Raising Achievement andClosing Gaps BetweenGroups:Lessons from Schools and Districts  Maryland Institute for Minority Achi...
First, some good news.                    © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
4th Grade Reading:           Record Performance with Gap Narrowing                                                        ...
4th Grade Math:           Record Performance with Gap Narrowing                                                        9 Y...
8th Grade Reading: Recent Gap Narrowing                  for Blacks, Less for Latinos                                     ...
8th Grade Math:            Progress for All Groups, Some Gap Narrowing                                                    ...
Progress Even Clearer WhenExamined Over a Decade on the      “Main NAEP” Exam                       © 2011 THE EDUCATION T...
1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math                                                            By Race/Ethnicity – Nation              ...
2009 NAEP Grade 4 Math                                                                 By Race/Ethnicity – Nation         ...
NAEP Grade 4 Math                                              1996 Compared to 2009                                      ...
Bottom Line:When we really focus on something, we make      progress!                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Clearly, much more remains to be done   in elementary and middle school   Too many youngsters still enter high          sc...
But at least we have some traction onelementary and middle school problems.          The same is NOT true           of our...
12th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps                         Wider than 1988                                             ...
12th Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat                                           Gaps Same or Widening                      ...
And many high school students arewoefully unprepared for what lies             ahead.                          © 2011 THE ...
About one in four ACT test takers meets all                                                100%                           ...
Few ACT test takers of color meet all four                                                              college readiness ...
And how do our students performagainst international benchmarks?                          © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Performance Among the 26 OECD Countries         Continuously Participating in PISA Since 2000                             ...
A closer look at reading                      © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks 12th in                     Reading Literacy                                           ...
SES alone does not explain       performance.                      © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Some students in countries with lower SES                                                 perform at higher levels        ...
The U.S. would rank lower on reading           performance if all 34 OECD countries had the                same average so...
Problems not limited to    reading, either.                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Math?        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks                                                    25th in Math                        ...
Science?           © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks                                                   17th in Science                      ...
Only place we rank high?     Inequality.                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 5th Largest                  Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students               ...
Of course, these gaps do not      begin in school.But, rather than organizing our educational  system to ameliorate this p...
How?By giving students who arrive with      less, less in school, too.                              © 2011 THE EDUCATION T...
Some of these “lesses” are a resultof choices that policymakers make.                            © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Less money             © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
National Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per                                  Student                               ...
Larger class sizes                     © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
In the U.S.A., schools with lower               SES tend to have larger classes            The only other OECD countries i...
In truth, though, some of the mostdevastating “lesses” are a functionof choices that we educators make.                   ...
Choices we make about what to      expect of whom…                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s             for Work That Would Earn ‘Cs’ in                     Affluent Schools   ...
Choices we make about what to        teach whom…                        © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Students of color are less likely to attend high                       schools that offer high-level math courses         ...
African American students with high math performance in       fifth grade are unlikely to be in algebra in eighth grade   ...
African American and Latino graduates about half as     likely as white graduates to have completed rigorous              ...
And choices we make about  who teaches whom…                      © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Students at high-minority schools are more                   likely to be taught by novice teachers                       ...
Core classes in high-poverty and high-minority secondary        schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field teach...
In Tennessee, high-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the            “most effective” teachers and more “least ef...
Low-achieving students are more likely to be assigned              ineffective teachers than effective teachers           ...
Add up the “lesses,” and the impact              is huge                            © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
Of Every 100…      White                                African American                     Latino                       ...
The economic cost of not gettingsome postsecondary education is a huge burden on both individuals          and society.   ...
Incomes are Rising for Bachelor’s Degrees as they            Remain Almost Flat for Lower Levels of Education             ...
Increasingly, education beyond high school             needed to earn a middle-class living                               ...
Less Educated More At Risk of Joblessness                     During Recession                       August 2011          ...
Growing Need for Higher Levels of Education:               Projections of Education Shortages and Surpluses in 2012       ...
Individuals with higher levels of education are far more likely than                                                      ...
More educated individuals have lower risks of mortality and                           chronic diseases and are less likely...
Black Males without a High School Diploma Are              Much More Likely to Be Incarcerated                            ...
And this is not just about physicaland mental health. . . It is about the      health of our republic.                    ...
We are in a new world where being   smart is not necessarily abouthaving all the knowledge, it is about     being a critic...
Google Search                                                                568,000 hits (0.13 sec)                      ...
