 56. Hip Rafter Roof FramingFigure 57. Roof Framing at EaveTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  47. 47. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION45WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 58. Shed Dormer Roof FramingTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  48. 48. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL46 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 59. Gable Dormer FramingFigure 60. Roof Framing AroundChimneyTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  49. 49. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION47WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 61. Roof Ventilation RequirementsFigure 62. Ventilating Eave OverhangsTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  50. 50. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL48 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 63. Wood Siding Patterns and NailingFigure 64. Corner Treatments for Wood Sidinga)b)c)d)Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  51. 51. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION49WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 65. Application of Masonry Veneer to Wood FramingFigure 66. Wood Strip FlooringTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  52. 52. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL50 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONFigure 67. Wood DeckTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  53. 53. AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION51WOOD CONSTRUCTION DATA 1Figure 68. Ceiling-Floor Partition SeparationTable of Contents List of Illustrations
  54. 54. AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL52 DETAILS FOR CONVENTIONAL WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTIONAPPENDIX1. Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings, American Forest & PaperAssociation, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.2. American Softwood Lumber Standard, PS 20-99; U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute ofStandards and Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.3. National Design Specificationâ for Wood Construction, American Forest & Paper Association, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.4. Span Tables for Joists and Rafters, American Forest & Paper Association, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite800, Washington, D.C. 20036.5. Plank and Beam Framing for Residential Buildings- Wood Construction Data No. 4, American Forest &Paper Association, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.6. Permanent Wood Foundation System-Basic Requirements, Technical Report No. 7, American Forest &Paper Association, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.7. Permanent Wood Foundation Design and Construction Guide, Southern Forest Products Association,P. O. Box 641700, Kenner, LA 70064.8. Design of Wood Structures for Permanence-Wood Construction Data No. 6, American Forest & PaperAssociation, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.9. Recommendations for Installing and Finishing Wood and Hardboard Siding Over Rigid FoamSheathing, American Forest & Paper Association, 1111 19thStreet, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, D.C.20036.10. U.S. Product Standard PS1-95 Construction and Industrial Plywood, APA-The Engineered WoodAssociation, P.O. Box 11700, Tacoma, Washington, 98411.11. Basic Hardboard ANSI/AHA Standard A135.4, American Hardboard Association, 1210 W. NorthwestHwy, Palatine, IL 60067.12. Research Report 82-2:Ceiling-Floor Partition Separation in Light Frame Construction, Truss PlateInstitute, 583 D’Onofrio Dr., Madison, WI 53719.13. Partition Separation Prevention and Solutions, Wood Truss Council of America, 6300 Enterprise Lane,Madison, WI 53719Table of Contents List of Illustrations
  55. 55. American Forest & Paper AssociationAmerican Wood Council1111 19th Street, NWSuite 800Washington, DC 20036Phone: 202-463-4713Fax: 202-463-2791email: awcinfo@afandpa.orgweb: http://www.awc.org