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FINAL THESIS The Use of Social Network sites - CHRISLIE JOY AMABAO

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FINAL THESIS The Use of Social Network sites - CHRISLIE JOY AMABAO

  1. 1. 1 The Use of Social Network sites among Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences Education University of Mindanao Davao City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject Comm.22 (Introduction to Communication Research) By CHRISLILE JOY D. AMABAO March 2011
  2. 2. 2 Acknowledgement The researcher would like to extend their sincere gratitude to the following persons who made this study possible. To my parents who provided financial support and resolute guidance which served as a stronghold to finish this study; Prof. Khristine Marie D. Concepcion, my thesis adviser, for her help and guidance in order to finish the study, for giving me assistance that motivated me to work and finish the study; To the members of the panel, validators and the respondents, for making themselves available to be part of this study; To their friends and classmates who is always there to support them; and lastly to the Heavenly Father for the gift of wisdom, knowledge and understanding, and for giving them strength and good health for doing the study. CJ.D.A
  3. 3. 3 Abstract “The Use of Social Network sites among Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao” By Chrislie Joy D. Amabao The researcher conducted this study “The Use of Social Network sites among Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao” is anchored with Joseph Walther the approach of Social Information Processing Theory referred as "Cues Filtered In”. This is a theoretical model to constructs people being capable of adopting and interpreting alternate methods to form impressions of others in the absence of cues present in (f2f) face-to-face interactions. The study is intended to investigate the use of social networking sites to the respondents and the reason why they visits the sites, and to know the benefits and disadvantage of using social networking sites, and to present findings potentially usable to the basis for future studies. The existing knowledge in the study is descriptive–survey method with a purposive sampling and administered a survey questionnaire to the students of the University of Mindanao as respondents. Data were analyzed and interpreted by means of statistician. The responses out of 69 respondents are as follows; the respondents want to use social networking sites is to find news friends and be updated on the current issue and events happened in our society. Lastly, they can invite friends anywhere in the world. Moreover respondents are afraid to get negative feedbacks of any of their friends in a particular networking site because they are afraid that many people can view it and somehow it can be one of the reasons why people will bully them. Thus Social Networking Sites is highly influential for the user for gaining information and building interaction towards other that can positively change their attitudes and behavior.
  4. 4. 4 Table of Contents Preliminaries Title Page i Acceptance and Approval ii Acknowledgement iii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Abstract ix Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 5 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 6 Significance of the Study 8 Definition of Terms 9
  5. 5. 5 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The Benefits of Social Network S 10 Social Networking Sites 13 Sending Messages 14 Encoding Messages 15 Decoding Messages 15 Feedback 17 Chapter 3 METHOD Research Design 18 Research Respondents 19 Research Instruments 19 Research Data Gathering Procedure 19 Statistical Treatment of Data 19 Chapter 4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Frequency of Social Networking Sites visited 20 by the Respondents
  6. 6. 6 The benefits of using social networking sites 22 The disadvantages of social network sites 24 Reason why students visit these networking sites 26 Analysis 27 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Summary of Finding 28 Conclusions 29 Recommendations 29 References 32 LIST OF TABLES No. Title Page 1. Frequency of Social Networking Sites 21 Visited by the Respondents 2. The benefits of using social networking sites 23 3. The disadvantages of social network sites 25 LIST OF FIGURE No. Title Page 1. The Conceptual Framework of the Study 7
  7. 7. 7 Chapter 1 The Problem and its Settings Background of the study Social media continues to evolve. Today there are number of sites where users can interact with each other and share information .The influence of social networks on human mentality is unquestionable today. One thing has been established by all of them. Social network sites may affect people's minds in different ways depending on what kind of information is shown to them. Thirty-two percent of online teens have experienced some form of harassment via the Internet, a problem also known as "cyberbullying." According to recent data, 15% of online teens have had private material forwarded without permission, 13% have received threatening messages and 6% have had embarrassing photos posted without permission. In light of the recent discussions surrounding social network and privacy issues, it's important to note that social network new push towards becoming a more open, public network won't just have an effect on an adult population concerned with worries of "friending" bosses and colleagues or adjusting the privacy settings on their children's photos - it will affect the children themselves, as well as teens and young adults, all of which combined make up over a quarter of the social network's user base. (Sarah Perez, 2010). Moral panic is a common reaction to new forms of communication. The advent of television spawned fears of mass idolization. Similarly, in the early 90s, critics held the diffusion of Internet as evidence of individuals' increasing alienation from society and public life. The story with social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook and MySpace is not any different. Unsafe disclosure of