Critical Consumption of Knowledge Sources              In 2003, US citizens were asked whether there was a link between Ir...
And educational attainment is alsorelated to the “softer”—but critically  important—aspects of living in a             fre...
Americans who have completed postsecondary education                                       are far more likely to report t...
In 2008, Americans with at least some college were about                                                        twice as l...
Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree are over four                                                    times as like...
Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree are almost                                                        three times ...
What Can We Do?An awful lot of folks have decided    that we can’t do much.                              © 2011 THE EDUCAT...
What We Hear Many People Say:              • They’re poor              • Their parents don’t care              • They come...
But if they are right, why are low- income students and students ofcolor performing so much higher in           some schoo...
George Hall Elementary School                                                    Mobile, Alabama• 549 students in grades P...
Advanced Performance at George Hall                                                           Grade 4 (2011)              ...
Exceeding Standards                                                     at George Hall                                    ...
Big Improvement                                                                 at George Hall Elementary                 ...
Morningside Elementary School                                                     Brownsville, Texas            • 772 stud...
High Achievement Across Grades                                                                 at Morningside Elementary  ...
Commended Performance                                               at Morningside Elementary                             ...
Griegos Elementary School                                           Albuquerque, New Mexico            • 354 students in g...
Outperforming the State                                                          at Griegos Elementary                    ...
Outperforming the State                                            at Griegos Elementary                                  ...
Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School                                              New Orleans, Louisiana            • 341...
High Performance at Bethune Elementary                                                           Students Overall – Grade ...
Steep Improvements at Bethune                                                    Norm Referenced Tests – Grade 6          ...
Outperforming the State                                              at Bethune Elementary                                ...
Osmond A. Church School (P.S./M.S. 124)                                                      Queens, New York             ...
High Math Achievement at Osmond                                                                   Church                  ...
P.S./M.S. 124                                           Meeting and Exceeding Standards                                   ...
Roxbury Preparatory Charter School                                            Roxbury, Massachusetts            • 246 stud...
All Students Achieving                                                                    at Roxbury Prep                 ...
Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High                                           Elmont, New York• 1,895 students in grades 7-...
Outperforming the State at Elmont                                                                        Secondary-Level E...
Improvement and High Performance                                                             at Elmont Memorial Junior-Sen...
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  • The only place USA ranks highly is in inequality.
  • Students in high poverty schools are often given high marks for work that would be middling at best in affluent schools
  • Students Of ColorHigh Schools with high-level math courses
  • African American studentsUnderplaced into 8th grade algebra, even when their past math performance strongly suggests they are ready
  • African American and Latino high school graduatesHalf a likely to have access to a rigorous curriculum
  • High minority and high poverty schools have more out of field teachers
  • And some studies suggest that our high poverty/high minority schools simply have fewer of the most effective and fewer of the least effective.
  • We see that African American, Latino, and Native American Students are less likely to graduate from high school or get a GED, less likely to get at least some college, and dramatically less likely to obtain a bachelor’s degree
  • Excellent Mental Heath or Emotional Well Being
  • Less educated citizens have higher rates of mortality and chronic disease
  • The more educated, the more trust held for others
  • The more educated, the more likely to actively participate in democraticgovernance
  • More educated, more likely to volunteer
  • More educated, more likely to give blood
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  • If black kids and poor kids can’t learn, why are the kids at George Hall lapping black and poor kids in the state—in reading and math
  • And why are the black students at George hall—in fantastic numbers—reaching the highest benchmakr within their state’s performance system?And lest you think this might be a boutique school that cremed elite students from others
  • If those poverty is destiny, how is it that all of the poor latino students at Morningside are performing at the highest levels
  • And why is it that way more of them are performing at the highest levels of the Texas performan
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  • Shows the percentage of students graduating on time with a Regents diploma, a local diploma, or a Regents diploma with advanced designationLocal diploma: passed 5 Regents exams with a score of 55 or aboveRegents diploma: passed 5 Regents with a score of 65 or aboveRegents exam with advanced designation: earned 22 units of course credit; passed 7-9 Regents exams at a score of 65 or above; and took advanced course sequences in CTE, the arts, or a language other than English.
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  • When the school is outperforming an accountability system shooting for meeting standards,These schools move the bar higher . . . Because they know it is what is right for kids.
  • And in these high performing high schools, there is an intensive effort focused not simply on the hear and now, but on the world AFTER high school
  • Note: This is the percentage of students who graduate, on time, with a Regents Diploma WITH ADVANCED DESIGNATION. To earn this diploma, students need to earn 22 units of course credit; pass 7-9 Regents exams at a score of 65 or above; and take advanced course sequences in CTE, the arts, or a language other than English. A Regents diploma alone indicates just that a student has passed 5 Regents exams with a score of 65 of above.
