Sleeping with Cognitive
Capitalism
Digital Health Digital Capitalism Conference, Leeds Beckett University
4th of July
Chri...
Overview
• Personal Informatics A User Perspective
• The Concept of Data Doubles, Digital Personae – Mirror of Life
• Pers...
Personal Informatics
In the Guardian 2nd June 2016
‘How a good night’s sleep became the ultimate status symbol’
Then there...
Personal Informatics User Perspective
• Demographic: highly educated group of people.
• Rather younger population 20-30 (N...
The User and Behavior indications
• Just wearing the device is creating awareness
• The data is creating awareness
• It he...
The User and Data
Long Term Trackers
In depth interviews, Laddering Method (Reynolds, Gutman, 1988)– work in progress, De ...
User Design Typology
User Design Lens
De Maeyer – Dr. Prof. Markopoulous Work and research in progress 2016
Beginner
Perio...
Lupton’s typology of self-tracking
Sociological Lens
Private
• Private use
Communal
• Sharing either in application
enviro...
Mirror of life in exposure
• Data doubles (Haggerty, 2000)
• Detached no empathy – no context
Workplace Optimizing
product...
Digital Economy/Capital Corporate Gain
• Zeo Inc. Sleep tracking – Out of Business (Data lost – unless backed up)
• Body M...
Future: Identity incorporated?
We are all data slaves - I Incorporated my identity – JLM is her own data broker.
http://je...
Future Design Aspects according
User Design typology
Sociological
•Value-Sensitive Design (VSD), ‘accounts for human value...
Future Design Aspects according
User Design typology
Behavior Design
• Analyze the different Behavior Models Theory and ap...
References
• Baudrillard J. (1988), Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster (Stanford; Stanford University Press, 1988), pp.166...
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Sleeping with Cognitive Capital

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Sleeping with Cognitive Capital