  8. 8. 8 information, cyberbullying, addiction, risky behavior and contacting dangerous communities are but a few of the concerns raised in the media about the use of online social networks (Brenda Brathwaite, 2008). The benefits of social interactions seem endless with the advancements of communications online. “With the complexity of information available on the internet, new possibilities for people to communicate on global networks, and for the ability to aggregate different information streams” (Kop & Hill, 2008). The improvement in communications increases social learning; it’s only a matter of how to implement these communications. Social networking sites have been proven to be perfect platforms of communications. Thousands of people join social media networking sites to keep in touch with their long lost friends or family members living abroad. These people are in need of various products and services, thus you as an online person can take advantage to communicate and connect to others. (Stephen Kavita 2009) Proper communications is one thing need to consider in building relationships. You can spend countless hours on social media websites and still fail to generate good connection to others. It is not about the number of people you are linked with that really matter, but the content quality you share. Before anything else, work on gaining trust by introducing yourself and your hobbies. This helps in breaking the ice. Get to learn what other people are involved in and show some kind of interest. (Stephen 2009). Globally, according to Computer Industry Almanac about 80% of the world's estimated 1.2 billion Internet users are outside the USA. Social-networking sites aren't just slugging it out for
  9. 9. 9 customers in the USA. They're expanding aggressively overseas, where a vast majority of Internet users live. Most are targeting Asia and Europe, both of which have more users of social networks than the USA, and are growing at faster rates, according to data from market researcher (ComScore Media Metrix, 2007). Social networking sites were created to allow individuals to communicate with others who share similar interests/activities, or information or friends. Most social network services are web based and provide a variety of ways for users to interact, such as e-mail and instant messaging services. Social network visits increased 82% year-over-year and the average time spent per person at such sites increased by 67% year-over-year in (Ocean Web, 2009) AdsGoogle. The one of the first social networking site was classmates.com which was established in 1995. It introduced the concept of user profiles and of short messages sent and received by friends on the website. The basic “purpose” was to keep in touch with old friends. Sixdegrees.com came in 1997 and is considered to be the first social networking website to have all features in one complete package. (Kaiz 2009 ). In the Philippines, Facebook is hands-down the most popular and most effective social networking media, says (Mattel Soliven 2001), adding that it uses a “persuasive strategy” since it can persuade people to participate and interact. Facebook was also recently named as the top website in the Philippines on Alexa Website, growing over 1,000 percent from January to September 10 last year, in terms of Web traffic, or the amount of visitors and visits a website gets.
  10. 10. 10 Social networkers in the Philippines also showed the highest level of engagement on social networking sites averaging 5.5 hours per visitor in February, with visitors frequenting the social networking category an average of 26 times during the month. According to Alexa Website Facebook is not just the #1 social network, it is now listed as the #1 website in the Philippines, period. Based on the rankings, the “calculated using a combination of average daily visitors and page views over the past month. The site with the highest combination of visitors and pageviews is ranked #1.” Data released by Facebook in September 2009, show the Philippines ranked at #13 in terms of Facebook users, with 4,832,040 registered users. In Asia, it is second only to Indonesia, which registered 8,786,920 users. But the growth period from January to September 2009 shows Pinoy Facebook population growing at a whopping 1136.76%. That is the second highest rate in the world, second only to Taiwan. According to ComScore, Inc. (NASDAQ: SCOR), a leader in measuring the digital world, today released its latest report on social networking activity in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding China) based on data from its World Metrix service. The study found that 50.8 percent of the total online population in the Asia-Pacific region visited a social networking site in February 2010, reaching a total of 240.3 million visitors. Facebook.com ranked as the top social network across the majority of individual markets in the region, while competing brands commanded the top position in certain markets, including Orkut in India, Mixi.jp in Japan, CyWorld in South Korea and Wretch.cc in Taiwan. In February 2010, Internet users in the Asia-Pacific region averaged 2.5 hours on social networking sites during the month and visited the category an average of 15 times. Across markets, the Philippines showed the highest penetration of social networking usage with more than 90 percent of its
  11. 11. 11 entire Web population visiting a social networking site during the month, followed by Australia (89.6 percent penetration) and Indonesia (88.6 percent penetration). Social networkers in the Philippines also showed the highest level of engagement on social networking sites averaging 5.5 hours per visitor in February, with visitors frequenting the social networking category an average of 26 times during the month. Strong engagement was also exhibited by Internet users in Indonesia (5.4 hours per visitor and 22 visits per visitor),Australia(3.8 hours per visitor and 20 visits per visitor) and Malaysia (nearly 3.8 hours per visitor and 22 visits per visitor).(Sarah Radwanick, 2010). This study has been chosen by the researcher to find out the use of social networking sites and how it affects the communication aspect of every individual. Through this study we were able to know the reason why they use social network sites as a way of communication and building relationship with the other person, and also the researcher would like to present the possible problem that a user might encounter using social networking sites. Nevertheless, the researchers would like to get data from various students of the University of Mindanao in order to assess the use of social networking sites.