  • TRANSITION FORWARD: And from research on those students who don’t just graduate and enroll in college, but those who preserve and excel . . . .
  • College Prep and
  • A mountain of recent research has confirmed what seemed intuitively right to many of us. That good teachers can have a huge impact on the learning of students. We’ve also learned that when we give students the best teachers for multiple years, they sore.
  • And when we give students ineffective teachers for consecutive years, the impact is catastrophic.
  • Let me leave you with this quote that comes from a principal from one of the schools we study. It is not an isolated sentiment. It comes through from all of these schools.
  • Raising achievement

    1. 1. Raising Achievement andClosing Gaps BetweenGroups:Lessons from Schools and Districts Maryland Institute for Minority Achievement & Urban Education September 21, 2011 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    2. 2. First, some good news. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    3. 3. 4th Grade Reading: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing 9 Year Olds – NAEP Reading 250 240 230 228 220 Average Scale Score 214 207 210 200 204 190 183 180 170 170 160 African American Latino White 150 1971* 1975* 1980* 1984* 1988* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    4. 4. 4th Grade Math: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing 9 Year Olds – NAEP Math 250 250 240 234 230 225 220 Average Scale Score 224 210 202 200 190 190 180 170 160 African American Latino White 150 1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    5. 5. 8th Grade Reading: Recent Gap Narrowing for Blacks, Less for Latinos 13 Year Olds – NAEP Reading 300 290 280 268 270 Average Scale Score 261 260 247 250 240 242 232 230 222 220 210 African American Latino White 200 1971* 1975* 1980* 1984* 1988* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    6. 6. 8th Grade Math: Progress for All Groups, Some Gap Narrowing 13 Year Olds – NAEP Math 300 290 290 280 274 268 270 Average Scale Score 260 262 250 239 240 230 220 228 210 African American Latino White 200 1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    7. 7. Progress Even Clearer WhenExamined Over a Decade on the “Main NAEP” Exam © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    8. 8. 1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math By Race/Ethnicity – Nation 100% 3% 7% 90% 24% 26% 80% 32% Percentage of Students 70% 60% Proficient/Advanced 50% 49% Basic 40% 73% Below Basic 30% 61% 20% 10% 26% 0% African American Latino WhiteSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    9. 9. 2009 NAEP Grade 4 Math By Race/Ethnicity – Nation 100% 90% 16% 21% 80% 50% Percentage of Students 70% 60% 48% 49% Proficient/Advanced 50% Basic 40% Below Basic 30% 40% 20% 37% 30% 10% 10% 0% African American Latino WhiteSource: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    10. 10. NAEP Grade 4 Math 1996 Compared to 2009 Low-Income Students – Nation 100% 7% 90% 21% 80% 33% Percentage of Students 70% 60% 49% Proficient/Advanced 50% Basic 40% Below Basic 30% 60% 20% 29% 10% 0% 1996 2009Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    11. 11. Bottom Line:When we really focus on something, we make progress! © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    12. 12. Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school Too many youngsters still enter high school way behind. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    13. 13. But at least we have some traction onelementary and middle school problems. The same is NOT true of our high schools. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    14. 14. 12th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps Wider than 1988 17 Year Olds – NAEP Reading 320 310 300 291 295 290 Average Scale Score 280 269 270 260 266 252 250 240 230 239 African American Latino White 220 1971* 1975* 1980* 1984* 1988* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    15. 15. 12th Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening 17 Year Olds – NAEP Math 340 330 320 310 314 310 Average Scale Score 300 290 293 287 280 277 270 270 260 250 African American Latino White 240 1973* 1978* 1982* 1986* 1990* 1992* 1994* 1996* 1999* 2004 2008*Denotes previous assessment formatSource: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    16. 16. And many high school students arewoefully unprepared for what lies ahead. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    17. 17. About one in four ACT test takers meets all 100% four college readiness benchmarks Percentage of ACT test takers meeting all four 80% college readiness benchmarks 60% 40% 20% 25% 21% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Note: College readiness benchmarks are ACT-established thresholds that represent the score that a student needs to attain in order to have at least a 50% chance of receiving a B and a 75% chance of receiving a C in corresponding first-year college courses.Source: The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2010, ACT; The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2011, ACT © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    18. 