  1. 1. Sleeping with Cognitive Capitalism Digital Health Digital Capitalism Conference, Leeds Beckett University 4th of July Christel De Maeyer, christel.demaeyer@arteveldehs.be, C.A.A.d.Maeyer@tue.nl TU/e PhD candidate, User Centred Engineering Group, Department Industrial Design Eindhoven, Netherlands Researcher and Lector at Artevelde University College Ghent, Belgium
  2. 2. Overview • Personal Informatics A User Perspective • The Concept of Data Doubles, Digital Personae – Mirror of Life • Personal Informatics Classification or Typology (Lupton) • The tension between the digital self – digital economy– digital governance • Suggestions for future design aspects • Conclusion
  3. 3. Personal Informatics In the Guardian 2nd June 2016 ‘How a good night’s sleep became the ultimate status symbol’ Then there’s the rise of the quantified self through wearable technology. Our bodies have become input/output devices that we monitor and optimize for greater efficiency, and sleep has become another data set to be tracked and hacked. What Huffington emphasizes about sleep, after all, is not that it rests you but that it restores you. Sleep, she says, is the ultimate performance enhancer.
  4. 4. Personal Informatics User Perspective • Demographic: highly educated group of people. • Rather younger population 20-30 (N44), 30-40 (N21), 40-50(N7),50-60(N7), +60 (N1) • Temporary or periodic use (time, technology fail, bored, goal achieved, etc …) • Reasons why? • Out of Curiosity, Leisure, Health • Which technology? • Mobile apps, Wearable tech, Smartwatches (Passive-Active tracking concept) • Sort of tracking? • Steps, Exercise (age 40-50 more), Heart Rate and Sleep Survey January – April 2016
  5. 5. The User and Behavior indications • Just wearing the device is creating awareness • The data is creating awareness • It helps to create new habits and maintaining them. • There seems to be a significant positive lineair relationship between age (surveyed in categories) and the conviction that tracking helps in creating habits [r(57)=.67; p<.000], the older the more it helps to create habits. • We can see that women feel more controlled [M=m3.17, F=m3.63], stressed [M=m2.06, F=m2.58] and motivated [M=m3.80, F=m4.04] by the device than man, but only concerning stress, this difference almost attained marginal significance, F(1,57) = 4; p = 0.03 • As confirmed in other literature the tracking activity declines after 6 months of tracking. Survey January – April 2016
  6. 6. The User and Data Long Term Trackers In depth interviews, Laddering Method (Reynolds, Gutman, 1988)– work in progress, De Maeyer, Markoupolos, 2016 Jean Baudrillard, Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster (Stanford; Stanford University Press, 1988), pp.166-184 Attributes • Mobile apps on smartphone -always with me, is just tracking things • Smart watch or wearable device. - Always on me, never forget, is just tracking things • Concept of active and passive tracking Consequences • Convenience • Periodic and continues tracking • Goal oriented - competition • Data lovers - analysers • Data dependency - First and second information - Aggregation • Sharing within app, not on Social Media • No community feeling but group feeling (Strava or other) Values • Towards a better lifestyle -Consciousness in lifestyle • Habits and routine creation - Habit - automation - Routines - planned and thoughtful, conscious • Tracking gives confirmation • Official status - if I didn't measure it I didn't do it1. • Track record - evolution - motivation • Digital buddy • Ingrained in daily live, a norm
  7. 7. User Design Typology User Design Lens De Maeyer – Dr. Prof. Markopoulous Work and research in progress 2016 Beginner Periodic Need Explorer Avid By choice or prescribed
  8. 8. Lupton’s typology of self-tracking Sociological Lens Private • Private use Communal • Sharing either in application environment or on social media • Family, friends, care givers Pushed • Advised by others Imposed • Forced upon people Exploited • Repurposed for others Pushed Imposed Exploited AIM Surveillance and control Self-surveillance
  9. 9. Mirror of life in exposure • Data doubles (Haggerty, 2000) • Detached no empathy – no context Workplace Optimizing productivity Incentive for health insurance (US) Health Neo-liberal model towards self-care Pro-active - prevention society Role Models? Who defines? Insurance Risk Assessment Personalized Insurance? Government Policy Surveillance Social Sorting Reform Reflecting on Lupton’s typology, more specific on pushed, imposed and exploited modes of self-tracking.
  10. 10. Digital Economy/Capital Corporate Gain • Zeo Inc. Sleep tracking – Out of Business (Data lost – unless backed up) • Body Media Inc. – acquired by Jawbone Inc. (Data lost – unless backed up) • Moves – acquired by Facebook • Runkeeper – acquired by ACICS (no mail yet of changes) Privacy disclaimer of Runkeeper an extract Business Transfers: As we develop our business, we might sell or buy businesses or assets. In the event of a sale, merger, reorganization, dissolution or similar event relating to all or a portion of our business or assets, Personal Data or other information may be part of the transferred assets. • Withings – acquired by Nokia • LinkedIn acquired by Microsoft (backup on request) What about the data? • Companies get acquired for the data, not necessarily for the technology. ‘An analyst for Forrester Research, said sports-apparel companies are hungry to access data about what consumers are doing in their day-to- day lives, in hopes that they might be able to use that information to bolster their marketing efforts’
  11. 11. Future: Identity incorporated? We are all data slaves - I Incorporated my identity – JLM is her own data broker. http://jenniferlynmorone.com Morone’s corporate status means that, in her words, ‘any data that I create That is linked to my name, IP address and appearance is copyrighted or trademarked and therefore subject to litigation if used without permission… So any photo I take, any email I write, any call, text, web search, cctv footage of me that is stored one someon else’s, Company’s or goverment’s server does not have the right to be there or to be used, sold, leased or traded. Harcourt (2015), Exposed, p. 264
  12. 12. Future Design Aspects according User Design typology Sociological •Value-Sensitive Design (VSD), ‘accounts for human values in the design process (focus on a broad widely held- human values such as well-being, welfare and human rights) a three step design process that examines conceptual, empirical and technical issues’ Cummings, Science and Engineering Ethics (2006) 12 , 701-715 •Twelve specific human values to have ethical import that should be considered in the design process: human welfare, ownership and property of, privacy, freedom of bias, universal usability, trust, autonomy, informed consent, accountability, calmness, identity, and environmental sustainability. Cummings, Science and Engineering Ethics (2006) 12 , 701-715 •Barriers in use: •Example of imposed use of personal informatics devices in the workplace. •Example of insurance companies giving Personal Informatics device as incentive, but at the same time exploiting the data for risk management and personalized insurances. •Aggregation of data, Interoperability between platforms (data silos), everywhere are bits of data.
  13. 13. Future Design Aspects according User Design typology Behavior Design • Analyze the different Behavior Models Theory and apply Positive Design • How design can mediate, facilitate and foster user- wellbeing
  14. 14. References • Baudrillard J. (1988), Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster (Stanford; Stanford University Press, 1988), pp.166-184 • Cummings M. (2006), Integrating Ethics in Design through the Value-Sensitive Design Approach, Science and Engineering Ethics (2006) 12 , 701-715 • Desmet P. et al, (2015), Positive Design User Reference Guide, TUDelft • Fogg, BJ, http://www.bjfogg.com • Haggerty K., Ericson R. (2000), Surveillant assemblage, British Journal of Sociology Vol. No. 51 Issue No. 4 (December 2000) pp. 605–622 • Harcourt B. (2015), Exposed, Desire and Disobedience in the Digital Age, Harvard University Press • Li, Ian, (2010), https://ianli.com • http://jenniferlynmorone.com • Lupton D. (2014), Self-tracking Cultures: Towards a Sociology of Personal Informatics, CHI '14 , December 02 - 05 2014, Sydney, NSW, Australia • Rushkoff D., 2016, Throwing Rocks at The Google Bus, Penguin Random House LLC

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