  12. 12. 12 Statement of the Problem This study attempts to find out the benefits of Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao in using Social Networking Sites. Specifically, it seeks to investigate the following: 1. What are the social networking sites that students visit? 2. What are the benefits of using social networking sites among the students in terms of: 2. 1. Sending Messages 2. 2 Encoding Messages 2. 3 Decoding Messages 2. 4 Giving Feedback 3. What are the disadvantages of social network sites in terms of?
  13. 13. 13 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The theoretical framework of this study is based on the Social Information Processing Theory of Joseph Walther, often referred to as "Cues Filtered In," proposes that despite the lack of nonverbal communication inherent in online interactions, people formulate ways to give off and interpret individuating information. Instead, people seek out and interpret cues that serve as substitutes of nonverbal communication, such as use of emoticons and time stamps. We know from various studies conducted face-to-face (f2f) that people, by their very nature, are motivated in interactions with others to "reduce interpersonal uncertainty, form impressions, and develop affinity (535)."This is found in online interactions as well. SIP theory thus constructs people as beings capable of adopting and interpreting alternate methods to form impressions of others in the absence of cues present in f2f interactions. Instead of passively allowing the internet to influence and shape people’s communication behaviors, people use the internet and the clues it provides to interpret and form impressions of others. People are thus capable of taking a low-bandwidth media and using the limited cues it provides us with to construct perceptions of others. Solely on the linguistic content of computer-mediated communication (CMC), parties who meet online can develop relationships just as close as those formed face-to-face—though it takes longer. Because online senders select, receivers magnify, channels promote, and feedback enhances favorable impressions, CMC may create hyper personal relationships. (Socio-psychological tradition) Moreover, Granovetter 1973 outlined that the potential useful connections may be valuable sources of new information and resources. Additionally, the ability to stay in touch with these networks may offset feelings of "friend sickness," the distress caused by the loss of old friends. Finally, social network site intensity predicted increased levels of maintained social capital, which assessed the extent to which participants could rely on high school acquaintances to do small
  14. 14. 14 favors. For college students, many of whom have moved away for the first time, the ability to stay in touch with these high school acquaintances may illustrate most clearly the "strength of weak ties" (Putnam 2000). Conceptual Framework The conceptual frameworks of this study show the variable through a schematic diagram in Figure 1. The independent variable is the social networking sites while the dependent variables are the sending messages, encoding messages, decoding messages and giving feedback. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework of the Variables of the Study. Social Networking Sites The use of Social Network sites among Mass Comm. Students in UM. Sending Messages Encoding Messages Decoding Messages Giving Feedback
  15. 15. 15 Significance of the Study The result of this research will make ample information available for the whole university especially to the students. This study is deemed significant to the following. Internet users. This study would help users to realize the perception most of them have about the proper usage of internet and how it becomes an essential work tool for millions of people who have adopted the internet concept for communications. UM Administration. The result of the study will help them to come up with idea that engaging the students in virtual community will help them understand the purpose of proper use of social network site such in educational way. Mass Communication Students. The study’s results will make use to the current status of media world today specially in the Philippines.