18. Few ACT test takers of color meet all four college readiness benchmarks 100% Percentage of ACT test takers meeting all four college readiness benchmarks 80% 60% 41% 40% 31% 20% 11% 11% 4% 0% African American Latino White Asian Native AmericanNote: College readiness benchmarks are ACT-established thresholds that represent the score that a student needs to attain in order to have at least a 50% chance of receiving a B and a 75% chance of receiving a C in corresponding first-year college courses.Source: The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2011, ACT © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    19. 19. And how do our students performagainst international benchmarks? © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    20. 20. Performance Among the 26 OECD Countries Continuously Participating in PISA Since 2000 U.S. Ranks Low but has Risen Since 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Rank Rank Rank Rank Subject (out of (out of (out of (out of 26) 26) 26) 26) Reading 14th 14th n/a Tied 10th Mathematics 17th 22nd 22nd Tied 20th Science 13th Tied 17th 19th 13thNote: Rankings are for the 26 countries that were members of the OECD and participated in PISA in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. 2006 results forU.S. reading performance are not available.Source: PISA 2009 Results, OECD © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    21. 21. A closer look at reading © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    22. 22. Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks 12th in Reading Literacy 2009 PISA - Reading 550 U.S.A. OECD Average Scale Score 500 450 400 350 300 Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. averageSource: “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    23. 23. SES alone does not explain performance. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    24. 24. Some students in countries with lower SES perform at higher levels 600 Korea 550 Japan Average reading scale score U.S.A. 500 450 400 350 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 Average ESCS scoreSource: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.1.1 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    25. 25. The U.S. would rank lower on reading performance if all 34 OECD countries had the same average socioeconomic status Rank if SES were Actual Rank equalized across countries United States Tied for 12th Tied for 17th France Tied for 17th 7th Hungary Tied for 20th 8th Portugal 22nd Tied for 10th Turkey 32nd Tied for 10thSource: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.2 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    26. 26. Problems not limited to reading, either. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    27. 27. Math? © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    28. 28. Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks 25th in Math 600 2009 PISA - Math Average scale score 550 OECD U.S.A. 500 450 400 350 Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. averageSource: “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    29. 29. Science? © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    30. 30. Of 34 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranks 17th in Science 600 2009 PISA - Science Average scale score 550 U.S.A. OECD 500 450 400 350 Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. averageSource: “Highlights from PISA 2009,” NCES, 2010 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    31. 31. Only place we rank high? Inequality. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    32. 32. Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 5th Largest Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students 2009 PISA – Reading 600 U.S.A. OECD 550 Gap in Average Scale Score 500 450 400 350Source: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.3.1 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    33. 33. Of course, these gaps do not begin in school.But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    34. 34. How?By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    35. 35. Some of these “lesses” are a resultof choices that policymakers make. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    36. 36. Less money © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    37. 37. National Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student Gap High Poverty vs. –$773 Low Poverty Districts per student High Minority vs. –$1,122 Low Minority Districts per studentSource: Education Trust analyses based on U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    38. 38. Larger class sizes © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    39. 39. In the U.S.A., schools with lower SES tend to have larger classes The only other OECD countries in which this is true? Israel, Slovenia, and TurkeySource: PISA 2009 Results, OECD, Table II.2.2 © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    40. 40. In truth, though, some of the mostdevastating “lesses” are a functionof choices that we educators make. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    41. 41. Choices we make about what to expect of whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    42. 42. Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s for Work That Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools 100 87 Seventh Grade Math Percentile - CTBS4 56 41 35 34 22 21 11 0 A B C D Grades Low-poverty schools High-poverty schoolsSource: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on StudentOutcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    43. 43. Choices we make about what to teach whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    44. 44. Students of color are less likely to attend high schools that offer high-level math courses 100% Percentage of Students Attending High 90% Schools that Offer High-Level Math 80% 77% 70% 67% 60% 59% 60% Courses 51% 50% 45% African American 40% Latino White 30% 20% 10% 0% Trigonometry CalculusSource: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited (2006) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    45. 45. African American students with high math performance in fifth grade are unlikely to be in algebra in eighth grade quintiles of math performance in fifth grade and in 100% Percentage of students who were in the top two 94% 80% 68% algebra in eighth grade 63% 60% 40% 35% 20% 0% African American Latino White AsianSource: NCES, “Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K)” (2010). © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    46. 46. African American and Latino graduates about half as likely as white graduates to have completed rigorous curriculum Curriculum Completed 100% 6% 8% 90% 14% 29% 80% Percentage of 2009 graduates 70% 47% 51% 45% 60% 38% Rigorous 50% Midlevel 40% 12% Standard 30% 21% 16% 10% Below Standard 20% 33% 10% 21% 25% 23% 0% African Latino White Asian AmericanSource: NCES, “America’s High School Graduates: Results of the 2009 NAEP High School Transcript Study” © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    47. 47. And choices we make about who teaches whom… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    48. 48. Students at high-minority schools are more likely to be taught by novice teachers 50% 40% Percentage of Novice Teachers 30% 22% 20% 13% 10% 0% Low Minority High MinorityNote: Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience.High-minority ≥ 75% students non-white. Low-minority ≤ 10% students non-white.Source: Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania (2007) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    49. 49. Core classes in high-poverty and high-minority secondary schools are more likely to be taught by out-of-field teachers 50% Percentage of Classes Taught by Teachers 45% With Neither Certification nor Major 41% 40% 35% 30% 30% 25% 20% 17% 16% 15% 10% 5% 0% High Low High Low Poverty Poverty Minority MinorityNote: Data are for secondary-level core academic classes (Math, Science, Social Studies, English) across United States.High-poverty ≥75% of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch. Low-poverty school ≤15% of students eligible.High-minority ≥ 75% students non-white. Low-minority ≤ 10% students non-white.Source: The Education Trust, Core Problems: Out-of-Field Teaching Persists in Key Academic Courses and High-Poverty Schools, (2008) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    50. 50. In Tennessee, high-poverty/high-minority schools have fewer of the “most effective” teachers and more “least effective” teachers 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% Percentage of Teachers 25.0% 23.8% 21.3% 20.0% 17.6% 16.0% Most Effective Teachers 15.0% Least Effective Teachers 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% High poverty/high Low poverty/low minority schools minority schoolsNote: High Poverty/High minority means at least 75% qualify for free or reduced-price lunch and at least 75% are minority.Source: Tennessee Department of Education (2007). “Tennessee’s Most Effective Teachers.” http://tennessee.gov/education/nclb/doc/TeacherEffectiveness2007_03.pdf © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    51. 51. Low-achieving students are more likely to be assigned ineffective teachers than effective teachers 140 135 120 Number of Students 100 81 80 Grade 4 59 Grade 5 60 40 Grade 6 38 40 20 10 0 Low-Achievers Assigned to Three Low-Achievers Assigned to Three EFFECTIVE Teachers INEFFECTIVE Teachers S. Babu and R. Mendro, Teacher Accountability: HLM-Based Teacher Effectiveness Indices in the Investigation of Teacher Effects on StudentSource: Achievement in a State Assessment Program (2003) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    52. 52. Add up the “lesses,” and the impact is huge © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    53. 53. Of Every 100… White African American Latino Native American Kindergarteners: Kindergarteners: Kindergarteners: Kindergarteners: 95 graduate from 89 graduate from 69 graduate from 71 graduate from high school or get a high school or get a high school or get a high school or get a GED GED GED GED 68 complete at 53 complete at 35 complete at 30 complete at least some college least some college least some college least some college 37 obtain at least a 19 obtain at least a 12 obtain at least a 12 obtain at least a Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degreeNote: Data for white, African American, and Latino residents indicate educational attainment among 25-29 year olds; data for Native American residentsindicate educational attainment for those aged 25 and above. US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2009, in The Condition of Education 2010 (IndicatorSource: 22); U.S. Census Bureau, We the People: American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    54. 54. The economic cost of not gettingsome postsecondary education is a huge burden on both individuals and society. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    55. 