  16. 16. 16 Definition of Terms Social Networking Site. Conceptually defined as web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. (Social Network 2007). A connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "latent ties" (Haythornthwaite, 2005). In this study it refers to the usage of virtual communication that allows individual to connect and participate in online conversations. Use. Conceptually refer as a legal enjoyment of property that consists in its employment, occupation, exercise, or practice. Mass Communication. Conceptually defined as the practice and product of providing information and leisure entertainment to large, often unknown, and increasingly fragmenting audiences, from all social strata and demographics groups but who are homogeneous in their behavior in choosing to attend in to information source (O’ Sullivan, 1983) In this study, it refers to a degree in arts dealing with educators and students especially 3rd year and 4th year being offered in the University of Mindanao.
  17. 17. 17 Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature The following related literature and studies are cited in relation to the researcher’s attempt to discuss the benefits and disadvantages of using Social Networking sites among Mass Communication students. The Benefits of Social Network Sites Social Capital Theory explained the beneficial properties of SNSs (Ellison, 2007, Hu & Kettinger, 2008 Steinfield, 2008). Indeed, SCT can be used to make sense of observed usage patterns on SNSs. The term Social Capital is defined differently in its various fields of application. The mutual basis in all definitions is that Social Capital describes the value of social relationships for actors in reaching certain goals (Coleman, 1988; Lin, 2001; Riemer, 2005). Individuals depend on Social Capital embodied in the relations and social networks they are involved in, as the basis of social interactions with other individuals as well as for accessing resources not otherwise accessible without cooperation. Social Capital therefore complements the Human Capital embodied in a social network (Riemer, 2005). This social network is the result of individual as well as collective investments in the social relations (Bourdieu, 1983). These can be conscious, dedicated investments but especially for creating close bonding with other individuals (rich-type Social Capital) unconscious investments, in terms of genuine interest and multiple social encounters, are necessary (Riemer, 2005). Students using social networking Web sites are practicing the 21st century skills needed to be successful in today's society. Students are improving their communication through social networks sites
  18. 18. 18 a skill that could be essential for a successful career. The study involved teenagers aged 16 to 18, of many different economic backgrounds and from urban high schools in the Midwest. (University of Minnesota's Christine Greenhow August 2008). Previous research suggests that social networks users engage in "searching" for people with whom they have an offline connection more than they "browse" for complete strangers to meet (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield, 2006). As a support of the theory study shows that Social Network Sites plays a unique role that allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "latent ties" (Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline connection. On many of the large SNSs, participants are not necessarily "networking" or looking to meet new people; instead, they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network. To emphasize this articulated social network as a critical organizing feature of these sites, we label them "social network sites." As a support of the study according to Joint Advanced Integrated Networking (JARING), the main Internet Service Provider (ISP) launched by MIMOS in 1990, says that 90 percent the internet user in other parts of the world, are young people below the age of 30. The majority are college students or schoolgoing users (Chen in Rahmah & Arfah, 1996). Education, affordability and the need of infotainment are factors identified as influencing the use of internet in the Klang Valley (Goh, Lee & Pang in Rahmah & Arfah, 1997). In relation to the study here is sociological social psychology, which looks at the social behavior of humans in terms of associations and relationships that they have. This type leans toward sociology.