55. Incomes are Rising for Bachelor’s Degrees as they Remain Almost Flat for Lower Levels of Education $60,000 $55,000 Average Earnings for Employed Labor Force $50,000 $45,000 $40,000 (Age 25-54) $35,000 $30,000 $25,000 $20,000 $15,000 $10,000 Less Than High School High School $5,000 Some College Bachelors Degree $0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004Source: Analysis by Anthony Carnevale (2006) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    56. 56. Increasingly, education beyond high school needed to earn a middle-class living Composition of the middle class 1970 2007 Less than high school 8% 14% 28% 29% High school 12% 31% Some college/Associates degree Bachelors degree 46% 32% or higherNote: Middle class households are defined as those in the middle four family income deciles ($30,000-$79,000 in 2007)Source: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Projections of jobs and education requirements through 2018,” 2010. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    57. 57. Less Educated More At Risk of Joblessness During Recession August 2011 Educational Attainment Unemployed (%) Bachelor’s Degree 4.3 Some College or Associate Degree 8.2 High School Graduates 9.6 Less than High School Diploma 14.3Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Talbe A-4, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t04htm © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    58. 58. Growing Need for Higher Levels of Education: Projections of Education Shortages and Surpluses in 2012 Shortage Surplus Bachelor’s Degree Associates Degree Some CollegeSource: Analysis by Anthony Carnevale, 2006 of Current Population Survey (1992-2004) and Census PopulationProjection Estimates © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    59. 59. Individuals with higher levels of education are far more likely than less educated individuals to report having “excellent” Percentage of respondents reporting themselves to be in 100.0% mental health or emotional well being 80.0% excellent mental health 60% 60.0% 54% 45% 40.0% 37% 20.0% 0.0% High school or less Some college Bachelors degree Advanced degreeSource: Gallup, “Strong Relationship Between Income and Mental Health” (2007) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    60. 60. More educated individuals have lower risks of mortality and chronic diseases and are less likely to report themselves to be in fair or poor health 100% Base risk Risk of individuals with four more years of education 80% Percentage risk 60% 40% 31.0% 28.8% 20% 11.0% 9.2% 12.0% 7.0% 5.7% 6.0% 0% 5-year mortality Heart disease Diabetes Being in fair or poor healthSource: Cutler & Lleras-Muney, “Education and Health,” National Poverty Center Policy Brief #9 (2007) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    61. 61. Black Males without a High School Diploma Are Much More Likely to Be Incarcerated 30.0% Incarceration Rates for Black Men Ages 18-24 25.0% 20.0% 18.2% 15.0% 10.0% 8.1% 5.0% 2.9% 0.3% 0.0% Less than HS HS Graduate Some College BachelorsSource: Center for Labor Market Studies (2007). “The Educational Attainment of the Nation’s Young Black Men and Their Recent Labor Market Experiences” © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    62. 62. And this is not just about physicaland mental health. . . It is about the health of our republic. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    63. 63. We are in a new world where being smart is not necessarily abouthaving all the knowledge, it is about being a critical consumer. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    64. 64. Google Search 568,000 hits (0.13 sec) Walter Raleigh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia According to many biographers – Raleigh Trevelyan in his book Sir Walter .... Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, Founded on Authentic and Original Documents. ... Early life - Ireland - The New World - Later life en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Raleigh - Cached - Similar Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) Jun 12, 1996 ... Website for Sir Walter Ralegh, Renaissance Poet, Explorer, Historian and one of Queen Elizabeths favourite courtiers. www.luminarium.org/renlit/ralegh.htm - Cached - Similar Greenbelt Maryland Steak Seafood Restaurant | Sir Walter Raleigh ... Sir Walter Raleigh Inn has maintained a Colonial Williamsburg tradition since 1970 serving your favorite American cuisine in Colonial atmosphere with real ... www.sirwalterraleigh.com/ - Cached - Similar Sir Walter RaleighVisit this site providing a short biography, facts, picture and information about Sir Walter Raleigh the famous explorer.Fast and accurate details and facts ... www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/sir-walter-raleigh.htm - Cached - Similar Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (or Ralegh), born near East Budleigh, East Devon, South-West England, U.K. Summary of his life (1552 - 1618), with numerous links. www.britishexplorers.com/woodbury/raleigh.html - Cached - Similar Sir Walter Raleigh The English explorer, poet and historian, Sir Walter Raleigh was born probably in 1552, though the date is not quite certain. His father, Walter Raleigh of ... www.nndb.com/people/106/000049956/ - Cached - Similar Sir Walter Raleigh The Incompetech websites satirical take on Raleigh. incompetech.com/authors/sirwalter/ - Cached – Similar Chevrolet Raleigh, NC | Used Cars Raleigh Auto Repair | Sir Walter ... Sir Walter Chevrolet is your Chevy dealer in Raleigh and Durham NC. At sirwalter.com you will find Chevy internet specials, used truck & car inventory, ... www.sirwalter.com/ - Cached - Similar Sir Walter RaleighSir Walter Raleigh was a writer, adventurer, courtier, historian, poet, and a soldier. It is a legend that he once laid his cloak on a mud puddle for the ... www.huvard.com/becka/raleigh/welcome.html - Cached - Similar © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    65. 