  19. 19. 19 One offshoot of this perspective is the Personality and Social Structure Perspective, which emphasizes the links between individual personality and identity, and how it relates to social structures. (Michener H. Andrew 2004) Social Psychology. Wadsworth: Toronto. The individuals generating the content for Web 2.0 sites, experience three phases: the motivation phase, the analysis and choice phase, and lastly, the production phase. During this key production phase, time allows for unique stimuli to impact the individual, allowing for a "use evolution" of their content to take place. The importance for understanding this phase paradigm, comes in allowing for better control over the current shift in web use. "The Internet is the most participatory form of mass speech yet developed." (Justice Stewart Dalzell 2003) (Heejung S.and Aimee Drolet 2003). Choice and Self-Expression: A Cultural Analysis of Variety-Seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85. In the Book of Michael Tomasello’s “Origins of Human Communication” it provides a useful and graphic evolutionary theory of the development of human communication, and can thus enlighten some aspects relevant and useful for the here present research subject. In his explanation of the evolution of human communication, he is also pointing to the incentives and dynamics of human society formation. In this manner let us look at some of the main ideas and findings that will be applicable later when analyzing and interpreting communication in web based social communities, as it will be clear further on, Tomasello’s emphasis in the communication act as intentional communication is very useful for explaining interactivity of new media. It is not news that personal relationships are forming online as well as offline. Personal relationships can also be maintained online, such that senders and receivers do not have to look at each other face-to-face. According to researchers, (Bargh, McKenna, & Fitzsimons, 2002; McKenna, Green,
  20. 20. 20 & Gleason, 2002; Wellman & Gulia, 1999), frequency of contact is what is crucial in the formulation of online relationships. Physical proximity is not possible. According to Walther (1996), computer- mediated communication facilitated the formation of “hyperpersonal” relationships – greater feelings of intimacy than would have otherwise been experienced in face-to-face relationships. Due to the growth of new social software applications such as Instant Messaging, Blogs, Wikis, and a variety of social network services, today people connect and interact through computer-mediated communication (Gennaro & Dutton, 2007), of which Facebook and MySpace are most popular. The main motive for Facebook use in studies by Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe (2007) and Sheldon. Social influence and persuasion are among the most basic and important functions of communication. Faculty and students interested in social influence and persuasion that concerned with how, when and why individuals, groups or organizations use various types of communication to influence the beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of other individuals, groups or organizations. It recognized that social influence and persuasion can occur at many levels, from influence between individuals to influence at the national or international level. (Natalie Bazarova, Sahara Byrne) Cornell University. Social Networking Sites Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Friendster, CyWorld, and MySpace allow individuals to present themselves, articulate their social networks, and establish or maintain connections with others. These sites can be oriented towards work-related contexts romantic relationship initiation, connecting those with shared interests such as music or politics, or the college student population (the original incarnation of Facebook.com). The online social network application analyzed in this article, Face book, enables its users to present themselves in an online profile,
  21. 21. 21 accumulate "friends" who can post comments on each other's pages, and view each other's profiles. (Social Networks 2007) One interesting aspect of SNSs is that they support relatively public conversations between friends and acquaintances. SNS profiles are known as venues for identity expression of members (boyd, 2008; boyd & Heer, 2006; Walther, Van der Heide, Kim, Westerman, & Tong, 2008), and since public comments appear in these profiles, they also may be composed or interpreted as identity expression rather than performing a pure communicative function. From a social sciences perspective, the public conversations are interesting because the Web now contains millions of informal public messages that researchers can access and analyze. Sending Messages Nonverbal Communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Like language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact. NVC can be communicated through object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, symbols and the new way of sending message like virtual communication . Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Dance is also regarded as a nonverbal communication. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the
  22. 22. 22 communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction. Another study according to Dorothy M. Neddermeyer, PhD, 2006 Communication is a more complicated medium than we perceive it to be. Whether listening, reading, speaking, or writing, we have selective listening (reception) and selective speaking (transmission) processes operating at all times. As you read this article, you are selectively hearing my message and I am selectively sending it based on past experience, needs values, images and the language I use. These can all become barriers to effective communication it also said that communication is 100% responsibility for both the listener and speaker. Encoding Messages The computer-aided detection, analysis, and application of emotion, particularly in text, has been a growth area in recent years (Pang & Lee, 2008). Almost all of this research has focused on detecting opinions in large bodies of text. For example, a program might scan a large number of customer comments or reviews of a manufacturer's products and report which aspects of which products tended to receive positive and negative feedback According to Lewit et. al (2001), there are many reasons why a people communicates. Among them are to motivate, inform, control and fulfill social needs. Communication in the form of motivation is aimed at encouraging employees and must be designed so that it is able to influence employees to achieve organizational goals. Communication in the form of information provides facts and data to be used in making decisions towards achieving the objectives that have been set This article begins the process of moving from opinion mining to emotion detection by using a case study of MySpace comments to demonstrate that it is possible to extract emotion-bearing comments on a large scale, to gain preliminary results about the social role of emotion, and to identify