65. Critical Consumption of Knowledge Sources In 2003, US citizens were asked whether there was a link between Iraq and the al Qaeda attacks of 9/11. Specifically, they were asked whether (a) evidence of links had been found, (b) weapons of mass destruction had been located in Iraq, and (c) world opinion favored the US invading Iraq. All of these were false. FOX CBS ABC NBC CNN Print NPR/ PBS None of the 3 20% 30% 39% 45% 45% 53% 77% 1 or more 80% 71% 61% 55% 55% 47% 23% misperceptionsSource: 2003 Polling from the Program on International Policy (PIPA) at the University of Maryland © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    66. 66. And educational attainment is alsorelated to the “softer”—but critically important—aspects of living in a free society. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    67. 67. Americans who have completed postsecondary education are far more likely to report that they trust others 100% 80% Percentage of population 60% 57% 46% 40% 34% 20% 0% Less than high school High school Associates degree or higherNote: Individuals were classified as expressing interpersonal trust if they responded to the question “Generally speaking, would you say that most people can betrusted, or that you can’t be too careful in dealing with people?” with a value of 6-10 on a scale of 0-10 (where 0 = “you can’t be too careful” and 10 = “mostpeople can be trusted”)Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2010 (2010) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    68. 68. In 2008, Americans with at least some college were about twice as likely to report having voted than Americans who did not complete high school 100% Percentage of citizens that reported voting 79% 80% 68% 60% 55% 39% 40% 20% 0% Less than high school High school Some college or associates Bachelors degree or higher degreeNote: Data represent percentage of American citizens that reported voting in 2008Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2008 - Detailed Tables” (2010) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    69. 69. Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree are over four times as likely to report having volunteered in the past year than those with less than a high school education 100% volunteering in the previous 12 months Percentage of population that reported 80% 60% 43% 40% 31% 19% 20% 9% 0% Less than high school High school Some college or associates Bachelors degree or higher degreeNote: Data represent percentage of total population that reported volunteering from September 2008 to September 2009Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Volunteering in the United States 2009” (2010) © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    70. 70. Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree are almost three times as likely to donate blood as those who did not complete high school 100% Percentage of population donating blood 80% 60% 40% 17% 20% 11% 13% 6% 0% Less than high school High school Some college or Bachelors degree or more associates degreeSource: DDB Worldwide, “DDB Lifestyle Survey” (2000), as reprinted in College Board , “Trends in Higher Education 2004” (2005). © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    71. 71. What Can We Do?An awful lot of folks have decided that we can’t do much. © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    72. 72. What We Hear Many People Say: • They’re poor • Their parents don’t care • They come to schools without breakfast • Not enough books • Not enough parentsSource: N/A © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    73. 73. But if they are right, why are low- income students and students ofcolor performing so much higher in some schools… © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    74. 74. George Hall Elementary School Mobile, Alabama• 549 students in grades PK-5 – 99% African American• 99% Low-IncomeNote: Enrollment data are for 2009-10 school yearSource: Alabama Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    75. 75. Advanced Performance at George Hall Grade 4 (2011) 100% 94% 96% 94% 96% 80% Percentage at Advanced 60% 47% 42% 43% George Hall 40% 36% Alabama 20% 0% Reading Math Reading Math African-American Low-IncomeSource: Alabama State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    76. 76. Exceeding Standards at George Hall African-American Students – Grade 5 Math (2011) 100% 90% 80% 48% Percentage of Students 70% 60% Exceeds Standards 50% 97% Meets Standards 40% Partially Meets Standards 35% 30% Does Not Meet Standards 20% 10% 17% 2% 0% George Hall AlabamaSource: Alabama Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    77. 77. Big Improvement at George Hall Elementary African American Students – Grade 4 Reading 100% 96% Percentage Meeting or Exceeding Standards 90% 81% 80% 70% 65% 60% 50% 47% George Hall 40% Alabama 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2011Source: Alabama State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    78. 78. Morningside Elementary School Brownsville, Texas • 772 students in grades PK – 5 – 100% Latino • 91% low income • 59% ELLNote: Enrollment and demographic data are from 2008-09.Source: Texas Education Agency © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    79. 