  23. 23. 23 key problems for the task of identifying emotion in informal textual communications online. Hence, although the study is preliminary and exploratory, it is designed to report useful information for future emotion-detection research and for those interested in social network communication. Large-scale data collection and analysis from social network sites already has been used for social science research goals (Kleinberg, 2008), but not yet in combination with emotion detection. Decoding Messages Decoding is the process where the receiver translates the message received into a form that can be understood and brings meaning to the receiver. Communication is a process where the exchange of information takes place between two or more people. Therefore, there are the information sender and information receiver to deliver a particular message either in the form of viewpoints, ideas, news, reports or problems. The elements of communication process are as follows: (Hill, C. W. L., 2000). The study found even the students in the lower class use such social networks sites to build connections and form relationships with people all over the world, according to a (2005 Pew Research Center) study linked to the study. Seventy-seven percent of students studied had social networking profiles on sites. According to the study, these social networks are a large part of why low-income students are becoming just as "technologically proficient" as their peers. According to Rue et. al. (2000), a study found that 50 to 90 percent of the time of a manager is used to communicate. Unfortunately, according to another study, almost 70 percent of business communications failed to achieve the objectives desired. According to another study, lower managers spend 57 percent of their time communicating while for middle managers it is 63 percent, and for upper
  24. 24. 24 managers it is 78 percent. This percentage of time shows how much time managers spend to communicate with others. Communication is a dynamic and complicated process which involves many factors that affect its effectiveness. Dynamic process means that the process of communication is not in a static or fixed condition. Meanwhile, complicated process means that even though it is a simple interaction involving two people, it involves numerous variables such as individual, environment, experience of both parties, and work conditions that determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the process. Communication is the process of transferring information and knowledge from one individual or party to another person or party using meaningful symbols. It is a method of exchanging and sharing of ideas, attitudes, values, opinions and information Feedback It refers to the reaction of the receiver towards the message received from the sender. It is a process of returning the message to the sender that depicts the level of understanding of the receiver towards the particular message. Providing feedback is the best way of showing that a particular message has been received and whether the message has been understood or otherwise. (George, J. M., 1997). Self Determination Theory suggests that the key environmental conditions to support competence satisfaction are “optimal challenge, clear and helpful structure, and high failure tolerance from others” coupled with positive feedback and a perception of progress (Reeve, 2009 p.156). The process of friending seems to offer many users an opportunity to satisfy the need for competence. The
  25. 25. 25 highly structured process provides users a challenge, along with positive feedback, through friendship acceptance. Supported by the study that the process of communication begins with a sender who wishes to deliver a particular message and this process is complete when the receiver of the message gives out feedback whether the message received is understood or otherwise. (Jones, G. R, 1983). As a whole, the gathered studies and theories presented in this chapter present the foundation of information concerning the variables. As a researcher I gained more knowledge on the usage of social networking sites and how I should be properly be used.
  26. 26. 26 Chapter 3 METHODS This chapter presents the research design used in the study and the data of the targeted research respondents. Included further are the research instrument used and the data gathering procedure. Research Design This study used the descriptive–survey method, which is suitable whenever the subjects vary themselves and interested to know the extents to which different conditions and situations are obtained among these subjects. Survey research involved the use of questionnaires or statistical surveys to gather data about one or more groups of people perhaps about their thoughts, attitudes, or previous experiences, by asking questions and tabulating their answers. The main goal is to collect data in order to test hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study (Gay 1976). Qualitative research design was also used in this study; Qualitative research is a generic form of investigative methodologies described as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field, or participant observer research. Field research is often used interchangeably with qualitative research to describe systematic observations of social behavior with no preconceived hypotheses to be tested (Rubin & Babbie, 1993). The Written approach was use in this study to found out the views that the respondents’. The researcher used this to determine the use of social network sites. These method were use to gather data on The Use of Social Networking Sites among Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao.