79. High Achievement Across Grades at Morningside Elementary Students Overall (2011) 98% 100% 99% 99% 100% 97% Percentage Meeting or Exceeding Standards 91% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Reading MathNote: English test administration only.Source: Texas Education Agency © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    80. 80. Commended Performance at Morningside Elementary Students Overall – Grade 3 Math (2011) 100% 33% 80% 45% Percentage of Students 60% Commended Performance Met Standard 40% 54% Did Not Meet Standard 55% 20% 13% 0% Morningside TexasNote: English test administration only.Source: Texas Education Agency © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    81. 81. Griegos Elementary School Albuquerque, New Mexico • 354 students in grades K – 5 – 76% Latino – 19% White • 60% low incomeNote: Enrollment and low income data are from 2009-10;ethnicity data are from 2008-09Source: New Mexico Public Education Department; Albuquerque Public Schools © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    82. 82. Outperforming the State at Griegos Elementary Grade 4 (2011) 100% Percentage Proficient or Advanced 79% 79% 80% 76% 60% 47% 47% Griegos 44% 40% New Mexico 20% 0% Reading Math ScienceSource: New Mexico Public Education Department © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    83. 83. Outperforming the State at Griegos Elementary Latino Students – Grade 3 Math (2011) 100% 2% 9% 80% 44% Percentage of Students 60% 66% Advanced Proficient 40% Nearing Proficiency 38% Beginning Step 20% 23% 15% 0% Griegos New MexicoSource: New Mexico Public Education Department © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    84. 84. Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School New Orleans, Louisiana • 341 students in grades PK – 6 – 97% African American • 88% low incomeNote: Enrollment and demographic data are from 2009-2010Source: Louisiana Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    85. 85. High Performance at Bethune Elementary Students Overall – Grade 4 (2011) 100% 93% 90% 80% 74% Percentage Basic or Above 71% 60% Bethune 40% Louisiana 20% 0% English Language Arts MathSource: Louisiana Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    86. 86. Steep Improvements at Bethune Norm Referenced Tests – Grade 6 100 92 78 80 National Percentile Rank 61 60 54 51 50 40 46 47 20 Bethune Elementary Louisiana 0 2007 2008 2009 2010Source: Louisiana Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    87. 87. Outperforming the State at Bethune Elementary Students Overall – Grade 5 Social Studies (2011) 100% 4% 19% 15% 80% Percentage of Students 60% 44% Advanced Mastery 46% Basic 40% Approaching Basic Unsatisfactory 20% 28% 15% 6% 0% 3% 4% Bethune LouisianaSource: Louisiana Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    88. 88. Osmond A. Church School (P.S./M.S. 124) Queens, New York • 1,201 students in grades PK-8 – 31% African American – 45% Asian – 21% Latino • 97% low-income (more than double the rate for the state)Note: Demographic data are from 2009-10 school yearSource: New York Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    89. 89. High Math Achievement at Osmond Church All Students (2011) 100% Percentage Meeting Standards or Above 83% 80% 78% 78% 70% 72% 67% 66% 65% 63% 60% 60% 60% 49% Osmond Church 40% New York 20% 0% Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8Source: New York State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    90. 90. P.S./M.S. 124 Meeting and Exceeding Standards Low Income Students – Grade 8 Math (2010) 100% 12% 80% 40% Meeting Standards 29% Percentage of Students with Distinction Meeting Standards 60% Partially Meeting Standards 40% 42% Not Meeting 45% Standards 20% 18% 14% 0% Osmond Church New YorkSource: New York State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    91. 91. Roxbury Preparatory Charter School Roxbury, Massachusetts • 246 students in grades 6-8 – 62% African American – 37% Latino • 72% Low-IncomeSource: Massachusetts Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    92. 92. All Students Achieving at Roxbury Prep Grade 8 English Language Arts (2010) 100% 98% 100% 93% 94% 90% Percentage Proficient and Above 78% 80% 70% 59% 59% 60% 55% 50% Roxbury Prep 40% Massachusetts 30% 20% 10% 0% Overall African-American Latino Low-IncomeSource: Massachusetts Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    93. 93. Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High Elmont, New York• 1,895 students in grades 7-12 – 77% African American – 13% Latino• 25% Low-IncomeSource: New York Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    94. 94. Outperforming the State at Elmont Secondary-Level English (2010) 100% 95% 96% 93% Percentage Meeting Standards or Above 90% 79% 80% 73% 70% 67% 60% 50% Elmont 40% New York 30% 20% 10% 0% All Students African American Low-Income Students StudentsSource: New York State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST
    95. 95. Improvement and High Performance at Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High African-American Students – Secondary-Level Math 100% 96% 96% 93% 93% 93% Percentage Meeting Standards or Above 90% 85% 80% 70% 64% 57% 61% 60% 51% 55% 50% 46% Elmont 40% New York 30% 20% 10% 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Source: New York State Department of Education © 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST

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