  27. 27. 27 Research Respondents The research respondents of this study are the UM 3rd year and 4th year mass comm. students. There were 69 respondents taken following the Central Limit Theorem n ≥ 69. Research Instrument The research instrument in this study was a ‘researcher-made’ questionnaire. It was used to determine The Use of Social Network sites. The questionnaire has two parts. The first part was consists of one question about the common SNS students visits. The second part a written interview guide consists of one question to know the reason why students visit the social networking sites. Lastly the third part which consists of 8 questions to know the benefits and disadvantages of using social networking sites. Research Procedure The following steps were followed during the conduct of this research: 1. Asking permission to conduct the study. The researcher presented to the panel the proposed study and was later approved for data gathering. 2. Construction and Validation of Research Instrument. The researcher had their questionnaire validated by experts. The selected validators were Dr. Mary Ann Tarusan, Prof. Dinah Hernandez and Prof. Josyl Hey Aquilam. The research instruments and evaluation form were submitted to the panel of validators. Statistical Treatment of the Data The following statistical tools were used in the study: Frequency. This was used to determine the measurement of the number of times that a repeated event occurs per unit time Percentage. This was used to determine the percentage of the survey on the use of social networking sites among the students
  28. 28. 28 Chapter 4 Presentation and Analysis of Findings Presented in this chapter are presentation and interpretation of the data gathered from the research instruments used in this study. The data gathered in this investigation are arranged based on the presentation of the statement of the problem and the conceptual and theoretical framework. The researcher sought to analyze the use of social networking sites among mass communication students of the University of Mindanao. Using the researcher-made questionnaire, the use of social networking sites among mass communication students of the University of Mindanao was arrived at based on the statistical tools used. Frequency of Social Networking Sites visited by the Respondents Shown in table 1 is the frequency of the social networking sites from the respondents. All of our respondents visited Facebook 100.00% recently named as the top website in the Philippines. Next is the Friendster with 49.28 % same features with Facebook where in you can post pictures, send messages and etc. Next is Twitter known networking sites for those people who want to get some information about the issues of the different artists in the Philippines whether it’s national or local with a total of 43.48 % and last is the Myspace with 17.39 percent?
  29. 29. 29 Table 1 Frequency of Social Networking Sites visited by the Respondents Social Networking Sites Frequency Percentage (%) Facebook 69 100.00 Friendster 34 49.28 Twitter 30 43.48 MySpace 12 17.39
  30. 30. 30 The benefits of using social networking sites Shown in table 2 are highest percentage of the benefits and reasons of the respondents of the benefits of the social networking sites. Sending message with the use of networking sites is consider as the most effective form of non verbal communication nowadays. Written texts have nonverbal elements such as style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of. With that out of 69 respondents sending messages got the highest percentage getting 56 out of 69 respondents with a total average of 81.16 %. This means that this is one of the reasons why people used networking sites so that they can easily transfer their messages anywhere in anytime. Next is encoding messages, the computer-aided detection, analysis, and application of emotion, particularly in text, has been a growth area in recent years (Pang & Lee, ). Almost all of this research has focused on detecting opinions in large bodies of text. it is designed to report useful information for future emotion-detection research and for those interested in social network communication. Same with sending messages it also got 56 out of 69 respondents and with a percentage of 81.16%. Second, is the decoding message with a 69.57 % of the process where the receiver translates the message received into a form that can be understood and brings meaning to the receivers? Last is the giving feedback, It refers to the reaction of the receiver towards the message received from the sender. It is a process of returning the message to the sender that depicts the level of understanding of the receiver towards the particular message and with an average of 69.57 percent. This means that Social networking sites have been proven to be perfect platforms of communications. Thousands of people join social media networking sites to keep in touch with their long lost friends or family members living abroad. These people are in need of various products and services, thus you as an online person can take advantage to communicate and connect to others the key environmental conditions to support competence satisfaction are “optimal challenge, clear and helpful structure, and high failure tolerance from others” coupled with positive feedback and a perception of progress.
  31. 31. 31 Table 2 The benefits of using social networking sites Category of Benefits of Social Networking Sites Reasons Highest Percentage Sending Messages Allow people to send photos, videos and emoticons. Making friends online is efficient through 81.16 (56 out of 69) Encoding Messages Sending friend request 81.16 (56 out of 69) Decoding Messages Social Network sites allow receiving information without even responding to the message 69.57 (48 out of 69) Giving Feedback In Social Network sites, the sender are able to know the response of the receiver Social Network sites can create good relationship with peers 69.57 (48 out of 69)
  32. 32. 32 The disadvantages of social network sites Shown in table 3 are the percentages of the disadvantages of using networking sites. This is based from the answers of our respondents; the highest of them all is the Feedback with an average of 82. 61 or 57 out of 69 respondents, this means that the feedback messages from the social networking sites can destroy bully or hurt someone. Next, is the Sending of messages with an average of 71.01 or 49 over 69 respondents: it can lessen the face to face contact of the persons involve in a certain communication. Decoding messages is the third with an average of 69.57 or 49 out of 69 respondents. It is one of the disadvantages because people can create enormous information and it will become their practice ad later on a habit so with that they can no longer create information that is truthful. Last, is the Decoding message or receiving the message with an average of 66.67 percent or 46 out of 69 respondents; this means that this is the least disadvantageous because you can automatically delete an anonymous message.
  33. 33. 33 Table 3 What are the disadvantages of social network sites? Category of Disadvantages of Social Networking Sites Reason Highest Percentage n=69 Sending Messages Social Network sites can lessen the time interacting face-to-face 71.01 (49 out of 69) Encoding Messages People can send fake information to others through Social Network sites 69.57 (48 out of 69) Decoding Messages In Social Network sites can receive a message even from an anonymous source 66.67 (46 out of 69) Giving Feedback Social Network sites, can create distraction like bullying someone through posting of a message 82.61 (57 out of 69)
  34. 34. 34 The reason why students visit these networking sites This section presents the answer of the respondents why they visits social networking sites. Information In the written interview that I have conducted to the 3rd year and 4th year mass comm. students of the University of Mindanao, most of the respondents said that through using networking sites they gain information that makes them aware about what is happening in our country and in the other parts of the world, especially on the latest news, updates to their friends and relatives who live abroad and especially to know the latest fashion trends. Other of them said that they use social networking sites for having a leisure time, looking for fun, playing games online and their one way of releasing their stress. The researcher gives a questionnaire to the respondents asking what the reason why they visit these networking sites is. Most of the respondents said that” I used to visit networking sites such as Facebook to meet new friends and be updated with my old friends and relatives who live far in my place especially those who are in abroad, while other said that, “I use social networking sites to easily communicate with my friends and I can chat with them whenever I am available and I can watch free videos, listen to the latest music and to upload more pictures. Few of them said that “I enjoy using networking sites like Facebook and twitter because I can get information to whatever issues or news that is happening in our place and other parts of the world other reasons would be is to stalk the person I like and play virtual games online.
  35. 35. 35 Analysis The result of the written interview implies that the reason why the students visits networking sites is to find new friends even they haven’t meet them in person also to gain latest information about what is happening in the country and the other parts of the world. That people use social networking sites is to be entertained but also to be informed. Information is most important function; the power of mass media to inform is almost credible. People read newspaper to know about what, when, where, who, why & How the things are happening pertaining to personalities or institutions (Mass Media Effects, 2010). According to Kavita (2009) that people are always seeking information that helps them to fit in with other people communications is one thing need to consider in building relationships.
  36. 36. 36 Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the study. Statement of the Problem This study attempts to find out the benefits of Mass Communication Students of the University of Mindanao in using Social Networking Sites. Specifically, it seeks to investigate the following: 1.What are the social networking sites that students visit? 2.What are the benefits of using social networking sites among the students in terms of: 2. 1. Sending Messages 2. 2 Encoding Messages 2. 3 Decoding Messages 2. 4 Giving Feedback 4.What are the disadvantages of social network sites in terms of?
  37. 37. 37 Conclusion Based on the findings obtained in this study, following conclusions are drawn: 1. The respondents want to use social networking sites is to find news friends and be updated on the current issue and events happened in our society, they can also upload their pictures, videos, can send a message and receive a message. Lastly, can invite friends anywhere in the world. 2. Most of the respondents like to sending message and at the same time reading their message that they’ve received. 3. Most of the respondents are afraid to get negative feedbacks of any of their friends in a particular networking site because they are afraid that many people can view it and somehow it can be one of the reasons why people will bully them. Recommendation On the basis of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researchers formulated the following recommendations for consideration: 1. To the Internet users it is important for you to realize about the proper usage of internet and how it becomes an essential work tool for millions of people who have adopted the internet concept for communications. 2. To the UM Administration a request for you to come up with idea that engaging the students in virtual community will help them understand the purpose of proper use of social network site such in educational way. 3. Mass Communication Students it will make them to responsibly and positively use the internet. Use it as a helpful tool for you to get what you want to have in your life.
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